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Innovative technologies to protect against zero-day attacks; Multi-layer ransomware protection to keep your files safe; Secure VPN for complete online. ZIP FILE DOWNLOADMacKeeper Crack + Keygen & Torrent Free Download MacKeeper Crack full version is a security tool that provides. ZIP FILE DOWNLOADMAGIX Movie Edit Pro Crack + Serial Number Download MAGIX Movie Edit Pro Crack comes with powerful fresh. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks

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Acronis True Image Crack + Serial Key Free Download {Latest}

Acronis True Image Crack is an ultimate multi-platform solution for data backup and recovery. It provides you full access to take backup of your full hard-disk or a part of it. Once you back up your data, then it will also assure you to restore it whenever you need it. We can say that it ensure the security and protection of your relevant personal information. As we said, it allows you to take backup of your whole disk, or you can take backup of your particular files and folders. Acronis True Image Key comes with quicker disk image tools that are used to make the backup of virtual machines.  You can also create disk images to save your files and restore them even your windows is un-bootable.

Acronis True Image Crack With Keygen

The latest update of Acronis True Image provides a perfect solution for creating a real-time copy of your important files. You can take full PC backup, emails or Outlook backup, your images as well as audio, video and your PC configuration settings with restoring option. Furthermore, you can choose what you want to backup and where you want to store it, i.e., Pen Drive, Backup Hard-Drive, Removable Devices, online sources or on DVDsWith this proactive and great backup features software you don’t need to worry about data loss once it takes your system backup. Then you don’t need to worry about system crashes. You can carry your work without any threat. Also, it allows you to install software with new configuration settings; if you don’t like these new settings, then you can set these to the previous one.

What’s New in Acronis True Image?

  • Fix Some minor issue and bug.
  • Added: Now includes a built-in hard-drive with two component. So that you can take backup and recover your computer.
  • Added: Manual cleaning of backup versions.
  • Improvements: Cloud backup in the latest
  • Added: Real0-time protection for Network shares.
  • Added: Scheduling flexibility for backup.
  • Improvements: One-Drive backup.
  • Improvements: Also comes with more improve Media builder.
  • Added: USB attachments features will automatically start back up whenever USB connects with your computer.
  • Improvements: Now Ransomware protection improved as compared with the previous
  • Updates: Moreover, other features updated with the earlier version.

So, if we look at the GUI. It is so easy to use and no doubt it is user-friendly. The menu on the left side contains an option to set up its settings. With Acronis True Image Crackyou can also transfer your files, data and many other important things to your external drives with few clicks.

Acronis True Image Key Features:

  • Complete Image Backup: Free and full image backup and recovery support. In case of data loss easily recover your full configuration setting as well as files.
  • Ransomware Protection: Protect your files from ransomware from encrypting with intelligence and machine-based advanced technology.
  • Survival kit: New features that are used to create a full backup of the system on external devices.
  • Cleaning Utility: Full access to remove older version backup by deleting necessary
  • Dynamic Disk Emulating: Create an exact real-time image of your running file, media and configure the setting of MAC or Windows Operating system without running or stop them.
  • USB Back up: Now support plug and play automatic back up with just plugging your USB into PC.
  • Virtual Support: Great thing comes with the latest update is now you can run, test and install your back up files or programs by converting back up on virtual disk drives using a virtual
  • Flexibility:  Acronis True Image support maximum flexibility and its guarantee user protection.
  • Simple to use: Your workflow will not disturb whether you’re a beginner or a professional. Because this comes with a great simple interface.
  • Individual Backup: Additionally, Create part of the backup, i.e., files and folders.

Acronis True Image MAC + Keygen Is Here

In conclusion, by a team of CrackDev’s is that Acronis True Image is well suited in the industry if we see it by the standard.  This Backup tool and has comes with the latest new features and improvements. All in all, it is good enough for backup and recovery of your files. There is No doubt that this software has the best backup features module for protecting your data.

System Information:

  • Windows: 10/8//7 (bit or 64 bit)
  • MAC OS: Sierra13/Sierra 10
  • Memory: 1Gb Minimum or Maximum 2 Gb
  • HDD: 4 Gb required for full software
  • CPU:  GHz or higher

How to Crack and Install?

  • Copy the Crack ACRONIS TRUE IMAGE from the link
  • Paste crack in the software folder
  • Now Run it as administrator.
  • There you go!! Enjoy with premium features.

Acronis True Image Crack + Setup With Keygen Free Download!

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Most troublingly, Activision says that the &#;cheat&#; tool has been advertised multiple times on a popular cheating forum under the title &#;new COD hack.&#; (Gamers looking to flout the rules will typically go to such forums to find new ways to do so.) While the report doesn&#;t mention which forum they were posted on (that certainly would&#;ve been helpful), it does say that these offerings have popped up a number of times. They have also been seen advertised in YouTube videos, where instructions were provided on how gamers can run the &#;cheats&#; on their devices, and the report says that &#;comments [on the videos] seemingly indicate people had downloaded and attempted to use the tool.&#;

Part of the reason this attack could work so well is that game cheats typically require a user to disable key security features that would otherwise keep a malicious program out of their system. The hacker is basically getting the victim to do their own work for them.

&#;It is common practice when configuring a cheat program to run it the with the highest system privileges,&#; the report notes. &#;Guides for cheats will typically ask users to disable or uninstall antivirus software and host firewalls, disable kernel code signing, etc.&#;

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

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ZIP FILE DOWNLOADRogueKiller Crack + Keygen Full Download Final Here   RogueKiller Crack is among the best malware removal software program. This powerful program has been created in C++ keeping in view your…

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DVDFab Crack With LifeTime Registration Key New DVDFab Crack is the world&#;s best most powerful and comprehensive disk compression program. It helps you to copy DVDs and Blu-ray discs to your personal computer hard…

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Movavi Video Converter Crack Full Activation Key Download Movavi Video Converter Crack download free is a powerful and fantastic video converter software. It&#;s effortless to learn and use with the ability to convert any…

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Adobe Acrobat Pro Dc Crack With Activation Code Latest Adobe Acrobat Pro DC Crack new version is one of the best programs which you can use to edit and modify PDF documents and provides…

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UltraEdit Crack With License Key Bit Full Version IDM UltraEdit Crack is the world’s best text editor used by IT specialists, programmers, developers, researchers, web designers, web developers, web bloggers, and many…

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CCleaner Crack With Torrent Download [Portable+Professional] CCleaner Professional Crack free download provides the best way to deal with the slow speed of your system. This is a freeware system optimization tool that comes…

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PhpStorm Crack Full Activation Code [Windows/Mac] PhpStorm Crack Build is usually the stunning and powerful coding editor. You can use this software on Windows, Mac, and Linux in a more effective manner.…

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Avast Premier Crack + License Key {Till }   Avast Premier Crack Version is a complete protection tool for your PC. It is a complete premier protection suit. That means it includes…

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Advanced Installer Crack + License Key With Torrent Advanced Installer Crack latest release here is an excellent windows Installer that allows you to create installation packages for your application quickly and professionally. It…

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Источник: [arenaqq.us]

1 A STUDY OF DIAGONAL TENSION FAILURE IN REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS SEPT NO

2 -- 8ftIJt ', _lii au.r.-i arenaqq.us»GLib. AI.., 'lv: to.._. JlLndICII' z_as;.,~,.., eo t : II Ill.%'K'arenaqq.us otcut ~ _ hoj_ A tt b ' :Ill.. J'l~ OJ, Oil''''' )- '.~ :Ia~ 1.k~ ~.tto 1Ir. WI' eo a-r-. Qr'..~ -'-ft'. __.IB _ n '-' GIl, :otl 4. OM to tl>oo IIoo.l' r 8, _.. uu,.. ~,. uu. of _ n,-,. rn.r I. CllltnllJa'~ _.tal:r _ a1ilo _..~r. -.~_0It1id'?'''~_ U~ _ r- I;: too:, )Rt Oil 1:Il1& IItud OIl _ proti.i Oil M-' '.m :Ia n1drirceiii 1M IlCri :Ill P< W _ tm --a eo L'bel.'.'-7 arenaqq.us? t OIl' 1'. r.. 'X ':or J.a. ~ v. DoI* If.~ 1'. P. ~ P. eo If1ll o r 40> J. 'I..,.un JaW I.~ u._ e. 3,,J I!IIIIJtM

3 ,U Py-', _-~ '.'.~~ _

4 Ackledqol.t.- h f1 rat..d to tt,ben of tn. bc>a~d of til. Joint KI'l'1' arenaqq.us foroj..,t end UI Prof..,.. K, II, _ arenaqq.us for pvldln<j arenaqq.us lor the proj. SpecUI arenaqq.us<. U 'llv. to pror Il. J. OUtz.,llhr. _jor profso and UI IU H. Le. 10r tll1< arenaqq.us quldance. _<tvlce. n.. wthor atao arenaqq.us t.a Pr arenaqq.us to I'.r. G. ', ron and Hr, G. p. McClure, arenaqq.us teehnlcu., end t.o N. J. l>. Pound. 10r tt,el.- 'l'ltneruuon. 1n the hbcir:arenaqq.us

5 Digitized by the Internet Archive in with funding from LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundalion; Indiana Department 0' Transportation

6 ' TABL.1i Of' comalt'$,m 01' TAa~ UST ~ l1guau ' 9_ o. M'~ ~ LIST Of' S'dt1OUl urtaoductioll The FrObl. Stendd Dee19 'roc_r 0 0 1_ of the l.1teuture, ~ without Wooblnfore_.nt thb _.lnfore_ent 0 arenaqq.us Chan'!._ In l)euqn pro,,~r PUIlPOSI AN!) licops TEST SP8;IHI5tl$ ANti PROC DURa5 Da.,rlpt1on 0' Speelmenlt 0 l1aterl.h Conet. M.1>< 0 0 A99r~.t 0 1I_'nforctn,! Stood arenaqq.us end 0-> iqulpoo..,t.. arenaqq.usn Tu' Procedure 0 0 Ttn UIllt.1I ''''' arenaqq.us_) Ill o Stirrup.) $erl h ,0 SUrrup. _ nul). yen of T'.lo<> ' ''''' arenaqq.us -, yen of T..,uon arenaqq.us) 14_J Stiuup.., 1.&ytn of arenaqq.us Itull..,

7 ,. llea~ la_4 (No St1rrup. _ 2 Loyar. of arenaqq.us Stu! ) Ser II Ba.~ llb-l (No Stirrup.) Bell. lib-2 (Low arenaqq.us of Stirrup. 6 arenaqq.us) 8e.~ li8_] (Klqh arenaqq.us or Stirrupa J 1/2 Spaclnq). Bea.. HB-4 {3 1/2 Stirrup Spacln<)_Lonqltudlnal See.l Cut-oro 8ea~ (No Stlrrup. _ Lonqltu~lnal Steal Cut-Off) SIIrl60 III. ' IU (No Stirrupa) II' lu (' Parcentaqa of Stun,p. R ~clnq) IUII_J (lilqll Percantaqa ol Surrup. 51/2 SpcIn<). II,. IlIlI_4 (Hiqh arenaqq.us of Stlrrup. - 4 SpClnq) lia IUB-S (4 Stirrup SpClnq - Lonqitu<llnal Steal Cut-Oft) II IIIII-f\ (No Stlrrup. - Lor>qltudln\ suel Cut_Ofr) Be IIA-I. 2, and 3 (No Stlrrup. _ 2 Layer. or arenaqq.us ) OISaJSSIotl 01' TEST RE5Ut:rs Mo<ln of 1a11re Bell arenaqq.us Stlrrupa &e,,~. ~lth Wb Relnforcent IIICtou ALtectinq Ba,. arenaqq.us Spn to OtIptll Ratio I'arcal'ltq.. ot Web Relntorcnoant serua U Ilea,.. liari Ilea Arranq,..,Mlt ot Tanl10n Stal!llor Cut-Ofr OU,arenaqq.us Crack Lo,,uon ANALYSIS Ok' T~ III1:WLTli No,arenaqq.us,,r1n,.. litre at DI.~nl Crckin,.. 1J1tl ta Shear Snenqth '.oroent It SIl60r_Oo.,arenaqq.us rlllur.. Ultl.,,,ta 5tren,arenaqq.us ln I'lara '.. ' ' ' no no,n ' ' ' n. ' '

8 SUI'II'w\RY /\lid CWCWUQill SUliGlftla<1 roil rur'l'ttilt arenaqq.us<:H 8IeLIOGaAPHYl'~l>IX A _ ITltUll_UltAnl: 1'arenaqq.us 01' f1i1 ll&wroilcimii<'i'l'ij'i)l1( 8 _ l'rcckdtilu:' rolll'lica'i'iql AN!) loottli:ill'rccrlllc or Tt\.l s.~. litrani GIloG&S A;lPlilil>lX c: - LC<\O--STltAII' fjata ' '

9 ., Paqe '0 ~. P~arenaqq.usl or the stirrup st1 5.,ryof 'rut 1I..,lu. 7. CompArl~n ot 'eet St~. ~lth ~I ~. Commltt ~en<!.tioll' (I) III u.. n I!!. ~rleon ot arenaqq.us ~tft9th. ~Ith ~HO arenaqq.us Splrl~atlon.!or HI9h~'Y 80Id9 (4). Mon. at Sh'r-COIIIprlon luu {T t. Oolhl.d frono uatl<>n. of ad. ' ' ' Heel, Conen lituln. a,~, _0 litul ConerHe SHUn_,, IB_2 ' Concrete arenaqq.us 1'_2 ' l'arenaqq.ust Sh.~._eo.,p.'IDn hllur. (Tn. '. arenaqq.usd trolo liquauo,.. arenaqq.us 75) _0 Concute Strain. U._l '._1 StrUnG r _. ~c t. arenaqq.us I-'l-e Sled,. _. Concrete ileu,.concte StUln. It &-2 ' ' '.~ '

10 .u arenaqq.us Of' TAS.l.U 'CCflTINIJC) Tble P.~. Iteel, Concrete Stul~ IJI_l '. ited, eoncrete Stral..e 'M US-.,~. Sled Stralna - lea ,. st_l, Concret. StUln. 'Mo lua-7 - St1 ' _. Conc.-ete itrlt!.. e UII ) ' '.,.., ited St I..a - ~ Concrete Stralne UIB_.. St1 <on Concrete StUlne -,- un,. '. St,,1ll StIn. _ B.a. ItlA-)

11 vi II arenaqq.us or riqi/lu f1guca ~.q. L ConvllIItl.l Sh.-c iqu.t'on '. a..a!o~ arenaqq.us',. rot-ioll 0' DI TI CUd< U Sh..r Stran9th.,./.RaUo lhtu1h ot tp-':ln. VI. Prlor to arenaqq.us,'ntorln9 Cooqa In Tnt I'OU uon PeUlh ot Tan!;arenaqq.us, > tt.r T.n Serl '0' U.. U. s..,tt.r TUt lou' '. ~,. it1 Ur.'n Sui,.. D. ~.. o.!le<:uon Sui..,. ~.. ll,.fluon serl, (ont'd) D. ~.. Conr.t. Strain - 'ert.. 1. StrUn DUtUbuUon _.. _.,~,,~,,~,,~,,~. ~

12 ,. LUt. or ftqur.. (ConU,oodl l'19ura. 'd,~, '9a.- ~ ~,.'. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us iarla. U.'. iurrup Suln arenaqq.us U.. n. ~, u. D.U..,U On Serl.. U. ~,,.'. Conerata IOUil1n - liarl.. U tualn l)arenaqq.usn 'd' SUain l)arenaqq.usn 'd' IIII-2 n. IUatn l)urlbuuon 'd. UII.. ). 'tuin l)lltnbution 'd. IIB-4 n. 'd. II 'd. IIII 'd. lis ). - UII 'd. IIB.. $. ~,.'. u. ~,.'. ~,. ~,. ~,..'. it_t arenaqq.us Sarua m M 't._l 'tuln hrl.. m (cont.'d) it1nup Sttaln.. Sene. m u. DoIfl..,U_ $erte. m u. lleu..,u_ $one. m (cant'd) n. ~, u. <:OO:>eraa Iualn _ tam m. ualn l)utrlbuuon 'd' IIIII_) Stuln. Itratn Dtatrlbutlon.- liib_ Dutrlbutlon 'd. IIIII-'

13 l.u t ot '19r (Con Urn.>.-d I.. Fl9U..,. P i0 9 -~- au.. l UIB ' Ul Ul ~. n. - 11IB-~ - HI' lua.-l - IUA.-l. llia CrIte ) 5. ' ' ' I (or $h..r-,=->t CopaClty ', n. T.,.lon - ~. 6 arenaqq.us -,.. T.,uon ' TUt _ No W1re

14 .. Haney, WU, II l:sci:. Purdue Unl~udty. Aug,,.t, A Study of lluqonl Tenuon,..U.e In ReInforce Concrete s 'Jor I'arenaqq.us M. J. OUUIoer. Th18 reoureh 18!On l'arenaqq.us of the lt1o'.t I behavior of ulncored COncrte _ arenaqq.us '&11 In eh..r. arenaqq.usly. th objectlv of the investigation ere, II to compare the.t..n9th.. and»ode. of failure of «'4''1 ~.,. ~ tth and Io1tho\lt arenaqq.us rlnfo_nt (arenaqq.usl. :II to deter..!n.. the.h It'!'I9th arenaqq.us part of the longitudinal arenaqq.us tl I_ Ut'arenaqq.usln th arenaqq.us ~one. rwenty b m. of 6 x ,ungula. cro-eectlon loae to (>Ortlon of.. conti. '1Udu.,bJected to concntrated loe,,_. The b e.e d19n~ eo that th critlal r~lon for rellure the length betwe.n the point of ero _ent an the polnt of>< neqau. _ent - co..,..,nly o:alle<! the ahur apan. Thajo< a<uble. we.. tha ahear apan to epth ratio an the a~nt of vertical at1rrupo w1thln tha.h..r apon. a wlth n,lna1 arenaqq.us to epth rauo. or 2,2, 2,., ~.g,

15 .u , wno! tnted;, In..~.n of til. bea the n~.uv.. tenelon a'l provilled by r,r bar. 11'1 two laye\11 other bu,.. conulne<l two ler'1u bare In.. _In'll layer. In.',Ution. tour b,.. ere cen with the 10/'lqlt,,<ll_1 arenaqq.us b.o.. cut ott at the point. whe. t1,ey..e.e no longe. required to reelet tenelon. In all othe. ap,i.. the 10/'1'11 tudl,,_1 neel WlIoe extended throughout tn full h/'l9th 0: tn b It tolln that the arenaqq.us of thhlcal ''1&90/' arenaqq.us crecl< arenaqq.us\v, to tl> pport had.. 1.'9 arenaqq.us On t. _<I,. ohlle CUlu /'Ill arenaqq.us.n,,,,!t. Thfl location of the crlti.l <luge.l crecl<, In turn, WU dependent upon til.. length of eu. epen. ttl.. eo'lojnt of arenaqq.us'it. end upon 10ealkn IndUce' by cuttin9 off the '1'11 eu<lln.l in the Unllon ton., Detalled <IleOJ_lIon o~ the tuluu arenaqq.usd individual b arenaqq.us are pruented.. long with arenaqq.us or tnt arenaqq.us,

16 LllOT Of' 5Y!'.BCLS a _l 1 am of tenaton neel A' _Inal arm of arenaqq.usl..,ro-alottio ar_ 01 ontirrup a,, le'ju> of HI.I ah_arenaqq.us (<thune fr_ aec:uon of 1 t to point o~ Infhcuon) <'I' <'arenaqq.us lrcllo '*1'lon fe. to en'arenaqq.us<'l ot CClIO_ poion ated J<'I tntnet NOm*nt S..m, sai9ht llne theory ~. _Is o(arenaqq.usy 01 a.e Initial Ungen. _,Iu. of n'arenaqq.us, (' arenaqq.us CO/arenaqq.us. e s'''.ngth, ' 12 aun<'ls,,<'i,., '., ~ '.,.,~ c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us'''''''h,,- arenaqq.us etr In 10l\0Jt'<'ItlIon arenaqq.us at In 10,,<' arenaqq.us at_l t2 at.n<lsr<'l c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us.a In arenaqq.us Iteel at arenaqq.us of b

17 , '\, 'I.,,, ',. '0, ~ - 'lob ~.lnto~c_.nt UUO,,,, '0,..~ 1n crlucu oh..a.. apan ohn' Igne<'! to concreu (..,rl<l'1 nca').hn' tgn~ to etlrcupe (WOrkl'1 etc arenaqq.us) , OhN:I9 nee ~ b; or ~ e. e1'lne<! In t.c DOnlon ot arenaqq.us _h_un')'.n._.au'), to concrec u~_, at duqo l cuc:l<i'l '. portion 01 total.1'0 1'1 lot 1'1' to ectrrupa

18 ,. ultl~arenaqq.ush lncllrauon of aurrupa ~arenaqq.us' to lon'arenaqq.us\.xu Inclination of ~l.'li0nal lonqltu<ll,i I. tract with pee, tb '..,~ s. C;:. D.T..u &n at out ~r'10n tiber at UU arenaqq.us In t,arenaqq.us' a.._1 at r.,uura.~r-eo-prlon rallur. arenaqq.us fatlu..a U_) to'na'on tallu atraln In ~Icro-inch par Inch \

19 , D<TRotlUCTJCf' In en effort to depart t tt>.. arenaqq.usa ll1po the,uon. arenaqq.us,,,,v)or, )ny..t1.~u for b\' venl yeou t>av.. nudj. th. ultllmt. load boo,,,! of I..!oo., arenaqq.us:t<> arenaqq.us itlu1 tor d19n en be obull,, t the arenaqq.us fcliol. ofc1l. It U _11 ~nown that u,.,wet beha,'or arenaqq.us COne hoi do not eon!o.. Ith th. auo.('1 th..,.1' of pr''''uce. On 10 0: thl arenaqq.us I. th.. ability to p.'.c:. lth.-,,,'arenaqq.us the ttl_la I a. of.. ~.. aectlonbjected t.o pun _dl9. 'at UUI ben aubj..,, t.<> the c:o-oblned action of bltn,21nq arenaqq.us tore.. ~'lueh _y n,.ly H_ll tm' _pc:lty of.. _. To ntabhah til..,.n.1 eondltlona u,,hieh arenaqq.us nrh ot.. _ arenaqq.us.,, Or eontiou..t by.h. o..a.l'l'ht C'Oflaldu the c of.. U.,lypport _. und two av-ur1<:al con<:flitutol<l loa<l., In U'I1a <:<IIaa tho r.,,1on b.t loada U 1n t<llt. of pur. bend1nq,> th. lqul

20 , rro<o ~hlt load to tnlt Ituppert, =_only all. tn. ahear apen, Ie ltubjected to ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.usq and bending torc 'hen the len'ilth or the ea.. Itpan 10 hrg_ (6 to 7 Um tl>. bea.. depth end qrht.e.. I. the!'ure bend!n arenaqq.us a.,,<i-epanit lat '. A. the I' 1. arenaqq.us typical ent.'arenaqq.us cracl;arenaqq.us~r on the!>ottom Ude of the b,. Collap ot the b ccur by cruehlnq ot U,e concrete In co.,preulon. rot beamat> no,., aooounu of..,e'on arenaqq.usnt ohio 10,uH1.y preceded by yleldln,:/ of arenaqq.us!. 1'''. ptuenee arenaqq.usn the arenaqq.us apane ha. no elfect on t.h. loed carryl9 ',,chi'. Ilo~r. If the lond. a,,,<><1 <:lo to the eupporu. the ratio of eh.a.. to,olun I>1g.. TIle eoo>binauon of _arenaqq.us Ittr end bendlq arenaqq.us produce_.. principleelon actinq a~ ~he Inclination of approxl_tely ~5 at the n,,~rftl axla or the bea.. and n rly horlzor>l'l 't <he bottolo ot the be EvIdence or thls Incl!ne tension Is arenaqq.us by the gradual chane In InlInatlon of th. tenston crocks.s th.y appr~ch <he neutral axl. of <he beam. Betore auttlclent arenaqq.us momant Is 'e~arenaqq.us to produca tallura In arenaqq.us un6er the load point or ~n tha Iddlpan, a dutlnct diagonal tension crack appaars and panetratea well Into th. arenaqq.us zon.., ~'h1l. lhu crack 'a usually an axunslon of tha Incllned oortlo<l of a fleral arenaqq.us craclt and cannotlly b. conudered aeparata one, It la <lutinct troll the tatter In ~het It pen..~ ~es deeply Into tha,rulon >:one

21 , ~t tnc un..,l:,> flter alope, c~.ln'lnlt1,,~nt re,h.. trj._ h,uon ot lh internal.t In,.BUI, 1t I th abll1ty or the b to i,et>l tm atr arenaqq.uson that <arenaqq.us the Hi_te, Btrenqth at the beam fter lor, Uon or th1. dlaqonal craci<. -or b 'arenaqq.us reinforcement the atrength beyond dt90nal cra<:l<lnq to b. dq>,,,.ntlniy upon the hear epan to depth ratio. Pro,t.!on of 'eb reinforcement or Bt\rrup., In general terma, has the effect of con~inln9 till. cr.c~. pre'.t!g 1te deep penetration Into the c~preion ~one, delaying the atre arenaqq.usl~. and thereby lncl9 til.. Btr!'>9tl>. A arenaqq.us~ch to the problem of predicting the load at which th lncunot<! crack 'UI form Bn<l penetrate Into the arenaqq.us tone ~uld em to ba an analyaia of ~he principle ~arenaqq.us ~.valope~ trom arenaqq.us of combin.~.tr Howevar, ona can r ~1ly aee tl>at the ~arenaqq.us of ahearln':! an~ norl arenaqq.usu belo,, the ntul axu 1. hl,:!hly ln~etar~inate. CraC~ln,:! In the extr.m. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~k.e place at arenaqq.us9.e of loa~ln':l, At aec~lona coincl~ent with arenaqq.us cracka arenaqq.us orl,:!,nally takan by the concre~e 1. ~renaterred to the arenaqq.us a~e.l. ~~.ec~lona arenaqq.us~ ~he racka _a ~,ree of tenuon..,et be arned by the concr provl~ln9 the bond between the ate.l an~ COnCrete is arenaqq.usd. In addition, arenaqq.us once carned by the concrete ut b. :uro ecroaw the CUCl<. As a ruua.h.r. ia probably a concentration of aheerln':! atru. a~ ~he top of the creck.

22 t ,, t ~ ~ 1 1, ~,., ~. I,. l,, arenaqq.us T+4T J li,,' ' T-f=- HloT '

23 ,,. < for _ It_t eonalderlnq A lengu,. 0.><. of 1> 'I~h arenaqq.us ti.,..,r_l ~arenaqq.us cred<a 1F19ra IbL t of the _enu about. point at be arenaqq.us dtj<i*vt> IEq'n. 1) ~arenaqq.us In the 'lon zona and 1. of conaunt. 'louu. belo.. the nintr41,11, (he Figura Ie! 51ne8 at principle lenelon equal. l~ arenaqq.us bjd ld be OJ.' _aura of pro,cln\l arenaqq.us cu,,\ IncU,,1td cu<:\<. When thh >1. a,,rln'l' atr.u Je e>«:.'''',._r u!nforc_en.. In a fo.. U rmiulr!. n.. _thod u..t to 19 ti' 8hMe'fore_en.. U broe..;! on tim _ c.u..,.1'\1 an_lolly,

24 , ~r ton _. carrte _r eon_pondt,,') ~ <:: 03 f~. Ic1u<l,,1_ U the 'PHon t the <l1goo',&1 arenaqq.us crack p_u..n t.o.. <l~th arenaqq.us til,arenaqq.us (that Ie, t.o,he centroid of arenaqq.us). F19Uce 2. en tlue 1 the follow'jy. PlGtllli 2, aalii$ YOi' TIlU:ii AlU~UlGY 1ndlnetlon.,,>0 dt<jonel tenelon en' ldleu arenaqq.us!, ~~, nme._ to. nih'''!''_ tt,. ulrrup. he arenaqq.us by the CVfIcrte

25 ,,. ahnr.\arenaqq.us ~~arenaqq.us., au,.p, -,, A eroolle-iollcuonio 1 HM 0' ~. iott rrup '. Ure.. ' au..,,? n.. force 1n on. aurcu? h ':'~t un,~, lee1 co- ponent. of the terc In ell arlrcup. ero. br the diagonal J!/ -\-t v Un Q 'J' 0' ::I UnCI I cot a tv y', ( Un ) (l!iq'n.2) O' ',l.. Y', KUno_coeo

26 , porwon of the total unh 81> earned by v bjd V.. ne! the UlrrT' ntio a. r.. ba n> of b~. ~lth atlrrupe Ie 0 3, ȯ (l::q'n. Probably the la..g.1 _ource of _rror In lhla analysi_ H arenaqq.us of the po<tton or the tout.h beam behaior. ~a!.. deugne have reaulted prrlly through the Y u ha.. yielded.. Ide arenaqq.us In ulely arenaqq.us> upe<:! to tile atren'l<:.h8 pre<l1c:ted by thu melmd. Teneion ~w.d (1). aluauon of dau from _ te be arenaqq.usn ben COneret cylinder 'arenaqq.us!> and the nominal arenaqq.us at diagonal cracking arenaqq.us In arenaqq.us to the BIBLlOOilM'1fi at en<l 01 theue.

27 , arenaqq.us>ou..h U b.~ of In~tt10t'1. Il'IvolI1'19 ah baalor.. be tr_,. oer tile hh 1,<> <'Ieeadu, It he. be only ~lthln tile l t J to ~ yea that enou'lh Infor.. Uon eouid bio_l:>l{l<1 to otter.. d~nr. fc.. the e.>r'arenaqq.us i thod of au'!'n. 'Jor 1>01'19 ~.r. 'e 'Ithpeel ~ all In tile latt rwv!alon ' the AcI 8Jlldin9 Cod., K Ulan. tl',,1non r triel. to \I,tl>od for dauna1n1n9 arenaqq.us h_un.. au at dw<jqt>al CUCl<ln'l to.. btoa 11'> nlnfofc_..t. A l a1>i. Infor_t,,,,,, on the b_lor of _,Ith auhupa. nat _..,fuel to UloI09y cone..,. d..,nue_ fro. tm conventional A Utl l ailj'arenaqq.us of the boi.!e dtaulbluon of IDtan,,11 n.r art.r dla_at Udllnq 1& atill lack!,!. Ibw-u. IntenUUItd attorn o,r til. hnu! _n have 1:r_ht about,,,..u better,arenaqq.us of the q er..t Rechan1_ arenaqq.us t I~ U ~h. purpo o! Ule fouo>.lnq lu'ulon t.o pol~ ou~ _. ot ~h. d'l'hl.n~ Unlr<arenaqq.us 11' u.. h~.nr arenaqq.us_~ IN. t.o p t arenaqq.us l_n~ 1.,.., ~ Uv arenaqq.us 0). lui. (11)

28 WI ttl the.,cepta of the of unl t.h ~arenaqq.us crlte'-lon. It t~t th.. 'un~~t.l. or the probl.. WUS {O'tt folob of yean, IiIorly ln~arenaqq.us.n all tl\.ot the arenaqq.us. t hlct> dlill<jonilll creck!q OCal.., not ill {uction of caneale iiiue'!th alone., arenaqq.us ill tenlu arenaqq.us, InvU'l'U.o atill iii<n>ln'l' to the I.. ot ill l1l1t1ting unit ahm.., beqill.. noucln'l' \hat the '''eraciill arenaqq.us9 n.r at dh~l crilldcl'j depende..t on thr _jor v_arenaqq.us, liii''' of one. The iii..e. 1) tim cor..,arenaqq.us arenaqq.usll auiii'i!'th. 2) the p.r ~'l'. of lobgltudlnillltnfo and H IlM _'lint. of nol be,,'hn9 Ute rool_ttue = tim arenaqq.us arenaqq.us eu U. ttle cnucal,,,,uon. The arenaqq.us eu..,.. of U>lrd of the eilled ill n rn I.. t~~arenaqq.us l~. to tim ~'lc conatoleratlon tl\.ot the prabl.. _. on. ofbl u. W>.U. a r abl 1 of prlndpl.. ~..,.Ion atr.._.~r.._.. _lur arenaqq.us<ln9 'nno~ t. eale:ulnad. ~h ttac~ of bvldin9 on ~h arenaqq.us\9.~ ~ &A9Oft.l c:ra<:l<l1>9 c.n b<o a>q>r d by the '1l_1onl_ arenaqq.us), I\IVd. 'or ~h. U-pl. b-. njar arenaqq.us loall. (F19\1r. l) tim IV'Vd r_uo at ~h. cuti.!.uon I. arenaqq.us _p..,_to-<loopth ratio,./d.

29 u r-', I P I I P,n ~ 1'_,1 ~p I I I I I I v pci b-<uri I I 'I I I,, I I I I I '-NT! J L --= ' '!!!i..! ~ Vol P ~ '. I,,~ ~ I ~ct- ~===~ b-_= ==~~ _I.-' a-.j 0-$ FI.,u,OI t ',oe:. Full P..,,_1.'0 cooh FIGURE 3 FORMATION OF or.. GOPrl TENSION CRACK

30 P'~.~ ~~6,~~~.A'~'.tq~,,pT~~ ~TqT4X. '~ ~~~ ~~(~.A '1H,~nE '(Onou Pt./! ~O) onu 4,dap o~ ul'd.1'4. '{l uo<lo' At'U pdotp en._. ';Ul'1:U:> arenaqq.us~lp ~ ~~1 p,~. '1~..n '1~ ~u;,ojul' q.~ ~~>T..' dap.p,arenaqq.us. Ul '1H.(,.uont1. Ap (..d on Z.d) '. UOl ~.4~ on ~~arenaqq.us~x ~.c~t ~.:> arenaqq.us~.,p.'{l.,,~~,. T.~,,.~ tutl bun.l,0 dqq~ b,pnl~ul ~1~ Au.w '(. ~d O~ E '~d) I.~. ~l.u~.4~.p.~o~ 'l:'vq P'. (E,d).'O~ ot d~~.4~ O~Ul 4~oq p,..,,,,, pu.. '(Z.d) 4~dapPt.. ~,oj Pf'~0'.,..' lpu 4.J. '(E '~<1 o. Z '~d E n&ul '~U:> ou. t; 6't'''1~. )0 'Olod P.'TY:>UI.. ~~ arenaqq.us:,.o'd~~ 4~ Oll O,~x.. u.1 ~u:> '~ 1.,obTp '''Ho '(H) '(In '(ft) '(01) '(9) arenaqq.us 11 4.~ P'. ',I4.~ arenaqq.us J n,,, 4.~ 'I 1ulPn:>16uol arenaqq.us,>ud.~~ A'u 0 onu 61,1n,wH >\:>n PI'''T1:>1,I1 l>ntn.,,~ dot P 0. 46,.., ''1 ~. o,.u.~ arenaqq.us,p.4~ arenaqq.us~ lit..~nx.i; '.~nn, onu 01/. IO~~.:>oq. ~4'.:> I.n ~UI'WOIII,0 on:>~ul.t4' jo ~.PtM ~4.,,n~6,(lb,>' 01' , '''''Hn 4.~,0 ~,'~ ~. 6UIPu;,q I~'OU / hu1 :>1,oJ 1'<u. 'fez) '(SZ) 'nt) '(61 '(9) '01 61~u 1.'0&'.,'I., Iun.6U 'I. 'PU':>ld )0 4~6u~T.4~ '~'I u.~. unq AT.H'Hp.0<1 H

31 the to tl<>n ot the lnltiel dugonal CUCk. for relatively arenaqq.us,arenaqq.us the tolll3tlon of th.. du'lonal Unn crack and 'plete huure ohoon Uk.. plae tanly. arenaqq.us ~lth the.e arenaqq.us arenaqq.usr. have repcrted two 'leneral <ec>dee ot.h r fuire. Takln'J for arenaqq.us the.i,lyppo.. t..d b<iiam undr a COnentut~ load. It hag been noted arenaqq.us belo~arenaqq.us val.. the ek arenaqq.ust so,e point I thin the arenaqq.us ~on. ~Ith Inclng load It arenaqq.usy penetutu deeper. ' the =ne II arenaqq.us reduced. the coeulve Itreet be grnuy arenaqq.us Ultimte fallre II by,.hlng of th <:<>ncrete In thll redued OOIIIpruu<>n ~one. ganeully arenaqq.us to the Iad point. Thl. type of fallre I. c,only ca Iled t h.. ahear.~prion fell r. arenaqq.us from thi. 1. th o call..d.u~en dla'jonal ten alon arenaqq.us. ocurrlng 1n bn of arenaqq.us span. arenaqq.us hllure occur SOOn a. the du,gonal cuck torme. It tallur.. do not occur altejltaneouely, th.. cuck penetrate. upldly Into th.. comprion tone, and very little lncr In lo.d arenaqq.us to au.e couapee. ~ho In Fi'lr a plot or arenaqq.us at d1agonu arenaqq.ust ltlte load vera. arenaqq.usp.n to depth ratio tor a group arenaqq.us-iiupported beam. upon..d by 1' and Yleet (25). Tor arenaqq.us b (IA'd. 1) the ltl,au!allure ld about t'le the,uagonl cracking la. Other Invutiqatora have rported Ullre loade ae IIUch ae to 1 tl~e. the laoonal crack In'! loae fo bea Aa the

32 _ I I I.,.;,. - _.- '.Uu 7 M I J ~. 'f' G _. I I,, _ 4;_' M,, ' I,_.,,- '-I. ll~l I I SPIlN fo ll(ph' OIATIO 5lI1Ail ~RIQiG11l '>'$../d \ t.o ~h. d ~doo ~Y1'.. In the du.,,1 ~_.ton lulue. ',.., Gtnl e_ln 1o 'arenaqq.us elu fe_ <h. arenaqq.us'.

33 -0, > I ,, > >!,, - 0 I ~ > 0 < ~, jl > - 0 ~ I > ~ -> 0, ~ > < ~ g, - a,, - 0 ~ - 0,, ~, < g > - - g --,, 0 >, -,, -, - > 0 0 ~,, < a -, I <, -, , -0, ,, g > 0 < > 0 >,,, g 0 > 0, -, -! -0 >, -, --> 0,,, 0 0, >, - 0 > - - > -! g > < 0 0, -,, > -0 0, : -, - >, > > 0 0 >,, - - <. - >, -0 0, 0 0, 0 0, -, 0 >, > i, > - 0 < < ~ - - 0, - g 0 0 ~ 8 ~ > g,, ~ -0 g,, -, I g, > 0 0, 0 < 0 &,,, -, >, > > 0 8 ~ 0, 0 0, > - -,, - - I >, 0 0 >, 0 g - -, < -, l, - - < < 0, ,, ~ ~ 0 0,, -,, 0,,,, --, -,, ~ - -, <, - - g - 0 < 0,, -, 0 <, -, -, < 0,,, ->, - > 0, > ~ ~ 0 -, > < 0, - -, -> < -<, < > -,, > 0 > < 0 0 ~ ~ - -< 0 0,, --, -,,,, -, - 0, 0, > - <, !,, 0 > < 0 > 0 >, 0,,, 0 - ~ -

34 end toohear rallyre 1. delayitd yntll the b,<11ng COlO arenaqq.us oyer the arenaqq.us 1. high enough to arenaqq.us ln cntehlng. In the CUe of the longer she..r sp..n, the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ferth..r out free the l~d arenaqq.us loc..l oo~prn ha. 11ttle r trlnln9 arenaqq.us upon the creck developent. Thle hypoth..l..,apport.d by arenaqq.us tena _al,. or.. Uret, 'ith arenaqq.us concentratad at the top and. eecol'1d..,lth the load. appu, a. ahean to arenaqq.us The lv'vd ratio ~ a. ~. In 'the flret ce 'al1u.. ~ a. arenaqq.us c~relon, while In the latter fellure we. the audden dlegonal arenaqq.us type..t.. greauy r~citd 1<1. LooJ<lng OIor. arenaqq.us. t arenaqq.us oi..h r!allure, on. clln eee the prnc. of other effecu..,mch ~' tend arenaqq.us the two arenaqq.us mode. of fal1ure. OnC th.. dl9anal crack b'lln. to penette the c,..,arenaqq.us tone,beuntiel redutrlbut10n of lnternel atrt ocr. ~ec..u of the re<luc.d COncretr both the comprlve arenaqq.us1l9 force. In the r'llon aboye the crack ~.t be Increed. Locking at a fre. body of the poruon of a be<l outside the cracl<. (pts ) re 3, the,,,,uon of _u aboon the arenaqq.us of <»arenaqq.us ln tile uneuclce<'l portion of the (Section, no.. tnt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us b-b,et eerry.n Iner e<l arenaqq.us, arenaqq.us!n,! to the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us. tctlon a_ There 1. undoubtedly.0lil all\olln' of dowel action arenaqq.us, whle would td to reheow., ler cerrlitd by til. arenaqq.us eollllpreulon :<one end til. arenaqq.us

35 In tnt l at th1& point. ~~.v.r the crack ~ld.n. and routlon tend. to concentrate about the uncucked portlon arenaqq.us a_a, the dowel!orcn are greatly increased and aoon dutrey, through the tot'''lon 01 the crael<, pt. 2 to pt.~. 1. Innd sue! eneton, In ad,ution. pro.. qrutly increflaed arenaqq.us beteen the ction at Ul. crack and arenaqq.us clo to the _upper.. Thle, combined with ti,. dowel,ctlon, otten lade to pr09rha dunjctjon o~ ben throll'lhout the ahear epen. 1 ~'.ttie!,' ancl>or 'ile by hook or by extuon beyond arenaqq.us idt!ilure could ' ''It. When anchou h provide<!. true action and behavlor 1. the alar to that ot tied erel>. pa. (29/ TIler. haa been.'. quu01'i arenaqq.us til. ehea. strength DC.. 'I-Section can loa prlcted in.l>fi,1 of t onctangulatlon 'There_. to b. 11tU. Into~tlon on ~Ic. ~arenaqq.us ol T_amn~ arenaqq.usr b.''' r ho,,eer. ln~lc.. tlon thh.. I08~ the for_ t10n of.h. <l1,on.1 crack In.. T arenaqq.us to tmt of ectangula. b ot the.''' wl<lth a. th.. T_Bet (31) Th. ltlma ':lth J:>ehavlor of T_8 _. to b '..~i>at <arenaqq.us ~I'PIpan T-b t by A!-A,(5) in<llc.t. th.t th. 1&,e cplon aua proi<l by th.. 'l..n9 ill not a11o,, <l lopni..n. of thheacompulon typ.. fau $!arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us0.,,r arenaqq.us from 2 to 7.~. and.. 11 failed by diagonal arenaqq.us All bxhlblte<arenaqq.us. tu,th l:>8yond diagonalklng ith IncrHUngly gru

36 nu ~or /'./Vd retioa below four. Thhear ~ha~lor of a bea~ 1. alao arenaqq.us!r.c~a4 by cutuil9 ort arenaqq.us r.,lnforc_ltnt In accordane with,nt requlr \.; b/ilu ere ter.. ln~.<l -- say In the arenaqq.us r~lon of.. oontinuoue bea.. -- where they ere no 10nq.. r~lra4 to rlet tlexurel tenlon, there occur.. Iaoontl nu1ty 'len IlU been rooted In 0lIl C to carty fouon of th dl.o.. 1 tlltlalon <:ra<:~. l'er'juaon (14) h reported thlot th load at,u\lonal CraCI<Iy be e.. lo~' 70 percent of t~t tor the beam With th.. ete.l Cully extende, In ddllion,arenaqq.us tor_tlon of the Uqonal erkel<., the occurs.. lar9 lncr In eteel tenlon at til. pointh th crock arenaqq.us,re th ated. If th.. etl h been reduced at. thla point, It U of ehe enalon rel,,!orc..~t pulbl.. ther pr_lure yleld!n, c=l<': rult. WhU. the.1' t.h''-.c'oiiil'r.''lo hi1r. 'arenaqq.us <':ecr 1th lncrun<j II/Vd nt.\o., \1r. ~, the,t rloqulrltd to prodc. the ltt t.. cn>.hin<j 1> b.. found to b ronably coatant. (61, (9), (~1). '1'h1. hct 1'1. tltd to varlou. att_pu to for..,l.. U crltrlon arenaqq.us~arenaqq.us fulr. ba..,<,: pon U'ltin9,arenaqq.us Th. pproach hu _n,11r to th tu Th1. Inol the t. load arenaqq.us for f1exuul fuure. '''pt10n or an ultlt. <:arenaqq.us dutrlbutlon, th.. puter. o[ hil>,at b. durmln.d ''1'1rl11y. Upon..r1t1n<j the arenaqq.us o[ equlllbrl. the prob!' redu to arenaqq.us,;!.tru eo<npt1blllty cro the

37 ,UO<l. WhUe It. be.~wn that the dutnllution arenaqq.us In tl,ul typ.. tauuu U Hnr, th!_.,,,,,ptl0 cannot 1,. <1. for the ahear,,,,,,lon htlure a of the inu of the dugonu crack. ; the crack ~1.d..n., there..,d. to 1><1 concentrated roution boat the eompn8uon ~on. above the creel<. Thl. i. further «IIIlPl1cated arenaqq.usg &1=9 th atl occun. /l.t ln tour diu t arenaqq.us ha..e be.,n<le u> tabu.h.. U,.ltlng _ent equauon. no, ( (25). (JO). tn ~ch ca however, the u~ed paratera have ~arenaqq.us., h,' on _plrlcal detenninaucn tl\.!lt It 1. <loubttlther they en be toun<l to be generally ppl1el:>l.,. Hoody'. arenaqq.us, (24), developed {oro.. rl of _1,1,, p8 end arenaqq.used b.a,. wa. found to gle good r arenaqq.us for aerl of t..,_span <:onumla>b b undar ena and rio<> lod (27). Ho.v.~. ~h.n axtended to a ae'l.a ot t~_apan contlnuoua beama unde' ~ltlple polnt load., tha compa'arenaqq.us ot taat to calc\llated arenaqq.us au poor and lnconcludva (8). In addition, the,e Ioma queauon a. to wlletllerch a at,enqth Crite'arenaqq.us be arenaqq.us, alnce tlla arenaqq.us of the ah.., comp'.lon hlluu In _ Itll,,t ~'eb,elnfo,ceroent 11<1. be.n t,,nd to d,,'d on 1\ the load 1. t~arenaqq.us<1 to the be and In fe.. c upon chance locauon of til.,aaqonal cnd<. ll 'ch 11<1. been devot' purily to thedy ot b ltllout web,e1nto~c,.nt. Of tile few arenaqq.uson.

38 0 i S,.. i , I 8, > -,, 8 > ; 5, > ~ 1 ~ I I,,, > &,, > r < & i i >,,..,, 5 > 5, I.. ; I i,, I - i >,.. I i ~ ~ s.., i j,.. 2!.. 8 ;,,, ~ I, >,,,.. 8 t.. B i i I, :,,,, 1 ; >.. ~ <, >, i,.., 5 ;,.. >! I <,! I t ~, -, >! ~, i I t,, t..,! 8,, I I, i I.. I,.., ~ B i B! >,, ~ e,,,,, i ~.. 8, t..,,, i > I,,, 8 >, i.., i ~ 8 ~ ~ I, I ~ I ~, i, ,,,,!, ; 8,..,,.. e,.., i I.. I 8, i.. >.. B.. i.. t..,,,, & : i i ~ ~ 8,,,!,,,,, i ~,,,,, I i ; 1,,..,, i ~ i, ~,.. ~ i,.. ~ i ~ i,.., i I..! I I,..,,.. i,.., l ,, i B, >,, I j!,, i 1 ~.., : -,,.. i ; f

39 of arenaqq.us (9), (16). (23). Yor arenaqq.us th.r. ldc. that the _. of Ullr 1. ho.h r tloiilpreulon. (7), l. Although thlhown (7) to '0 U for I./'o'd ratio. ot 4, 5. nd 7, the ntj..l:>er of tuta arenaqq.us~rltinrorce<l, arenaqq.us b h been ry arenaqq.us Th.r. 18 '..,.,pecuutlon Ill. that tor bell whh h1gh H/Vd rat and.~11 amount. ot w.b arenaqq.uslng, falr. HUI be of arenaqq.us<',1&9=,,1 arenaqq.us type with arenaqq.us yielding i_a<1utdy pon dugonal cr,,c~1n9. The arenaqq.us of b w1th w.h re1nforcement h~. arenaqq.us ben found to '0 oerly conaeratl w1th arenaqq.us to that predicted by the conntlon.l nuu any. It 18 arenaqq.us accepte<l In thl.,ntry that both the concnte COfI'arenaqq.us tone and the web relnrorcement arenaqq.us to the arenaqq.us capacny. The al umptlon 18 that the co/llpreu10n %One will carry the.h r corrpon<llng to th dlagonl arenaqq.us of th bu' without web arenaqq.us'''''t. Stirrup u proportioned to carry arenaqq.us 11'1 xceu of th18 valu /Iow.r. with the prnc. arenaqq.us the.h r carrying cape1ty of the compr10n Zone 18 grtly lncrd. n>1. 18 pnrlly beee or the arenaqq.us to arenaqq.usn of th. diagonal crac offrn by arenaqq.us 11'1 adc1ltlon tlr<up. qraauy incr th <Io'd Cp,,1ty of the '1'11 tu<l1n.l arenaqq.usent quntlty arenaqq.us by th. arenaqq.us of the trun nalogy.

40 8telM arenaqq.us 10 Dtl!9Q Pros;II1IIU. ~l.~oo.l arenaqq.us- b~.o eo~r.l'lloq th. ~t.-cunl of r._reh <~hUd: In ~h. USO'.. arenaqq.us!:>arenaqq.us RIKUnq th. thz _Jor arenaqq.us c:on,r~t. nr~th, IVVd r'llo,d arenaqq.us of tlon arenaqq.us._..t the to obt'l ~arenaqq.ush1p fo~ the dlt'}on.l erac:!<llhj load. Thi. _. arenaqq.us on tht l00)lc'l a>n.l<1tr'uo.. lhat the probl arenaqq.us~. prl..c1ptl tlon productd by c:arenaqq.us'l1on arenaqq.us1 nol arenaqq.us The arenaqq.us eonui tht follovquon.. proporl1ontl to the.~.raq hearl..q.u' over the,arenaqq.us, 1, 21 The tu. btnc1i, nr (f t ' I. proporu'l to th. arenaqq.us l.u (arenaqq.us' by u ot the e~'c:l!arenaqq.us:tlon thtory. 1. f ~ ~

41 til. pnnclpel arenaqq.us point _ed arenaqq.us axprlon for the arenaqq.us _t arenaqq.usl cr.c~_ VC ~ (A., ~) ',., V., a ~ a (A' Vf~ I'~), th<l ul Of til. C'arenaqq.us A'.n I'. Ttl.. parat.u A' I' r. c1'oo._arenaqq.us thet the equauon ytel conuv. UU_t. for the _lonty of the b_.,~ (Sq'n. 4)

42 ~. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us to Include d.t. of o~.r teat beam ~eddltlonal In~t19at10n. 1ndlc.t.d th.t tha equat10n wa. al.e app11cabje to varlou. loadln9 arenaqq.us cond1 tion to ~arenaqq.us ahap..,.nd to _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us'lth arenaqq.us Althou9h the equation 1apHical and aa auch tll<:l to the conditlona of the tun which dlll'ln.. tt. arenaqq.us, It hso a IllUch,r. lo91cal baat. than the COn~n~ tio,l ahear arenaqq.us9n equat10n. Th. the variabl.. Mch had arenaqq.us been shown to affect the arenaqq.us ahear.t d1eqonal cracldng are no 1ncluded. Thh equation, aa arenaqq.us by Coaftitt In th.1r report (1),,a. later adopt.d 11' the ACt Bu11,Unq Code rev1alon ot (3) Th. arenaqq.us ot bmthoutb re1ntor,ent In exea.. ot the duqonal crad<1nq IOSd, exparien.d In baa,a ot arenaqq.us apan not racoqn1ze<! by th.. eltta, Thi. ~ a. prrlly e to the fahnq th.t the condltiona arenaqq.us tma xa. atrength could be fully utlllze<l are arenaqq.us det1ned. In add1tlon. ahear tallurea 11' the arenaqq.us. arenaqq.us rntor,t au audd..n and brittle In natu;re, 9enerally q1v1n9 arenaqq.us little rn1nq. the ultiloata atrenqth arenaqq.us method, To be oon.1atant lth 1t talt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ba provided fot lo.d. In exee.. of that at dlaqonal etae~ing to arenaqq.us mote duetl1. type fallura. Becau.a ot tha lad< of 1>eS, tun ttl.h r relnfore_ent, tha itt <:'OUld not tend any changes In.><1et1nq

43 proc:.dur for proporuonlnq '.b nlnfor_.nt. arenaqq.us ttle 01 trun.1oqy tho<! of'1 arenaqq.us by..h Urnlpa aull r_ln A con Jor,,nil. In the arenaqq.us we. h. provlatoo! on t l at1 cut-of(,.lon ateal now arenaqq.us t arenaqq.us within the t..,.lon zen., unl On. arenaqq.us requlr r ~1. '1. aro from t recul 'Ih In<a<arenaqq.us,,ctton tn ah a _..h ln b dth bare OJ off.t the potnu w!>er. th.y _re no lo'1er n_od to r&.. t.u_

44 .. <, > ~,..,.. > I i I i ~! > i I ~ I ~., 1 <..,.. ~.., < j ~.. ~ < <,.. S I, < S,,!..,.. B i i.., B l.. < I,.. j,! I,.. I r..,.. I B,, i J! < i ~ <,.. 0 I >.. i ~..! i,,,, ~ i >, i I < i I ~ 0,..!..,, i.. ~,..! i < I i.. i <.. <,.. ~ i < I.. I i..,.. I i.. i.. - i I r ~ 1 ~,..!.., 8 I f. g i,,.. < <,, I i!! i..

45 All _loa v,11'- arenaqq.us w1~h one arenaqq.us en.. concentnted l~d (I'll arenaqq.us to the o_chang.d One ('2) to c4ig'10fl bot the IlUpporta. n. lo.i. _..& bht to arenaqq.us Uona tea a_j.d. naq. 'ft>a point load to the U.! be-all _. poall1on.-f to ddopculeauo arenaqq.us nequ.l -.t to _Xl. poaiu. _to Th<O du~ll. ion dl lon. of tl'>e.p.~_. &19 wtth U>arenaqq.us.,._ and arenaqq.us arenaqq.us>_ In 1'19& 5 and Tabla 1. All _sa hood th;> clktangula.. <:cou-a-e:uon. no.. 'Jor un_bi. _ra the la,ti'. of arenaqq.us''' UtI! &=&1>9 of the 10ft91bJdlnal Uon at_), and u.. ~nt 0:' _b arenaqq.us(or 'arenaqq.us tt,. ah_,. apan. roc Onuol pucp_ 0 ~nloll ep..,l _ra t with no a runlorcaen.. arenaqq.us the l,u'o. In te _ O.e lonqltu,'arenaqq.us au a1 _. C\lt oft ha It _. no 10<l<Ja.. r~lr,, to H, n 'Uan. In au atha 1' tt,. atl _. _arenaqq.us the tull length 01 th. t>.o To tut tau to thhpan a,..n arenaqq.us,nt of arenaqq.us._t povided In tha ot>anq and

46 ,,,,, '.! j i 4 I I ' -; ,I f.i! d ' ~ I,,,,, '.,, I',, i,,,., i -:, c..,. l;. ṇ :,/); I ~ J I i j i II.' _. -__..

47 , Hi.j I Z9 :,,''''..~~. U iii Ult.U,, I I mm,uh,.:~< :;;;: i iiii mm l!, I, j,, I!,, I!,. - ~-._.j -!'ijj =it J '.'.'.', i, I

48 in til. ~1I91 oulili. H 1.,. P2' In.4<l1'-1on, th. 'X1 mu. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, M~, waa ~lntaln' iot I 1/2 an 2 tl~.io the,.aimu,. arenaqq.us _ent, Ky' -:hpct ario 9~oupiOd )nu> t1h ri, a.,arenaqq.us u> the len9th o!.h,,~ iopan, Se~lu Sui.. III I 32, (4, ~,,, ~,, ~,,,- 2_No on. hy,~.. U All on,,~.t. aa. with 'TYI'. 1 po~dan,t. \oitll

49 by arenaqq.us4-*arenaqq.us-<lry U..,arenaqq.us lj.~ (c_ent. aand'arenaqq.us 'Ithtu-C_er>t arenaqq.us (/c:-i by..e1,.,ht end. arenaqq.us {accor ot ~o~./~l. 'The r-.a1n1nq b d horter CUr1nq u_. The' th_ cha9~ t.o.o 1,l.6l _lx../c,.sord c:_t arenaqq.us ck./~j. 7.s.y Thl. _1x 9'U_th. o{ co < arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~.re purc:ha tr 1oOIater.. InjUn. Ioqqregat Corporuon. arenaqq.us. Th. ~ <jt tu.o1 arenaqq.us of 1 1/2 0 arenaqq.us1~.. At the arenaqq.us._ tory It.o,arenaqq.ust lnto t Ii~.. to,,,h. '*lre<,arenaqq.us <!url9 hiidl1nqnd r9er th.n 1 0 dl.c.. rd-.l. ay.''lht, 48 arenaqq.us or No. to 1/2,u 0 cofobl<od,, ith 52 percent of 1/2 to \ '~eccordl9 to rur'. ~xlmu in. lir. lou.1

50 NO. ' ',~ Ip<',,' arenaqq.us4 0.' '.' ) ' OJ'.J Th. lor-ql1,,.l relnfarct, hl' arenaqq.usl ><arenaqq.us'<j' propertt.. a1io~ II' Tabl. 3. Th. No <, S, 'n arenaqq.us<l boon u.1id ''ue rolled fr, til. Ole lint. Th. propenho_ r, <Me arenaqq.us from four ~ponl~ted.t r'ndon. A r~arenaqq.us\r.,,-,tr'ln curv. 1ho1ol in H9\u. ~~. endl ~ _,. arenaqq.us Uon,t til,_.itnu 01 ASTfo:_o\J Yield Sun. arenaqq.usi 3. 'ROPiItTI~ of arenaqq.usudiila.l arenaqq.us t'arenaqq.us nr'9u, _1. of I:l'Uitty Il'arenaqq.us In 9 '.' te.],,,

51 'Ill. I/~,Ut.r plun bon uu., arenaqq.us In the ovn~arenaqq.us the 18 exterior.p.n _r. o! ~rd..r.d. nee.! havlnn.' ylald point or ~.ooo p.l 5tlrrvp. In the ~arenaqq.us ~r arenaqq.us ~ 'Ir. (du) obulnod fr_ n QonUn..,ul $ arenaqq.us 1'.oJ<o3o. IndU.. A '_ ot' tm _ atec' rrolll the.. roup arenaqq.us In..h bea. to.t.r. arenaqq.us properu n.v.r propu- U.. of 0. couponrho In 'noble 4. A repr arenaqq.us. rln I_ Ingur. ~6. arenaqq.us. A. TUli; 4. PllOPIlt'i'Ih or THil STJJUlUI' $'UiI. (, k.t Ult1~t. strh I'Iodlllu. or a ulty ka '.1 arenaqq.us:I,arenaqq.us c In th. 3/ plywoo<l roho arenaqq.us, In F1qur. 6. arenaqq.us to th. br.<: four -'i\arenaqq.us' 'arenaqq.us ue pl.,.ron tt\<o top to arenaqq.us'lt ~lng or ttl arenaqq.used Into. r<1 '9. Vi th therrvp. arenaqq.us th. lon9ltll<l1 _1. To pi<arenaqq.us9. the tr to IH O hooi< atx:> In rt9r. 7. < bent Stirrup bent

52 I'la,Jlli 6. Vl~ FIlJOJI: 'I'D CASTl..

53

54 arenaqq.us. mini,, of 1,, cl'r arenaqq.us IongHudln1 bar. and 1 1/2 concr..t.. cov..r on thld Th.. uble<i relntorcln<;l ca<;l placa<'l on riqld n cmlre to prov1de 2 el r cov..r on th.. bottom of thpecln arenaqq.us dl.- pl.. nt of th.. '1 <'luring pounnq.. arenaqq.us<:l by ~'irlng it to th.. arenaqq.us to th.. fot th.. top. Th.. oncret.. forch eplmen puce<l In thr equu bati\ T..u 6 x 12 ontrol yllnd..n were Ul<en fro,ch bath. Materiah for all thr..e batch w.r. welgh..d prior tonq, nd the total ti for phc nt wa arenaqq.us 1 1/2 houri. 'ch batch thorouo;hly mlx<><l tor a_io minute In arenaqq.us; drum mlxu. 1\ 3/' arenaqq.us vibrator u.&<i <'luring th.. placinq of th.. concrete In th.. for,.e. Th.. I1d.. fo wer.. remov..d twenty-cr houu after caat1ng. Thp'I.. alon\1 ~'lth control cylind..r., ~..r.. re<'l,,er mout burlap for 5 an' 12 day. for the nd 14_day r arenaqq.us One d.y prior to tunq th.. burhp ~'U r,ec that the bm could be prepared tor te.t. A IlaldWln hydraulic te.t1ng arenaqq.us. of lb. cacity _<1 In th.. tt1nq proqum. II qenul view of.. _.. In teat po.1uon 1ho~. in n!l'h 8. H\JUr.9 'II v.. th.. d._ tuh of the loadln<;l arenaqq.us arenaqq.us teel nraln. ~'''reured by Type A-Ill $'-4 arenaqq.us ';1'1 mounted prior arenaqq.us Thee re pperb8ck

55

56 , '. : o' 0' o. ' o. g. o' 0', ' r.,.' ~i.0, =::I, b,,,; :,,., - '..,,.,, 0,,- f \ 0,, 0,,,,

57 ~~9C. of IIp' 'lege arenaqq.us, The proc~r u.~ for ~ntln9 endterproof1n'l' ere In Append1 8. arenaqq.us r,oeded wlth IloOlclwtn _.1 t, arenaqq.us In,Hetor. '>10',,,', nui,,_ In the lonqltudlal rintoedq ere..h! only at the eltc'uon of>< _«le. In ell but t e the '1''1'. >;,ore loe.t~.or J 1/2' frq<ll the ntet_ H of pport To obtain am{\iete _terproounq.. 1ftl'ilth of 2 1/2 to ) of arenaqq.usclno;j blot owe. with an phalucterprooun'arenaqq.us rique. 7. a telt UlAt l! '. 'ore arenaqq.us In li'arenaqq.us the of bor.d would algue>ontly _Ueet _. arenaqq.us Thh effect atrorqly In,arenaqq.us In _ la end I.~l. or. tooo '.9a were phced.t I' and 2.' fr_ thevo'ort.!otraln <)'J _re.1_ ntc on ntrrupe U, the crluch ann,.pn. jtn.,. li'l 9'9 'a pia.. at Ule poir.t ~ llen U,e duqal en xpecud to cr eurrop. the '1-'1_ 1oe_Uon. _r. 1_ tor H 1n,HIU _. on u.. r.a. arenaqq.us!met ~rh. arenaqq.us 1n ttl.,t,non =n. er. _ed.t 1 1/2- t ttl ppon ><1ttl. oll1u.., '1eg_. n. arenaqq.us1._fliote _ to ttl. net Inc. it '1.'1. pointe 1/1 ttllek _beddl 1n ttl. COnCt. to,ti. u.. l'.ltt.., ''1 11'n1cel po.1uon. of th 'IiI.'I. pointe arenaqq.us4 't! _. to _., u!o the pat1h.. 10Ci1.t1one il.l_ <1,,1_ on the et:.eu. d< piottn

58 l>4ill-et1on. unu the ove~,nq 'e~e ~.. 'lth , rltdenl 9a,..,.uppon~ arenaqq.us1~ pedl. run, on the tloor. t.o.d applied to til. _. In Inc~_n' ot to liv. kip.. In the ~ly.'1u 0: l<mlotlr>g fl,. Up 1nc:~_''''~. u.e<'!. the l\1a'lu c:r;o.a. beqan to to~ the c:~e~,,arenaqq.us ~_c:ed. A! ~ th. appllc:.uon of eoc:!'l loooc! 1c:~_..,t the loooel 1ntUned c:onnt. arenaqq.usl an' elflll.c:tlan chd1n,c. reeoc~ed. arenaqq.us:. c:cr. c:arenaqq.us tnc:ed,en<l thei~ arenaqq.usn at c:h <1 _arenaqq.us the U<I.. of the be<1 arenaqq.us arenaqq.us painted ~'ltll arenaqq.us ot -rle.n<l qc1<1de<'l to tac:lllt.t. tcac:lnq the c:~ac:k arenaqq.us~na. Thr.e c:ontrol c:yl1nan for aac:h bn arenaqq.us in c:oo'p~ldn and thc arenaqq.us An O eunloloetu ' attlc:ha to two ot the c:otapcn c:yllndan toc OIO<Iul. ot.1i1t1c:arenaqq.ustlen.

59 .. Table S ub,arenaqq.us _ry or t.1i. puu..,t arenaqq.us tor.u I'I>oto<jph.. ot the _ art arenaqq.us_ in <gul 10 an:! !Jtrillin an:! d,uo __U for..,ii _. are pr tltd u;>lucally In thletion and..a 9'''.'' 1 U1bllhr to ' Appendi e. In arenaqq.us,.. bri.t d.,rlpuol> of ell tea in arenaqq.us corrdet.. ther/lad _OJIJru ith th.. PC09r.l<>n of c<:i<.,<1 vnh p«rucuhr ob.. tto _de during the t All lo.,,!. rported herd,arenaqq.us the loa. appl1lt<1 by the luting,,,.,, The dead weight of th.. loed!,!bly an b. obtain, from Hgure 9. roi be_ita withaut web rdnforcement til. 10lIO<1 at 10'_ UOn of the <luq..l arenaqq.us creel< 1 OIOet c lly determined. The eltecta or th.. crack'. penetration lnto on :ton. ere 'l.n Uy i dute. Ito.'uer, lor b arenaqq.us hrq,nt. ot 1> ralntorc_..t the n_r cl1nch~iu_. 'ln~iol. iord io diocln1u arenaqq.us l eucj<1n'l loa<t _. OCt.. <t1!f1cult to <tatan-lna. For th.1a c, thoa arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us<1rq load 1_ dan ned harain._ th. load at arenaqq.us th. erluolll dta9o&! ec_a o'arenaqq.us:l to c ttl.

60 - k_ Vltl_.. Aotulq lpI_ arenaqq.us ~ It, <, -, _1 -, ~.-, -, , -. -, -, '- I -, -, , -. -, ~ _'U WH DII Su ', C..<\I., -. (Up.) (\1,.), (pal) ~,,_.,,_.,,-,,,-. 6} ,,-.,,-,,,-. ~}.o,,-,,,-.,) } '-.,,_. ' '.~ ~. ' ' ' ' '. m m (,ai) ' on.»».,.c., S.C.,.c ',~ D. T. Un D.T. k..,., '' ' ' D.T. ~, D. T D.T. D.T., D.T. S.C.-'.T. TI_I ' ' s.c.,.c. D.T. s.c.,.c. arenaqq.us I ra 1_,..L :~.. '.C. '.T. T_ ~1 o». D.T nt.n m D.T nt ff T I.,, ( ,r )

61 rioou B5AA$ AlJ'1ll TUT _ $arenaqq.us I I\HD II

62

63 Ho eutnl _><1. for th_ of thl. arenaqq.us'ijuon U'lT t too fro- tm co-prlot1 Uc ;ru.. J ~ral cr.~.t II fr' the ~~pport. ~. ~.ll Into the co-prlon r*>n.t ~ ' 3r}<. Ho_v.r e1qnltlcant _che<!. t P ' '<.pUnu alo,!, tm re<!latrtbutt ot.t fie! not ocellr nul. 10<1d or ton thrhout the ah'r apan,.. Ine!arenaqq.us<l the atnt etreln ne of i'19ure IIoU U.., a l1,n1fl. Cant break In the I v <IetlUon curv. or F1<J1. u. Concr.t. comprlv. atrajn. at arenaqq.us~.. rlber. arenaqq.us~ axi~.. of ~lco lnche. per InCh (arenaqq.us t, arenaqq.us<l MIll.t P, and then arenaqq.us~ npldly lth and 2.I>ova tho bot..,. aur!.c. ~er. Inl1Ul!nce<l y the e-p p«>.tnu 01 th.. cu<:lc ane!,r. arenaqq.us<arenaqq.us a 1.,. of J6k. lb_v.r. It 1.!;<!ll,ecl that chlf\9 In thu reg-ion the p..l_ry ceua. of arenaqq.us ThPP''''nc. or tm _ at coll.p _. arenaqq.us to that of _.. III. In IIIl-I

64 .. n.. _.e, d1l arenaqq.us c~.c!<.dop.1 1n t-h. aa_arenaqq.us in la-i: N,t. tmt It ~hllt* lli9~t1y <:l~ to the Fl'Oet adduhtly h19h a. It p,._ arenaqq.us i~..,tly abof! the 'ppget bloc':. At. ~ x..,k aputun9 cuc1< ~. ol:.erv.., o t t.e tm polt of lr>flote-.m_.ton. - loadin<s arenaqq.us<l, IplltUn'l arenaqq.us Into the poa1n raor,.nd.t )')1< hoo,urde<! to the othu load arenaqq.us, ~in. _ l.~gncr 1n dclectlon.c~nled arenaqq.us nd ~arenaqq.us~ o~!;ond Concrou coctp~ell1v nrlnlin.j practlclly con. arenaqq.us!ro/ll thll poit nul the hit arenaqq.us<]. erl Uk t 54 k, A. 51 k dllgon.1 crack tormed In the polltlv. mcmanl e''llon, Jun peloe to tul,,~e arenaqq.us. le<]e ae ot arenaqq.us to.h.. load 1',.PP~' to bul,!- arenaqq.us arenaqq.us otr, At collp.,arenaqq.us ab,,, the bottal 1\.1 to u..,teelor eupport. ivtdf!ntly fallr. _. p~i_r11y due to '.hi, ot the Penllon arenaqq.us to tl':e load,,. I\o'..e, 0 I\.UIeet.,e , In th1. reqion.

65 n.. ltUI dl&<]on&l tuon cnet< crouloll arenaqq.us'<1. arenaqq.us JOk. lot;. ~~ ~ )6k '''''' arenaqq.us Inc.1lr&<l crack. l>~.n fol tt n_t i..u..,uon 1>oth ~_rd th.. 1I0rthn &..d la_rd U <'1 pol..t. 1>2' The load ~.ll ot: arenaqq.us boll.n ~ open nouc..l>ly. A _><,. Id of ~ _. ' &lch U. lllee. two cr&dpli'arenaqq.us thrh the _,.,. d1&'\.l crack..~arenaqq.us tha c,proplo.. %On. &t At 37 tile crack arenaqq.usd rapl11y arenaqq.us til. te.._ioed..,.,vu.. <:oncrettra.n on tile bo..o, deer dlqlltly fro, 37 '0 3 and arenaqq.us =nlt~..t alx>u. lui p lo th arenaqq.us th<lir<j _t.t<. ;,<k Iral lor.g' IplitUn.. cr.. a~ at Intuval Lon.. tha arenaqq.us arenaqq.us&<l rd the load poll'll. At the hort tin. c,,,. pplnr&<l i.. the arenaqq.us ~n Mlo.. th.. o( u.. arenaqq.usl en. Thl., pi. arenaqq.us 01 of arenaqq.uslon poi.. t. Indl.,.t ~b.'.'arenaqq.us'rlb..l ( the lou of 1>or.d tn. arenaqq.us Crac!<U><J.,,4 IOpIIllln9 ov.t oil _11 _r hel tn e:>d 01

66 .. the crack conu,',.. Vl~ l~d InerIt'l. 1 app..r. ene.. et collepe arenaqq.us th.t arenaqq.us ~. by Ihl..r. arenaqq.us Uk.. thollt ld,ced Ir IUI e.e l..,<;e arenaqq.us It.r''ln. e,e '*<>Dtded. _.. la-i (~ itl,,,,,p 2 LaY'll,e of arenaqq.us' ited) of no t._~lor of th1. _rly 1<Ie.l to tnt ~_II U>y..n of '1''''''1 it_i) The dl.~or.l tenlon erek fo~.r~..t. 12 k loeted ~eh arenaqq.us fr~ th.. luppert. arenaqq.us In.A-l nnd. llovdopooent arenaqq.us rapid, a1lun arenaqq.us dden.t P _ 14 k.,t..u ~4IrY IIIJch Uk arenaqq.us fluure 1n the I>N of long.r Ihe<tr p.n. In thu p41,ueuhr bnii train ~.ge cre phc-.l OUt In t.h Ipn (on.. at l~' an one at 24 fr. thupport.l no. pr ee of t y hii~e M<'l.1'arenaqq.us or. th.. ' uon of the crek an. In turn, On tha bolly of the _.. to reh _ 10rce equil1t.h _Iter &9:)<'&1 craclr.1r>q.

67 - 1- ' ~, :. I LILUIT' arenaqq.us' L, 1. r +' J 11'

68 f - ~ dtt ',I..

69

70 [l:l:vi'hr;l+ :j' T- t3=l+-l'~::;~:~j,~-~'if~f_y:~~ -iit ?l ~ ~; -d~lf_-: -, ~'~'je~~~;,h~p'~~~t'±'t I, I I'TI, ' - I~} I '11'1 ',;, ii, It 'I 1', ',_ 'it~

71 H~',

72 -[dt[i:;~!l ~-,., _ , _- -_ _,

73 - ~ _,~. ~ --_.- -, - _ ~ _,r,, ',..

74 II i' :~?.tf],, ,..' ~ -Q--\~ tl ~_.___,

75 -~.',~J7]' -~, , _

76 _.. r ~ -,.. '.!'T ;!v{'~=,.,, Q'~~' I..' ~. -~ ~ ~ ,,' '

77 -~'--''j',,=,=,.._~-~~..~.~~_,',. l:.>(. j -., ~ ~ ~ ;:'; ~.( _,

78 liff! P nrueal!lo:ural ~'l cue (riqu,. 31). arenaqq.us ddoped tnto til. fiu.l , arenaqq.us c:r.<::ic, surtlod at. _boon 12!r.. ttlppon., arenaqq.us to.. 4~O arenaqq.us~t.h. an'!..d«l arenaqq.us for tpport.. Yr_, ' Ji< to l..l< 0>,. &..,,,,,,.1 CUd< arenaqq.us Into t.m eo. ptnnan Ulf>_ to U.h1n 2 o! t.h. ~rtu. hee, arenaqq.us hiiel< at 45 to.. <w-pth to t,.ton ne.i,.,,<:1 \oldened.,.,aiduably. 'MHa _. aha.. nou, d<ocr In the attft ot t.~ A!; b_a. J,.hort. incl1ned<:1<. beqa arenaqq.us_''1 the t.~.lon & At 40 thl.'pllttl9 t~(i1od arenaqq.us~h the POint ot tn!lecu, to the other 10'1,1 point. At thie potnt, the load dropp, ddenly to k, end thebtu, erncke, t<><;lnller,,lth arenaqq.us In diegonel crael<, arenaqq.us Ide, 'roro tht. point On. the concrete etrotna at I' abo. the botto~ suruce Inered rapidly. Hovu, U on th.. bott' So.. I'1qurn 2&..n<l Flqr plot c>f th. ouunt arenaqq.us J 1/2 tre. th pport..t arenaqq.us'. < At lo~ 1.,.<1. th. <lhtub>tlon _. nrly liflelor. 1'h.. r,,utrlb>tion of arenaqq.us follow1n'l arenaqq.us of th. <lu<jnl cr_.:t< 1nto tlw co-. prnu.,.. ~n. 1. l,.:!1c.t. by _.h1!un'j ot U1 arenaqq.us _xl_ to,.., t _ at ~ n<l Je. At)Ok, th. <1 at

79 10Ihich thplltur.9 <:'<:1<. app fuhmr u;arenaqq.us <:'UH ed a1on'1 th.. tension nee!. th.. poln. at _>< arenaqq.us _. flo. lon9 at 01 exu_.. tlben. UIU fehur by ruahln, of til. arenaqq.us bolow the _<I of the du9oniol,ck at.f!< u.. I of.. of th.. OM.r of SOOO lui on the el<te. I\owevllr. a. Ule 10&/1 of.j< _Utn-<l. arenaqq.us 9r.<arenaqq.us au. BM,. _2 Into the coolplon zone end ext6ndllcl back t.o th.. tenelon U I at th ,. P '!'he peetnuon of bottl crack.. 'nile.. tnt.<> th.. -Pre.!,, ZOn clearly r><>t rapid that ot bh. 1I~1 'Hhc:lut surrup_. ole th.. 1.''1'' cr (Flqur SUrt'U;> (t) ch.-l yield auetn at the loll ;! In eddhlon. du' al'jiuet b'mit In the

80 arenaqq.us,,. other arenaqq.us aurrupa, ccoued by tim cr _ yleldl,! at 4,1< and 44 k By 46 k th. act< _. do to arenaqq.us one lrch of thepe,.!. hce.\1.,.t % aplhtiro <&<:1<_arenaqq.us9 the tenuon nee1 beqa.. to by the pc,,,. or aurrupa, H load PO'''l t:y,.. 55 a,<1., to Ule other 1>ot~ b*;la.. pickl up re!iiiu. to th.. uu,,,.. at xtr_. tibe, ~ thle _pl'tt1,! occur I~. 'ique.. 2~.1 At th.. uln.t. load of '- arenaqq.us analna of 'UI 'arenaqq.usd at t1,. 1/2 <;1&'- Una a.. d cn,ah1n9 0. th. 10 I 1/2 to,. _OOn follo. notlao from Ylque.. 2P that th.. point of arenaqq.usne<arenaqq.us neuony!rom P uk to tauu a arenaqq.us appro po_iuon 11> T!Mt cehtl.k cro..' u'e arenaqq.us at J$k. but rurthe.. 1c,. 1n looll:! (oco' S!)I<) woo.. requ1ia1 to u:t_ It ~ to the tenuon

81 iiinp lel tillt Un.. t.o yield a SOk. 'hlt arenaqq.us t,.unph.u ylelc a 56 k ancl k. lliltlt Vl'JUu p'''''i ~h Ulit 1ncIn.. 01 aunp bit. _Uclltub1y d.l.y.,arenaqq.us dl<t. Itxt<1 lnt.<> UI. poitluv. _.. ra):lon nul n&o IU_t.1t lcad..t. k arenaqq.us._alo baq.n t.o 1'<1, (F.9U. 23). arenaqq.us~a aa.1ao Incrnq arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lead Cf1q1J. Ul..n:f arenaqq.us over tillt lor 1/2 ppren..!a k 1\&<1 be_,. for -., <.1_. (lie. T.l:>l. In Appen<llx C.l Col1.p.1t follo~.t. 6,t. The aftec.. o~ ha of web ra1!orc On ~.a arenaqq.us ot.r.'na tol1o nq dl.9o.1 erackl'] can bn by c::arenaqq.usq rl'.lr.. 2~ a..d 2~. ll'arenaqq.us In _3 did not. oecur any great. arenaqq.us un lr~p. ara ylltldlng a.. k. I'arenaqq.us CrOll F1qure 29 hahe h19h arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us th. arenaqq.us tlbltra _~ a. notl In b..~a IIB_l and _2 _..a not. aldent. in beam 11&-3, at._l <l1d not. allo arenaqq.us acuo<l. arenaqq.us or the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ofb relntor t. la, 1n<'lICOt.' by arenaqq.us loa<l a. dauect1o<l curvlta of Fig '''. t&l0<i cr.. ' t, _a grltdu.l1y arenaqq.us arenaqq.us load lnc.-waed. The arenaqq.us apac'.urnlpa of

82 .. df!! lecuon,,,'er arenaqq.us,. apace<! <l1'ilon.. } cr.. (F1q.,re lei ero..' tnt.<! th. C'OlIE'arenaqq.us re<;ion arenaqq.us-., the l~ of 3SI<. Th. U'O htu, I cos thpport,arenaqq.us op«led ~i<'l. Olt failure. an. 01 Ut arenaqq.us d.!1oltelyoclated wittl eh u.-oh an d arenaqq.us to o:lth1 1/2 of the ~arenaqq.us lace Olt SOk. Both arenaqq.us 'uti 'l'aqu yielded at < _ 5~k dh'jo,n type lal1r. ,,_ ott S,at> both cnck. <)pltnlrq ld.. arenaqq.us 'Urely ctl'l'h th.. b,. Con. arenaqq.us r~lned 10 adjacent to the.,ppott. Although tl'l. _. of fatlur. of u,a bum quit. <arenaqq.us!c, iu companion beam Uhnlle:! neel (HB-3J, ti,. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~. nurly the prior to latll1' rlqur 23, 26, 20, and The lo.~ deflection eu of ', howeyer, In<'llcate.. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us 'Ie foll~-ln9 fo~tlon of t~e dle90nal cra~. B-. 1Ill-5 (Ifo Stlrrupa - Lc.c>:;ltu,hnat Steel Qlt-otJ I e dla'lonal crado (Plre lsi foe<l at 2S alcm<j th..

83 ~. psth lib_i. At 29,11< the creek ~. ~lthln 1/2 of the bot~ 'n~.,,1iitl'1 oecl:lrr~ Uon'.! th. _ClOd to U,. eut-o!f. Th fell,entll' to i<. Lo&c!. ''IS in Inc:re<t to <.t'l1ch U t;oth top boopht out.j

84 ..

85 -e I -I,, I,' c.., -, 1 I,,,-, 1-+- ' : r-'- ~ -' I ' I -.',, -J Hc--~ f,-, -,, I: $ ~L'- 1,'-' Fie 'I:: ' L-JI-i'-i-_-.L-L'-J U 'l'-.l-~~j.'arenaqq.us-,,--,,- ~L'_h ū,,-,'1_--'arenaqq.us-.j'

86 Lf-_, -., 1-,[, 1- ~I H:iH,,cf+cl-.,;:: -,;- -.+;, j,., h1~:-'-, '.,:c+ - c., ',,±jt P,.

87 ..

88 _..,I

89

90 i ~

91 : ~ I- _,.-' loll,

92 It.d\-t~JJ. ,- -~..~~ _.~ _.,,.._.-, -_,,, ~ ~..,.,'

93 , J.. ~. ~,. -_.- ~,.._ _. ~ ~.'. ~.. r ~ ,..

94 ~,!f _' ;../J. t ; ;. - _.. _._._0','

95 <.',,, l.,;. ~_ -,,,,~,. ~,-_.,~ - ~ ~, ~,. - 1 ~mi&li.{j' ', _, _. _.f'- ~,-_ -, -~, -_ ~._.- ~~-_., ~, ','

96 .. - -,. ~ I -, _. /,, -.n, _~.~

97 lip to the load P w J6k the nxu l cradle ~d petlet-rateol no arenaqq.us the d~th t.o the cnet<arenaqq.usl u;a f the ~r1y. fa.,.l. $e Y''JUe as. At)6k.. arenaqq.us~ct lncllr~ creel< ptr.t~ deep Into Ute arenaqq.us loa One (arenaqq.us 1 1/2- of a>-r'a'. on ttl arenaqq.us' nil ext_<ied beel< 'rda the t,..,,,len tl. Including the ~ 0: the exjatlnq ll~r.l cr.~. h~ nil ery.,e dl9onal telon tllp tuire c>e<:urrfll!..!tie o! nuin! with lottie ~' at Ura Complete.~arenaqq.us thetl took piece _I.e arenaqq.usouely lth arenaqq.usble 1denln'l or.,arenaqq.us of the,n90,,_1 cne!<. ThU arenaqq.us undlrable type of tail, occurring 'Ill> v y IHth 'nlng. There..u no nouc b1e lou In etilln he the,hqonel cueir. fol'llled at J6k (llee ilgure )'1). Prior toihp.. the..e no In<He''ticn lIg lailu, Un. the crlt1cd c~.d< only hli1run. in,,~. Ilea.. Irl1l-2 _vlo~ or thi. ~ at low 1 tully i'uc.l arenaqq.us tl>&t of EN. &-1, Ttl. crlucal 1~or.a1 eu<:i< fo~ at th 1<>11, P w k IS.. 61'l11r. '6),

98 tlowev.r. in arenaqq.us n<>t quh. arenaqq.us 1n IIlIl_L,o~tlon or the crluc,,1 Cr'ck OCOJrr 'fter th.. loe of J6 k hood ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us!l' U. Non the 19 incr 1n UlnUn of 'Urrup. lbl 'nd Ic:) 11'1'1r. 3) 'nd the Incr' dueeuon CI'1r. ]9).ft.r the d1qor.l c:reel< hood fo,. CIt> the _arenaqq.us Ul. dl'.!.l cr''''' 'arenaqq.us'uon of the tlr.q U r arenaqq.us ere, r on _arenaqq.us. It ~r.t. r:'l c<'i the Un,..l encl<. rolto><1n9 the fot1on of crltlc.l dl91 cre<:k. the stlrru. etfecuvely _lnulr' b ctlon. n by only ht decree.. In atiffn,,1 by the Iln..r loed_.t_1 nrun no. I r1qur. JEI. itir,..,p Ie:) be9n yl.1dln9.t l'. arenaqq.us thl. OCOJu.t1rp Cb) l>e9'n picklnq up rain arenaqq.us At 4~arenaqq.us Ib) yld. th. loe r orr to 5nd the I'']onal cnc Ipllt arenaqq.us throuqh the b,.. No lurthr Incr In load could Stirrup C.) ' not al:eet..d by the crhlc.1 dh'jon'l cr I'UIrntHUy th. dlqon arenaqq.us typ. UHur a in Il IIIIl_l. occurring 'fter arenaqq.us' c:ro, by the c:r'ek hood yl.i'. In thl. partll.. r te.t the loed r 'arenaqq.us 1<..,d of , hooci been WU., bee. _. th r'loedad arenaqq.us to f'l1r f'lqur l Jo._ the arenaqq.us. in t:elor bet_ the rc:rea<ad.t1on (1nlt loe.i1';1)

99 ,f-9~ PU U'0 IlO ~o<.n 'I~ AU'Td~_ \1:>_ dn P'lPld.p,. ~'0 _ 'Rnl'''':>'''':) P1 a, ~:>.. I~' IItp,d.~ p'~:>u,.utrn~>uo:>.'0 UOPTPP. UI -ltlaul_, IJR_~nH.; t.~nx.h PUR ~..~Rdd_ ~~oddl(arenaqq.us An:»arenaqq.us~:> ~'U.\ll 10 1I<I'''.Pl'' '(~Sl arenaqq.us O'l un6e'l. P'I 1.U. UOl~.\ uoo..~nln~ l. arenaqq.us' ~arenaqq.us Ul.r >P.~:>.'\j.L '.dol. l.u ~~,,.. ~. 1l. arenaqq.us \I~ p.j_o'l ~arenaqq.usn' 0'l> 'l:>u:> OU.l 11I00n>'arenaqq.us \1' lv 'xgg 0' x.s, U!J Pl., ~\I:>va.J '1'. 11Ilpn,!oUOI Ill Il OUOI. '(Q) p {) OliO Il.d'UI arenaqq.us '~-'IIl, AlI'ldll.J, Vl '_Il1 ~O~:> '1:>':> w'j:>ut..,,6i!q.'.l arenaqq.us1~arenaqq.usu.~.l}tp l ~ UO'~dco:>.\I~ O::arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Il:>' '~'O;.lP.J:> nl '\:. '>p..~:> Uual 11I_.,P 6\tn }O uono;arenaqq.us, lou H PTd\1' U~arenaqq.us ;0 ''''--''>Ul.I..l. ILl<.~n6U) t1iu,,_;.s 01 peo.;..t/l S,. lrd. ~'' I RdI! dtu.. U (-tlih,,_ I (6ul:>1!'de:.t/l ~.dru,'ls }O.1;., :> \llith) ('lith u~:>o~d n JIq pel:»n. Alq1ll.,.ddll ~ou ( :>.n 1'''''1 61'1:>':> arenaqq.us'.'P _.Ill ''''11 '.:>1P! XCZ ;0 I.'n puoaa'l fg I pu ' 'I~' JOJ.u,.llJ. liil11i1.j) =11'. 11'.'1:>':> Attn;.\ll PUR

en>.mnlj _. ~bh on t.h at _I. ov.~ th. 1o, 1/2, Aa load furlh_.. lncr ed arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ipr.. <Jt.~arenaqq.us thl bon.,. to th..t.1 UIUt. '.Uure by arenaqq.us of <:1'1 conc:arenaqq.us in lohl lower 1 1/2 to 2 at the a..,tionj.,ent t.o the Ilppon. fb~..r. indication. Wire tmt the,arenaqq.usl cral< also l>ad hcve ankt. At ltl_lot ''' duoj'onal cracll; _. th. only On. U> ope leidy, In ado'lt1on. It two. b_.he that loki arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us over eelon r~ln. lin_ in..!laxural tulu 'or U.U ~. Ole 'Unlte concentruon of e<iiiprl Uin 0. the 10_r 1 _..<'I an In<'l!cauon tholl. the dlau-uuuon _. ot conti, hjt hroj<t _bout 2 _bo th. bot..,..,. Ilqure arenaqq.us, the ~. of fulure for t1'\1_ b_ ld bl. be dcrlbed a. II c:ooohin&uon.h..r-<:collpr arenaqq.us Ur.i e,on. ~ri of the l_ci t dluio<:uon <:t,:rvl (1'19Ur. 3'11 of tlu. _. lo. u.-~ of _ lu8_arenaqq.us_ 9r..~.r duetolny or _ nr.. iippelur><j rulrt BIB_) _. loa'''' by. arenaqq.us!. lner. ln d.n..,uon. TIl h<nr tulr. of _. UI, ho~.r,eh _rt brntl. 1,b,lr >ry linl. _rnl1>9 0' l-p-rdl9 '.ltur UU_4 ( rcenu9. of 5tlrr\lp. - 4, Spa.,t9) 'nl. cnck dl_..l or UIB_4, i'lqur. 48, _. 9rdu.t du. lo It.. 19 arenaqq.us or _b arenaqq.us!orc_et.

'rhr_ '1l.9On.l uck. beg.n pntln the arenaqq.us tone on the dd. at a ld or J!>II: 'nl.. cu. nnl ' ph,,_ent on d> ~. ot arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ito) ~ pl<:kl,,'l arenaqq.us pldl\, 3Sd _. d>. ttnt to arenaqq.ust s<c1i:. stirrup. Ie:).rd Cd). ~rth out t.._ d> pport (5ee ''' yield' l d. ot 70'<.nd ; p Udy. '.e arenaqq.us -.'. e. not cc toy the c<ttlc.l <jOn.l whlchqaln ndd nuln In the 10nqltudinU_ reached load or 67' co'p*red to yield load ot ss'< In a IIIB-J. Altheuh the ned 1ncr, arenaqq.us the load ot 6t' _ Iad arenaqq.us (!'Iqu u.. con_ a.p lvtr.i~in'arenaqq.us and eqltti1torl tor'. At ' ot 6e k arenaqq.us1. I both the arenaqq.us lind the «arenaqq.us COIOplon zone ' Inlnpidly con t..a1n ot J2C1<l arenaqq.us thu load u t he. SI<;1n. ot cruahtnq t>eca,. 1atbl. 0' the 10 1/2 a. the l d of 6~1< '.Ulned equl_ l1tort &<;lain arenaqq.us ar.d.., load _ pplled. Tl>. _ cou.p.c 70'< the cont. o.r the 10_ 1 1/2 to 2- _. arenaqq.us ellur arenaqq.us U l tn w arenaqq.us th aqal concentr.t1, otp h. atreln oye..

.. tt, /arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us.n lndleuon th<ot. th. 1Ibutlon ofin t.h. eoocuon not 1Ir In _. IUB_J the IIU90n.1 ee!< op-.d '.t hilur. :~ t' Ined pereenu ~'.l> at r..t n<i,d t.h. p arenaqq.us of u erd< coooparild t.o _ 1II8-I. nou e.n arenaqq.us In Pl<JUr. 41 by e<loiprl'l' te arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us u.., _'. at eoq:>oible l~/i 1M' UI8-S I/IUI with tt of the ~lut fou. b arenaqq.us At I' w JO k 10<]arenaqq.us~ l~ellned e d< ~ arenaqq.us arenaqq.us') the arenaqq.us d at th.. cut!! P'''nt. '/'he eraek ep thn nt\arenaqq.us only arenaqq.us' ~. arenaqq.us Th.. 'n In arenaqq.us UrNp lel iner frooo 0 to MIt loa Ine<I. the eek arenaqq.ust a arenaqq.us to Within I or the e~r.i f.e. at the yield I~d arenaqq.us' lei.,,, SOk. / arenaqq.us tyr. lehura oeeu~ at ~'l.6k. when t~ia arenaqq.usy th.~,qh tta

,,e fgt-nlon of the <!Uoqor>Ol arenaqq.us<.on,1& occurred arenaqq.us.,.,dy at Wk. (See 1' SOl nil,h. :'Il1Jonel tendon cud<. n.t_lon In the,,,renton 10<'_ of.. ne l U'e!<arenaqq.us _. Initiated at U'e cut-o:t point of the top a.._1 in the tlon r~lc,.,,u. the _. of UIl t.h<o u co-panu, BoP, JIIith nl lui ed thro'lhaut the full lft'')th of til. t the nun'l'tl\ _. arenaqq.us*'. The ld at <<'_1 <:U<:l<1r,~ r~,,' fl'olll :>6 t.<> 30 ad-iu_t. load ]()k. _,u IIII. 2. and 3 &\' of t1'l three b <ii'!l'ieu.1 to that nr Beam rub_i, (P1<JUr 51, 52, and 53lx.,,,,,t u,a.. U,ey 'ere al'l'arenaqq.us &arenaqq.usr bflo,. In thla aultunly Uh Ule fo..,arenaqq.us or UI..& &1 arenaqq.us cuc~. ~. other t, _tre<! dl'jhtly load <.han tnt at.1!\1ell the <UiIoqel tude ptute<l til. a:ooprlon zoe. _1>'. arenaqq.us t>eoo;un.., I t.h 1'arenaqq.us>l. W1d.n.~'i of th. du'iof1u <1. prior to ulua

, - I~ I,I'-II 14 C'.. 1 ' I_~ I'., 1. 1, I,~, I -~--

, _.r ~_:-;., I I -- h-h.. _ -=,. '~, :,- I..

f -'. ' t'. - t

i

:;;- ~~~,

,-' ~c +'~. -, _of'''': :t: : arenaqq.us arenaqq.us:-~O~~ ;JIt! 5K;1 ~ _..! _.{ I arenaqq.us' ';,,

,-,_. -.' _~ _ p

.,., ~,.,._ ~~ _. '.,_, ' ,<,.~.-+- ~, I~..,.,

~ ~'~.<; ;.,.:, ',' ~.. -,. -,',,.~. ~.y.. _., L ~ _._' l,,~.. _ -cr~~\iil~jlzf&!.. 2J\~!J tl -.''<';'.,, ~ _. J I : ,.~,'''/'-.m_- --;. '.- -_,,, M..

u ~ ~.~ ~._-,.~ -,.,.~ -~ ~ ~.'..',,- 'w _., ~~~. ~' -'_.~,.,'.~,, :mf.,,,

,,- _'.'..,- _..~ _.-'.-'1.; n~j.1!tl.;~':zr~~. ~ _.._- _, ~ , ~ ~._~. - _.- '.' _

- r i _.- ,~, _/. _,, _/' r,i _ <' -,.,.. I

J '''' ~.. ~ EwYb?~c:'(}1If dj' _.,., ' - -,.. J ~ ~ -.

'1!~'.LJillilt:nl'::lt};<Ji, fsfm,._ l., ',

, Tf1ja:kj:l!fS~1!Z.~' w,.0 _._ ~-' _~, _-~ _-~, m..,.,,,0,,,.,..,.. c'.-, T,_.

' DIllCUsstON 91 arenaqq.us R&5t1LTli Mo~ of Failur, The behavior and mechenlem ot fellure tor b..m. with arenaqq.us arenaqq.us In the critical,h..r 'pen 'greed generally wtlh that <'I'crl~ by other InvuU9<>ton. (6), (23). (2~). PI!. {29/. 'revloue tut, by. both Monow (2~) an 8or (6) In<11,.tl<l arenaqq.usn tulure tor arenaqq.us bdow approximately and.u~en dllqonel tenlion rallur. tor aid arenaqq.us t~n Serle. III be of thle arenaqq.uson ~d nomlnel a/d ratto- of arenaqq.us reinforcement In Serle. III ~.udden, occurring either 'lnultenecuely tth or et!llghtly arenaqq.us 10ed then the to~.tlon of the dl'90nel crack. The b of Serl I hed n~ln.l./d ratio' of nd 2,' and thai' of aerie. 11 had en aid ratio of WIth two axcepttona (B IA_arenaqq.us lib_5), _II be_~1 of Serle_ 1 anc! 1I wlthout Itlrtupa ljuatilnec! a fallurl loac! lublunttally 'J'rNtlr than thl c!ligonll cracl<1ng c!. Crick penetration Into the ~rllon ~one WOI gra<lull, anc! I eub_tant

' arenaqq.uslon of etralne.a. obeved. the top neel thr<jhout th. ah_r ep4ln SplltL!nq alon9 followed /lu'],,_1 crack1, arenaqq.us o~ th b..~.. Ultl rallura ~. elll by cn..h19 ot the.,erua at the en<l. of Ul. dl&90,,&1 tenalon crack. Th. t, arenaqq.us, _me la-a and nb S IA ldaual to both I.\-2 and 'cept t.t t_ aua!n 'fa'!'.. _til p1aca/l on the taalon areel In the all epa {at 18 and 2. trom arenaqq.usl. While IA-2 and IA-l tetled by arenaqq.us at load. much qr_ter than the dlaqonal crackl'] la/la, B la-a /ltd not experlen. any nlf1_t nrun redletrlbuuon. and ' <lu,_lton typ,,..u.. & trees _11DO& l_oidutdl' after the dl'90&1 crack flret penetrated the co~rlon tone. ham IIa the coilipenlon to UB-l wtth rhe teneton etl t-otf In accordanc. with moment arenaqq.us. Not only did the duqonal arenaqq.us cract fono.t a 9q,atIl' reduced lo.d, l:ut al.o the _e or failure bydden dlnu arenaqq.us a.a1ll. With W.b Re1nrorcent Som. b in arenaqq.us II and III were provided arenaqq.us 1n the arenaqq.us Thech.n1_ of failur. in 5erl.. II b with arenaqq.us throu9nout the lenqth or the b thlot arenaqq.us arenaqq.ust to the

' suppon. follo.,lng yield of the eurrop_ croed by th. crack. arenaqq.us u_.el cutoff (11M,. I11l-~) the c:rlt1.l diaqonal <,alon cncl< located,h hrttle.. cut In h. ah..r epan. Yellu ~. alella.. to the diagonal ten_ion tallure lamedlately afte.. the atlrrupehed yield atralna. In II_H. ba ith autrup. both the.h eooo prlen and the dleqonal ten&10n ~ of tallure re arenaqq.us-ad a IIIB_2 Ithdatively 11')ht..,.,nr arenaqq.us relnforceroent hu,arenaqq.usly In theanner lo. Ita,,,,arenaqq.us bum arenaqq.ust., IlIS_l. i'o.,.atlon of the rltleal diagonal crak occurred at the load and In the locauon. 'nl.. Ittte load, of COllue, arenaqq.us g:-nte but the,henl of tuture lo yield of the ulrrup th IInm. IIIll-l and IlII:l-er. provld~ ~i~h hlgher percentageo of ~ob ate.l and ~ero expected to davelop otrangtha near the ulti~te bending copacl~y of the,ctlon. Tho dlagenal arenaqq.us fallure exprlenced in 1II ond IIIB_2 ~I' arenaqq.us~ely prevente. Coillpee wle by cruehlng of the concrete edjacent to the eupport following eubetantlal yielding of the tenelon eteel. Beall UIB-S 1dlnUcal to UIB l>.>t with the longl_ arenaqq.us tott. 80th the crad<ln'l' lead Ind' the ululutl

' atrength were _qui' elgnlt1canuy rwlj<:e~ om colllpared to the companion be.~ With e~tende<l eteal. arenaqq.us variabl ~v. bn noted to.~arenaqq.us the atrenglh of reinforce<! concrete bml In Ih..r. concrete nrength/ percentage of t,,l= arenaqq.usnt' ea.. epan to dlopth arenaqq.us, and the _nt ofb retnforc_ent. Throuqhaut the pr..,t Invu,at1on the'uut t of ther 11'- tatne<l r on_bly conitint. With the exception of t be the concrete cylinder Itrength ~. maintained betn and pit. ror all prlcttcll ~l~ the amount of tenllon Iteel Ill held conatlnt. (p. percent end p. percent. J Whlle thejor dirtn In behavior for the bflam. include<! 11' thtl _cody cln be Ittributed directly to difterenc.1 In lid ratio and In DOUnt of Ittrrupa, the prence of three additional f~ctore~.ignlflcant Inauqh to ~Irlt aeparate dllculon. The additional factor. ar. the arenaqq.us_ eent of the lonqltudlnel arenaqq.us, the arenaqq.us cutoff, and the loc~tlon of the duqonal tenuon crock. The ruulte tobulated In Tebl. ~ Indicate thu the arenaqq.us et dlaqonal cracking qenerelly decrea

' with Incr~ln9 a/d retto. ror ~~. with 1dent1cal tenelon arenaqq.usn9~.nt. and with arenaqq.us the me ooncrete atrengtne the arenaqq.us _how the follo~n9' s' Aeu,!,_ c (pu I IA-2, '. '.' ' arenaqq.us m IS 2 '., ' 11S.1, '., '.', nib_i,,.., ' e v/bd _t diagonal tenn crecking More al'!1nluant then thu. ho_ver, 1& the differen.. In beh.,ior after dl.'l'o~l cracking for beam. of different aid ratto, able arenaqq.us the deep penetretton of the dtagonal creek lote the c~prlon tone and arenaqq.us~ntly more loed for the.& b the diagonal ten.,lon creek wa. an ~arenaqq.us of.. '.rtle_i ten_ion rae!< tltd generally _t d 11 troll the Iupport. The b of longer ehear ep-n. $& III, eould withe tend little Or no loed beyond the polnt where the

. brtttle type ~n.l t~.lon tal lura. The ~rltle.l er.~ In th b~. ~1~~ IDC.t.~ rarther.~y frea arenaqq.us Conold.r, tor e><ample, Ul8-I. The dla,ooi ereck ~. arenaqq.us~.lon.r the flexural track atut 2. ft_ the.o'.,.t. The location of tho trltlel ereck arenaqq.us ~ b - what random. Conalderlng.,aln (_1, ane ceuld n thole the nu.l cud< t e. arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us,,&(:1< tareut from arenaqq.us, ~ee.u of incr real_tanee ~ penetration offered by higher bendln, et at arenaqq.us cloeer to arenaqq.us However, In Be~. liia-2 and IIIA-) the dugn_l nell. _. located In arenaqq.us arenaqq.us e. In IIIII_I. oven though a tle>qlru cucl< hal! tome<! hrther out. The difference In fellure machen!oeleted with the lon, end ahort eh.e. arenaqq.us be pri~ari1y due to the local arenaqq.us induced by the concentrated loade and arenaqq.us reactlon. In Serlee I and II beaoa the dlagonal creek penetrated into the colllpruuon zone nearly to tha.';ie of the eupport bloc~. The ~ertlcal cqftpreeelon at thle point would definltely tend to arenaqq.us the principle tenelon belo~ the end of the creek, end thereby delay or etop the progreeelon of the crac~.

n, ~t~le. lj 'eam,. The effect' of etlrrupe on the r~arenaqq.us_ button of attatnt followlnq ~tagon.l cracking era ahown cl~rly by the d arenaqq.us alrv, 'lqu 25 en,,,, 30, t.o<arenaqq.us with the cracking pathrne, nna. 30 th9n 35, Without aurrupt (lib_i) the ~.<arenaqq.us,lt1on apparent l~arenaqq.us following diagonal cracking at 3&. ~ of bond throughout the apan complete at load of The rlting uenato.,.etton from arenaqq.us to tied-arch action en be n by arenaqq.us lncr.a of comptlva atrelna at I above the bottooll fiber. while. erea In attalna 0''''' at th. etreme Uben. Although the diagonal arenaqq.us creck penetrated into the comprlon aon. arenaqq.us the load In B IIB-2 and _3, Ita proqrl0n at greatar load algn1!arenaqq.us ctou.., by til. cuc- had yielded. arenaqq.us ot arenaqq.us in the ccmprlon zone (Flgur 27, 28,.nd 29) for lib_i, 11B-2,.nd IIB_arenaqq.us th.t the arenaqq.us It dlltlnce. _boy. arenaqq.us fiber. Ire definitely arenaqq.used With the arenaqq.us epllttlng Ind arenaqq.us of bend Ilong the arenaqq.us Itl. In S lib_arenaqq.usg arenaqq.us untll.u lur_ rup. w.r. arenaqq.us1ng (P ~ 16 k ). AI loading we. Increld trom thl. point, the arenaqq.us at 1/2 lbev. the bettom tiber beqan Incrlng tlp1dly ruv. to tho.e at the xtr arenaqq.us

$erie. I.I arenaqq.us, The ~ma of tht. eerie_ ~er. of particuler lntere_t ~&C~_e they revealed an In~lcatlon that the dlaqonal arenaqq.us type failure occurring In lonq ~m. 1. arenaqq.us w1th arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~ the ahearcornpreion ~e of failure. Aa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us the bealth relati~ely arenaqq.us relnforcemant (II!B~2) tailed In arenaqq.us the aama ~nner a. the beam ~ith arenaqq.us~pa. Ho~ever. atlr~pa ere apaced mora cloaely (_3 and I1IB_4). the critical dlaqon.l tanelon crac~ waa ahitted closer to the ~pport. Tha deep arenaqq.us of tha arenaqq.us< resulted in a concentration arenaqq.us In ths arenaqq.us COI!arenaqq.us arenaqq.us similar to that o~.erved In the ahortor ahear span.. hllura by c~.hlnq of this ~OnS and _s arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us yleldlnq of tha arenaqq.us ateel. To tha ~rlter's kno..l..~a very t _yatea.t1c _tudl.._ at relatlvaly arenaqq.us beam_lth ~,rylnqnt& ofeb arenaqq.us heve bn in the literature. On.. recent Inv.._arenaqq.us, however reported by Breeler and ~eordeli. (7) Included arenaqq.us apecl'oen_ quite almilar to the bnm_ of $eriee HI. Bm. of arenaqq.us-apan to depth ratio._ that of Serlea III la/~ _ 4) wara arenaqq.us With ~.b arenaqq.usement retlo Itrt y _ 0, 50, 75, and (Beam_ IIIB-L. IHB_2. HIB_J. IIIB~4 of the study reported heraln had Itrt y arenaqq.us of O ,.nd U re_pecuvely. 'e.. Tabl. I.) 'rom arenaqq.use (1) tha ~. w1th nob relnforc~ant lkrf y OJ fal1ad by sudd.n dlna1 arenaqq.us tn the monner

a. b IUD-I. With the addition orb arenaqq.usnt the tun ot R.t.r.n. P l arenaqq.us<! th.t th. flood. ot arenaqq.us r ltl ot bea,. It~B_arenaqq.us IIIB-. CKrt 84,2 and ) y a~r lth thi. ~lndln~. b, IIIB-2 (Krt y ) f.l1ed In dl.9on.l t.n'lon, Th. only notable dl~arenaqq.us betn bea, IItB_2 and the bell' ot arenaqq.us (7)arenaqq.us Krf th. y arenaqq.us>9-to_depu, ratio, In bea.. IUB/d hil. In the _.. or arenaqq.us (1)./d t. arenaqq.us, ity b. that u arenaqq.ust clor COIIIprion rood. ot tallurf!. arenaqq.us of th. b ith bl._layered arr.n~._,ent ot arenaqq.us ateel to tho ith on. larar CRe. Tabl. 5),. Av.r.~e ' ' v Cpal)

H' UtA ,2,3 '., m ' y~ ~ at ~1'90nal tenalon cracking. Hence, the diagonal cracking etrengthe of the b~1 with the arenaqq.usd arranqement were 1,21 and tim tho of the beam. ~arenaqq.us In alngle laye.. tor Serl I and Ill,p..,Uvely. Thie arenaqq.ustanee Ie believed due to the Increed a Ita, IIB-~. IIIII end IIIB 6 In,HatIO\u r~ctlon In eh.a.. etrenth ~en ~r. ere terain_ted within the tenelon tone. The ben _re cut ou In arenaqq.us v1th the!>covulon_ ot the S~arenaqq.us arenaqq.ustione for K19h~y Brldg- ( The eut-off pointe arenaqq.us arenaqq.us of th b On the creck pattern ehte (Flgur Je, 35, 49 and SO.) AJ.l ro\u bea,.. I, 'P.n.1on.p..,lna >olth e><arenaqq.us etl. The reduction In both diagonal cracking loade end arenaqq.us uranqth can be iro. arenaqq.us 5.n<'l 6, In c the <'Iln.l arenaqq.us t~.ek wa. lnlt1.c.<'i.t the cyt-off point,.n<'l the.a<'l. ot ru~e wee that of <'Ina1 tenelon, Aa,.,1<'1 be arenaqq.us<l, the ett..,t of ba~ cut-ott wee

n. TA D'I'~ or ~TIIU. CUT_Ol'f II W1th Cut-atf arenaqq.us IIB_4 IIB-5 Co!Ilpanlon Dt-goo_l Crad<ln9 arenaqq.us LoaCl II lth ~, bund '< (cut-eft I ' (cut-oft) Sted '< arenaqq.us.,. ) (arenaqq.us<!) lib-) O.~ lib-i UIB-5 UIB-6 nn_ IB_1 l D1agonal Creel< LocaUon arenaqq.us h <arenaqq.us ettltct on the be bl>&vlor _nc! m..,hanum

.., PUrthar In~lcatlon of thla influence 1& _hown by com parteon of ~am I~4 with 1~2.n~ I~3. The lattar two b tall~ In _haar-compralan at loa~. qreatly In axe of tho at dlaqonal cracklnq. B I~4 arenaqq.us~ auddanly upon to~tlon of the diagonal crack with entl_ily no r~arenaqq.us_ butlon of atra!na, While the influence of the atra!n gag out In the chear apan vary likely va. a f.c~r. It 1& of lntart that. alight dlfteranca In crack location ~ld have auch an arenaqq.us po the ability of the beam to r,at arenaqq.us_tion of the diagonal crack.

A11I1LYSili or TUT R&itlLTs 01, 0), (10), (, and (25). TIl. equ..t1on r-=ndltd by acl~asc~ Com-ttt (1) h arenaqq.us to qlve qood arenaqq.us ~ -bd-l. g Vf~ (Eq 'no 4) arenaqq.us arenaqq.us,. fr, the U= of>< _..,t. H :!.. l for th. b of thu arenaqq.us Tnt Jot a., arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~th in Tabl. 7. va1u pritd1ct. by thl. equat10n arenaqq.us cracking load for except tho.e ~lth arenaqq.us cut o(f. Th of arenaqq.us bea ~ith arenaqq.us cut oct 1n

Ul\1~at' Ib.a, arenaqq.us Th. t.n arenaqq.us are CO<Dpared,,'Ith cal=lated ultimate web relnforclm~t Commltt arenaqq.usd.d t~t th, load dulgn a. th, ltlte lo.d capcity In.h TIll. raqulr._ However, until the con~ltlon. un~er which thi. 'd~ltlonal requl<ement I. arenaqq.us Had the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us be.n arenaqq.us}oped, follo~ng formula for ultlth..r,.'..~. arenaqq.us wh.r. v. I.. the portion ot the tot.l arenaqq.usd to bi carried by arenaqq.us<np', given by th.. arenaqq.us '. 'Ihu

, TI.I 7. CCHI'.uISOII 0' nsf $TUlIlmIS liitii.. ACI A9C1 CCIlK1TTU }26 arenaqq.us (l) U) Dt. _.1 Cnckl SO.. Ul&It , Sun - ' '00\ y. cde. t t C& t. ~ (p.l. ) (p.t), ~ calt. fpol) (poi) (pol)arenaqq.us la-i,..,,,. L Ll} U 2 ~, I.}I IA.' e. ~ 1.}1 m.,..,,w l '.. ' !l ~,,.' U ~ ' 11 \. ' ~, L ,~ ' l.a} ',.,~ \ W L~ ' ' ' ', arenaqq.us ' n.' ' I. nl '. I. 12 ' 1}2.S ' I. 12 Ill., m 1'2.S. LOO HI-S ' ' ' ' 0. llu-l,~ ' '.ro,. ' ' UU'2,~ 1.'1 UlA. UU-\,~ UII-2,~ '' ' 1.'7 ' ' 1.' ' 0. ' ' ' ,~ L ' ' lls.a ' ' ttll e,,,, Ull-~ IUI_5 uu-6, ' e 0. ~, ' ' ~'- w, L9K ~, ro< 1Ht_arenaqq.us ohr,.o,, ~ W for be_a UIIo<I. 1',.,,~ L ' ' 0.

u. Hence. a '{'t':; '. (Eq'n. the arenaqq.us<1 by of this arenaqq.us Uno!.c th requlr_enu the ellowabl. ehnring n.t (v.l ,' o (Eq'n. j) ~here tv 18 the working etr for arenaqq.us~p eteel. The eud e.-d in all ten bee of arenaqq.us gull,arenaqq.us stirrup etre t y 18, pai. ror the b of _hotter ehr epan (Serl I and III the than two With rup.t arenaqq.us tanure, B IUB_I>, which had no>infoc,t. arenaqq.us. rauo of only

fli 8. alili',.~.uc. 0' arenaqq.us S1'UllCYI.S VI'nI 4UlIO StoUlDAU SPlClnCAYIOllS PIlI,.I_t 1/lCCt~ ('j k_ tool, IA-\ (,.l) (,.t) (, ',,,.M., m, ' ',,,..,,,.,.eo., } ' '.,. ' 11 \ ~.. UI \ ~ ' W,.. W '.eo., I.7\.,..,., IliA-I ~ ,.,. 2.'2,.~,. '..,.,\., '., ,..,, \ 1' m M.,..,.. = M.,. \ ~ I.U '~,«chull, ~.,. w 90,ot _ vlcloou. OIh ; w 90', ~ f~ wi.<in

It U not.<l that thu b on. '<hlch. hall the undon coiipraaa10n c:oul<l alao ba prad1ct.<l on the baa1. ot a 11ltln~..,.nt arenaqq.us Thla haa ba.n aupport'acl by the tact th.t In rauo. (21), (6). use<l tor the ulut. atnn~th in pur. ben<lln~. fo. the caae AlIIPtlona. A. fdlra occ:un at tha aecuon of><,ant by cruahln~,. ot th. arenaqq.us~coiipraaa10nabove tha an<l. at cryabing. aveuge atra.. k t', 0 ov.r the <lepth c

k 2 C arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ext U~t to the,arenaqq.us arenaqq.us fet., I-,-.~ ' ' t2~1 5TR.,t.! I..~ , IZ4l DISTRIBUTION kkf'1>c o 'f' , (Eq '<I. 0) 0' f' W Id-d') II:.; '<I. f)

.ufficiently by the penetration of the arenaqq.us that the '. p f ''-:;:1 - ~ (l f' bd o e For flexurel ~,. l o (Eq'n, oj klk] eompre._ion failur (over- reinforced bea~.l the probl~ of finding t. u 1impllfiod by two facto. 1) The arenaqq.uson arenaqq.us1n acroa. th.. _ection i. linear, 2) Cruahing _train ot coneret.. in tlexur. pri~rlly a function of,' o' For under-reinforced bea ultimate moment criterion i. further.1~lltied by the fact that f. u _ fl arenaqq.us block arenaqq.us have been by many inve_tigator_ and are kno~ to be pri~.rily Ior toe,' o' _hr_=rion rotation about the comprelon zone. producing a non-linear ~arenaqq.ust. of thltudy. (figur 27_29 and 42_44).

' Moody (24).n~ Morrow (25) mad etra!n ~arenaqq.uslon. a. ahown 1n 'igure On thia baal, each Inveatlqator developed ~lrle'l axprlona for the atl atr at fallure. Moody equation. are arenaqq.us on a.,rln of arenaqq.us end r arenaqq.us~ b under one and two concentrated load., Slaple b.~. and kn-fr form the baa!_ of Morrow'. equhtona. n.e arenaqq.use _nu for the b fubn, In ehr_ compteion 1n thle etudy ere arenaqq.us wit.h the veluee predictad by the two fo~l In Tabl 9 and Moody.t..,e<l hu criterion to Incl\14 beam' with..e1:> u!nforc:emolnt., while Morrow arenaqq.us only bean. without etirrup.. Moody'. equation ~. round to oy.r_tl~te the Itrenqth of ell be of thle etuely. The correlation emad to he eoaewhat better for beam. without web arenaqq.us:~.nt. Morrow'. ~arenaqq.us gave a arenaqq.us ~ pred1ction for baa~. 1A-2 and ta-3, _ac~ of ~lc~ conu1n-.l a double layer of t_n_arenaqq.us F~r bea~. 1B_1 and 11B-l t~. ~arenaqq.us at ~arenaqq.us 1nto the arenaqq.us ent arenaqq.us, uejnq the etr block para~_t.r. fro~ both Moo~ and ~Qr.o~. Inch ca a,ch better prediction of t~. actual.~arenaqq.us~ _. arenaqq.us Thl.. 1. an lndlcahon tha!;. t~e arenaqq.us criterion of Unq _ent vaud, l>.jt the 'Jar probl_ I.. that of accurately prltdlctlnq the ateel.. trt f.. llure. ThtrUn ~ea..,rernenu ae ehawn In H<]Ure nd 42_44 Indicate a al~llarlty wlt~ t~e atrjn d trlbutl~n.

arenaqq.us! 9. t«lhli1l1 Ar SMlAJ. COIlPUSSlOII PAlUIU {rut u. Colculd h_ t uotl_. hfo 2/l \ (Coltylo,.d,._) 1Io00utod ', arenaqq.us Inlnl,uoS,f. (p.1 ) (le_h,. )(Hp. ) ('0 t 1 (kip.) (In- cole. Hp.)..,, IIll.I! la-2,., ulc,, ult. ', ' k~,~oo IA_~ ~~ It-I ',.., k9 5 0., '.0 0.',.., k ' ~. Ill-I 5~, ' 5~.2 11'-2,.' '.0 0. Ill.' IHI-~.., tttl_k 8~.0 ' 51, \ }, ~ 0. ea.'.0 0. ~arenaqq.us - bd Sui.. t, $od n, arenaqq.usd, ',.,,-' ,. I I0&i t~ -- liqn (50) '0 ( 5bl Rf. [ '. \, V 1~59 ~ I;l} (6a) 0 (-I. I.!f~~ ~.'M '<arenaqq.us,,,.' ' Al ; A:z ' (. f~,), 0, 0 (-) ', ( Rot. ot. 0' o~.o< I 1.}8, '2 ' Ich ,lelc.1 con.'o,,', _n' arenaqq.us of Ht_arenaqq.us' ou Ret.. 'ho dln'nc. It_ arenaqq.us _ loti' _no '0 tho

TULI: ~IIT I.T SUc;:otl!'USUON UIWU (T YO. arenaqq.us~h d f._!qi of let. ~) arenaqq.us (tt.o;), 1Io.. d C&arenaqq.us _~TOd, '.eh k_,,, ',, cole., col c&le.,col< (pol) ( 1,,- kl (klpo) (pol) (klp )I ( Ill,.) (kip.) U'2 U-' '7,$00 '7, ',.~ kl,boo '90 kl.9 Si,SOO > ' (1I<,1lnl t1l. Io of <_<arenaqq.us) k 2 P t. K. 0 P f. (I - k l.., TJ W 2 I>.U, BOO _ f' o ' o,,, - 1. ~ k (. ~kit.,f~ ),. p ',,' 1~1I6 d, 17~.. n

_u99f1f1t~ by both Moody and Morr~w. HOwavfI, the tactor_lch could Intluc. the dlatribljuon of _trunfl arfl nuaou_arenaqq.us ot _pllttio9 alon9 the tenflion fltflfli, IncllnaUon ot the du90nal' crt,o:t<nt and _lwcln9 ofb rfllntoreh. atra9eoo..t ot tendon _ UIU U fu.d9th In n,,,,,u capacity In bflndin9. IIy tlity'fi tu_..e arenaqq.us arenaqq.us (taklnq t y 75, pal find f~ _ pfll) ~ q (1 S9ql bd2t~r. q p ~ < (Eq 'n. > Ior ttt_t. eruflhld9 fldjacmt to tl,. fippert. blccll: thia arenaqq.us tor arenaqq.us lila ] and , 1. and ]SI Indlcat. arenaqq.us fli9n_ ot arenaqq.us09 _t thla load, tl,. lti_t. cruahlo9 loadfl.r. fl19iucantly hlqh.r (t..t P u - n.t< and 70 k tor III ] and IllctIvely). nu._ IHerenc. Ifl arenaqq.us to be prl_rlly &.. to the hct that the hlqh fltrenth fltl ua' had IlttI. or arenaqq.us arenaqq.us

<arenaqq.us 1n th. Orl<arenaqq.usn1n'll un'll (, 10, MIl tor both beoo ) Ittt to obtlol arenaqq.usr arenaqq.us_.trun eurv. 1n th arenaqq.us'll rani arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us'llht U aa.t>o th. arenaqq.us tow. '. _-r~;;::,_::~.-,~o' <,, tt,. rhua. ot tour talon ponn a.u'll OIqUatlon tor thtr hl. ra,,'ll ken to b '.r and '.r. thol Xl u an<l C:C:arenaqq.us at tau,<i fin, X 10' (~J.,,' 5UbUltuU.., arenaqq.us Illuauon (.. J (*;I1KU'l' h. ee-plon U._l)

. The propartl of t~. etr block for taken trc. R.t.r~e. (20J, Teble 2.,.. <. c eu OOH,ract; _re clearly lndj..,.te<l 1ft bou. ot the _

' 1. ~.~. t ta reported arenaqq.us ln~lc.t. two,enaraj _.. of en.. fauure In arenaqq.us _creta!:>ea without an re1torc_t.. 4. A chaar arenaqq.us fat lure occurring at. aection of ><_t and 'I\eI.r at <la..,aUntJcUy q thlln tu load at wh1c U,. djaqonal CUe!< Uut arenaqq.us<'! u.. COIaPclon edna, CoII'pa. ~. by ruehlng Of tht ~cret. In the reduced ccapt'lon toa adjacent. to the cupport, following a ai91!14t e<llatrlbutlon of Internal,tralne. 8. A diagonal teneio tallure occurring,cnerally at _oma arenaqq.us '~y from the eupport at.. load ~'l to or only al19htly tar than the <1 u. teh the crlual dla<jofl;u,jon crack to,. -n, faur <Sden. occurrlnitt> ~.ry arenaqq.us9. 2. In the,n,,ee of aurrupa Indlcationa woere that tll. _. or fulure _. dfi'lnltel, '.ljoclatml VItI> th. rehu.

po.1llon ot the dl.~onal arenaqq.us crack wlthln the arenaqq.us n. po.1uon of the CUck, In tum, rdate<! to the l.n~th of arenaqq.us to dapth rauo, In b ot arenaqq.ush..r apan. (ald. 2.i and ) the craex tord clo to arenaqq.us anc! pro<;ld quctuauy Into th., comprlon zo. to ~Int. adjacent 0 above arenaqq.us block. ror ald. 4 the crad< torue<! qenerally n..r the middle of arenaqq.us arenaqq.usl..o.t ~plataly throu9h the baa. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us An arenaqq.us for tha dlftnc. In locarion of the crack In the t.., C.. I c.. nnot b. oue,. It _. 10<;llcal, how.v.r, to arenaqq.us that tha arenaqq.us In arenaqq.usanl dua to 1fterenc In arenaqq.us to th.. crack'. propaqatlon it roue. the neutral ald AdJnt to thepport not only ar. the arenaqq.ust larq.r, but lao there i. hlqh local arenaqq.us ciu. to concntratlon ot the aupport arenaqq.us, In the ca of tha lonq-ipan baa.. tha crack II locat.d tarthlr out, wh.r. the arenaqq.us ar. lowlr and the local co~reilion 1. abient. 3. 'hert-ip..n bea with w.b relnforement failed arenaqq.us In the menna did the arenaqq.us b..~. without atlrrup., foltowlnq yleldlnq of etlrrupa cro by the crd<. Spllttlng.. long th.. tenllon.t l nd tha arenaqq.us atln r.,arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us In baa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us unt1l thurrup. h..d arenaqq.us

' The arenaqq.us ~a~ ~lth light web reln~orc~ent aleo hud In the mnnet H. C01llpanion bn.. 1t1'>ot etitrup.. The diagonal creek formed In arenaqq.us location at the Ume loee!. Diagonu teneion tauut. followed :field of the ettrrupe. In long epan b.. with.. high percentg of web.,tl the dhqonel,lon type tauur. out In thtdelle of the.h apan _. arenaqq.us&d. SUrrup. neer the e..,ppon. yielded firet, ~arenaqq.uslon of arenaqq.us to th.. eupport we. followed by arenaqq.us In thi. r~lon. e. Both the d18gonel cracking load end the ultl,.ate Ihr etrengthr. locrad hen.. given _mount of tene10n ned _. provided byalle.. reinforctn') ban placed In two layer.. It 1. belie, thoot the IncrMd rd1ty of the ~oubl arenaqq.us~er.t el arenaqq.us portion of the total ahaar to be carrled by dowel acuon. 5. sea..a wlth arenaqq.us cut oft at the polnt whare It 1. no longar needed to ra.l.t arenaqq.us auftered a reduction In both the arenaqq.us cracklng load and arenaqq.ush. opacad ourrupo. Thl. held trua evan In bea Wlth cloaely 'Itla two bee..a Without our,po [Uled ouddanly upon fouon of the dugonal cro.<:lc. arenaqq.us collapaed completely aa the bare arenaqq.usd out o~ the concrete. 6. Tut etren<rthe. when COlllpared to the arenaqq.us. pe.,.ltted by the AAliHO ~tandad Specl-

tlcatlon, tor Klqhway Bridge, (4), Indlc.t~ r'c~r. ot arenaqq.us ot.t lt two tor 15 or the 20 bee t.,ted, Of the b_ lth r!.,,~u arenaqq.us, tour hald lonq arenaqq.us (./d n.. lo_.t t.,,~.. ot arenaqq.us _ nu, partlini'r be had lonq.h..r_ap.n, no.t1rrup.,.nd the t.,uofl at..l cut ott. 7, ror the _.. V1th lv<t.,ded.t..l In on. hy.r, u.. new o\ci_uci e-ttt equ.t1on pr~lted the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us r'd<11\<1 wtth qoo<arenaqq.us n. tlo or t_t.n..,qth ~ arenaqq.us UU'lthled t to LIe. Wh., u.. arenaqq.usl wa, provld~ In two layer., the arenaqq.us ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, ~_v.r, tor thr.e or the ~ ~lth the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us CUt ott, the t t etren'lth e01' ot arenaqq.used v'lue, e, arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Indlat. that.. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us_ OO'l'r'lon!aHur. bed on arenaqq.us1nq _.nt arenaqq.us b. vatld, provldln'l an arenaqq.us ot the Itl otr'io.t '0' In arenaqq.us

' 1. The r.~lt. of the part!cular arenaqq.us eted (dl~.t. that the manner In which the loada andtione are.,arrled to the beami' have a larqe Hel of th,,!umt.. ah..a.. atrenqth and mode of ehear tailure, K1qh local compelve tere In the vicinity of the CQnc~trated ~pport reaction.e~ed to be arenaqq.usble for the development of arenaqq.us_ comptelon type railure, experienced In be or ahott ehear opan.. arenaqq.us mcnohi tn ('18 and reauonl are arrled to the ~.. or qleder dlatrlbuted arenaqq.us trom oth_beu arenaqq.us Into It Ud Ilene, further t,uta houlcl Include _. 'ltl oj IO<&da and arenaqq.us Ll11thr to the b of arenaqq.us, but ('II_tribute<! over q,,.re.' lind b) loada and ctlona dletdwted over the full depth of the b rather ~.n concentrate4 on the top an~ botto~. 2. TO pro~i~e l1ght percentagee of web reinforcement et practlcal etirrup epac1nga the uae of a~ll ~arenaqq.us, emooth wire etirrupa wee require4 tor t~e beame of tnta atudy. While.~equate anchorage wea pro~ldad by wrapping t~a atirrupa around the tenelon eteel. there may ha~e been eome ~I!!erence In bha~lor had,,!orm,, bar eurrupe been uaw. To confo= mor cloaely with practical beam ~eelqna. teat beame In the

' future should b. arenaqq.us that the larger atre,,tormed bar. can b, ueed. 3. Four bnm. or thl, Itudy In,!1cH.e a definite lac!< of tety In the arenaqq.us ~HO ~arenaqq.us 9p&Ctftcatlona for Hlqh~y Bridge.- ~lth 'plct to allowing longitudinal bar. arenaqq.us cut off In the ten_ion zone. This r~ctlon In eh,a. arenaqq.us9thoclated t1. boor cut-ort, hl>a arenaqq.us reported In other Iwdl,.. of rleun,lar b (14l. (21) Nee<! of further Itudy of tll1, eftect 1>&, definitely been Indicated. Aa moat brldgl glrde.a ere ~ollthlc with the deck alab Ind are arenaqq.us '1'_bH''', tha 8ltuUOny be aom,et auevlated In the bridge _cructure. rurtller ten. ahould Include companion 'peelna of both rectan,1'. and T_aec_ tiona. Alec, thi. reduction In atrangth may not be eo lever. when the tenalon ateel consists of a larger number of s~aller b<ln. In blums With etend~.ted the dhfuence 1n 8tren9tha bstween the 81n91e and double-layered arran9~ent. was baunuat. Hance, 1n study1n9 the bar cut-off effect. a var1ety of ated arun9_enu m19ht be cons1dered.

u 81BLIOGIlAI'IfT

' BIBLIOGAAPKY 1. ~I_ASCI ~ltt.. , Shear.n~ Dna1 Ten_Ion ACt JournU, Jan Ieb Proceedlpga Vol o.c:I eoittee , llull<llnq Code arenaqq.usolenta tor li.t!1nfor.,1'ld Concrete (ACt ) AC! JannI, Mooy proceesllnga Vol. 52, PI' ACt Co~ltte. , Ilutl<ltnq COde Requirement for Relntorce Concta.. (.>.ei ) ACt aundard. Jun arenaqq.us of SUte ll1'!1'h_1' Officiale, Standard SpacHleHone tor Hi,!y IIrldqu. 5. M-Aluel, A.r., OU<;Ional Teneion strength of Retnlor,,' Concre.. e T_Bu,,, nil Vryin<;l Shu.. Span, ACt Journal, KIll' , Proceeding Vol. 53, pp, Ber. 3,1. and Vln, ':., Shear Stten,th of arenaqq.usd Concrete 8.,e wit't Web Ralnfon,em..,t, loci Journal, JUly 19M, Procudlpg Vol. 57, PI', 73, 7. Bred,, B. end SCQrdl1a, A.C Sh litn'jt.h of arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Bea~ ACI ~ou..n.1, Jan, , ro U!U[lql vol, 60, pp, SL.

e. B~yant, R.H., B1anchien1, A.e., Jlodrlguu,'., I(edar, e. :>h r 5tren9'th ef T\<o-:>pan Contln,,,,,,. Re1nfe~ced Ccnc~.te B.a, w1th,,1t1pl. Point Ldln'CI JCllrnal. sept. , P~gs;arenaqq.us, VeL ~9, PI' C1~l<, 1' utaqonl Tend 10 arenaqq.us~ced arenaqq.us Beau, ACI J,~n&l. OCt. , 'r9se<!lrq. Vel. 43, pp d' eoie. R.D., and 51 C.P., 8ehoOvie~ and Stren'Jth 1n :>h ~ ef B, and I'~ without Web R.1nferc_ent, -'CI Journal, Yeb. , Pros;udin9 VoL. 56, PI'. US. arenaqq.us~, R.C.. end Ilcgntad, K.. Labo~ato~y In..U 9ation ef Riqld Pre..e f'ulu~e, #oci Jeu~nal, Jan, , Preceedipg. Vol. 53, pp l'e~'arenaqq.us, I'.M., and Thompeen, J.N., Ohgenal Tenuon In T_IlEI without stlrrupe,- #oci JCll~nal, ~a~. , p~2cmgin9' Vol. PI', Pe~'JUaon, 1' SO I,epl1catlono ef arenaqq.us OU90nei arenaqq.us Teat., ACI Jou~nal, Auq. , Proceeding. Vol. 53, PI' 'e~'arenaqq.us, 1' and ~ tlcob. Y.N.,![ffect ot 'r ot-of! on Bond and Shear St~en'Jth of Reinforced Conc~..t.. Bea,, #oci Journal. July , Proudingl Vol. 56, PI'. S.

, arenaqq.us $.A. Sh..r Strenqth of Reinforced Conce.t\Se&, Vol. 85, IiTI J.n. 1') Pap.r auulnl<:l<. S,A. Ill Str''''1th t>efor,~ Sred Ban for Concret. ~.lntorcement. ACt Journ'l, Sept. , arenaqq.us Yolo 57, PI'. , n. Kanlon,.I.A. Shear Strength of Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beam., ACI Journal, Sept. , Proce~ln9. Vol. 55, PI' Hoqnt.d. I. Yundement.l Concept. in Ultl~t. ~d arenaqq.us\lD or Reinforced Concrete I'l,t>en, ACI Journal. Jn. 1') P'S!C'*<llnq. Vol. 48, PI' Hoqnend. E. Wh<lt Do I.', I'DO' About arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us 'nd W,b arenaqq.us in Concrete?' Circular Serle. No.6', Univ,arenaqq.us ot Illln inglnrinq EXperiment StatIon. Har. , IlognUd. E., arenaqq.us N. ~ and McHenry, D. Concr.t. Stren Ohtrlh>t1on in VIUlo. ~lor'l'th arenaqq.us'iln, ACI Journal, ~c. , Proca,dingt Vol. 52, pp, , Ulupa, SI, C.I'arl<, N.M.. Stro;lth In She,r of R,lnforcld Concr.t' ij,,~.,. Bull,tln No. , arenaqq.us of Inol. Eno;llneerlnq i:><perlnt St,t1on, 19~~.

' ~th..y. R,G., and 'WllUln. D. hur Stranqth ot 8u,.. arenaqq.us Web arenaqq.us!orc_' Cont!n! arenaqq.us,~ Ban of Il1Herent Yield 5tUllgth. ACt,mal, feb. , proctglng. Vol. 60, PP Koody. 1'.0 Vlee I.M Illtne.., R.C. Sh StreqU, of Reinforced CoM: II Poet ournal, tlee:. , an reb. , Proceedipge vol. PP. , , Moody, 1<,0 and Vi'''''t, I,M Shear lotrength of Rein_ forc~ Concrete S Part 4 - ~~lytlc.l Stu~les. ACt Journal, V~r. , arenaqq.us' Vol. 51, pp rho, ) and Vi, I.M. ShINe Strenqth of Reinforced Concrete fr MeIIlbue without Web Reinferc n ACt Journal. )lac. , P Oo;Udi!!9. Vol. pp, , Ren i,m. Shear. Diagonal ~arenaqq.us end Anchorage In Be ACt Journal, I)e.c. l'1~e. Proceeding' Vol. ~~. pp. 69~. Rodri'l'u. J.J.. Bhnch1onl. A.C.. Vl..n. I.H., IIftllu. arenaqq.us -lihear litren'l'th of T..,-Span ConUnuou. Reinforced ConcH,t. Be ACI Journal. Aprll 19~9, arenaqq.us1n9' Vol. 55, PP e. Taub. J., and Navilla, A.H. R,arenaqq.us to Shear of Reinforced Concrete Bea'., Paru 1, ACt Journ.l, Au':/ 'ept., Dec. , Pro eedinq, Vol. 59, PP. ,

' ~arenaqq.us D and Mathey, R,G. 5tratna 1n Bea~. ha~ln9 DUqonlOl en., ACI JoUrnal.,08c. l<;l~8. FroC.,<:Ilngl Vol. PI', Zowyu. 8.M and C,P. UIUPU Strength 1n Sh..r of 51mply_SUpported arenaqq.us Concrete without Wab Reinforc_ent, loci Jeurnal. OCt. , Proc<l1n!!. Vol. 51, PI' , Ho9nta<!. Il Kanac>n. N.W., Ma<JUra, 0,0., an<!.., M.A, Sheer Strength of Slendu ConUnuo 1l.1nforcec! Concrete T_Baam., PCA Journal, Vol, 5, No, 3, sept

' 1W>PDIHX A ftliu'.~ arenaqq.usIU or TIll 'ltl'qitc~t

I-rt-f-'-t- tote ',', ', 'T, ' ', '.. ' 'i! 'c- 4 c,~i II ~::B~ I - ~t:

,., J\l>PINDIX PRClC:IlD,JR' ror IU'PLICATION AIIIl MAT~'ROOrI!lG Of' TN. '_4 sta Il1 GAG..

' A,iOPlNOlX arenaqq.us&li,arenaqq.us,UCIITlOO ~ WATCR'IlOOYING O 'l'ki U_4 STUlll GAGU Type A-lll, ir_arenaqq.us~rle atraln 9'ar.. u.~ for all b,.cl'''.. 'MI. InataUaUon,roc,_ u~ wna In qlttleral.!io rltcollirll.,.,dltd by arenaqq.us and ior. ql~.n follo l. nt ot 9''1'' on the arenaqq.us boon uqulred the r.~v'l of 11 portion of two of the lu9' to arenaqq.us tor ti',. gag., The g8 arenaqq.us a,,&l.. are r,,arenaqq.us lilrlery cloth of 1;1, eoanen' _. then,ltd to obtainooth e\lda Tha area Undly clean<1 with arbon tetrachloride end.,ethyl_ethyl keyton AepUfauop The qa,arenaqq.us held In podtion by taping tl'l. lude to the boor. The linda era In,lated fcoiii the bar by phc1n ptace of..t_cuirt arenaqq.us undar the ,;, and tip of the 9a 4 Hhara1 '-ojnt of lluco houhqld ' nt arenaqq.usd hoth to ttl. bar and to th ' to

the '(lag. _a appl1ed thcou'(lh arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~ firmly lth arenaqq.us After epplyln9 the ce=ent, Preaeure _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lnutea,.fter which tl,.. the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us _re rerooved arenaqq.us~' proper CUring of the c_.,t. The c_ent _e th.n cured et e1r t_ereture for three houu,.t UO o _l20or for 2 hour., end.t _, arenaqq.usn.l odght hour., copper wlre arenaqq.us were eoldered dlreetly to the te~lnal wlre. prop.r functioning of the arenaqq.us Waterprgofhq a touqh, but plubh Uphelt1c _t.r1el ee<l, 'e boor over. 1e'l'th of 2 1/2 to 3), The aaphut poure<l hot arenaqq.us1t Ho. arenaqq.us from the Amerlcan arenaqq.us\.IpMlt Company, '1 stre.t, san arenaqq.us=, CaUfornU.

ovar the bar 1n t, iioyeu. 5'rlor to appucauor> ti'le boor ' heated 1n the vlclnity ot \&'1. to.-event the plt f.-om cool1nq too qul<:kll'. Atter the hret layer had cooled. the inde e lapped back.,ro.. the to obtain eiillad_,,.nt ovn vb_untut 19th of the W1re. 'the Uut laye.. ot pha1t wa. pre1ld and I<nd~ whl1e atl11 aoft to.-e.g.._, po<:keta wh1c uuy lonoed, pa.-ucula.. Ly arenaqq.us the lde.

..,

' , Ii;!!! II ~!';' ' _ e =i., j.,,..,.' ; 8.!i!~,-! E , ].,.. : -! U OOOOOOOO!2!i il ~~~~ ~2~~~~~~~8~~~: :~2~$~ ' '~ 'tl'tlo ,, -, - :,

' <!,!,. t -, 0 ~ I I ;, : U~~~ U - ~ 0',! - 'i l 0 m 0.~~~~ ~ ~ ~, ~H~ ~ U - 8 I, I t ~ ~~ U~ n 0, '~;,! j;? :5' '~81~!! Hm 0._! ~-~ ~~::!,! - H -,.. - ~2~2~~~~~~~~;~~~5~~~~~~

I., ' -,,., :. -.! - -;; -:! ~ J: :. ~u~~ o~~.. J _ , '8~,~o8~~ ~,- a I!:.,.,., 1 I '.., - ~~~~~~~~~~~!,,, : mmm~~, 1:': - r! 3 - u, ~~~~~ ~ U - ]~ - W>o'&Klo' -- '''' /,1; 0

' -, <, ;;::J '~U:,,. :- I!, 8 8. : : _ llin'':os~~,~. I _, l ~ J '~U HU ~ _ : I tj:h~mum - ]! g:e2~~~5(1i~:f!,,,

,..! :; :. -:; t,;; ~.. 0- I 0-,,. ~ -,. ;.- , 0 _O!!'l ro. S:!':: ~ '8.~L --, :j::l , - - 0, o. - ~~~! ~~ ~ , t!li.- - k - , o gao ' 0 0 -

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;; TAILE 2). SlUL A1<lI COIiCUTI StllAln - ANt au-} ~o. 6 lou S<ln. C_'U,10R :!om., 1/2 ft_ Suppon (11II } (KII) ~K, 1/2 IIot'_ 1/2 f._ \lot<_ I 1/2 tt__ CoRt.. 10 f ~..t woo< k_r~., (~I,.} f,_.ul'!'on I J, ~, 6<>,, ' ' '.., ~ ~ ~ '' ~ '10, ' ' '. '', ', ''. )6,,',,,,,.,. ''., ',,,.. >, loa,., ',~,,' '>0, ~,,~ '. =,,, ,~, ~ '00,., ''''' ' '> ','.., a,.,a a ',~ eo,' ''''' ''''' UIQ '''' - W78to}lB ,,., e>-IIBo ' 6<> 90 to 'S}Q '10 1~,,., ~oo ' ' 00 ''''' )6sQ to UW TloldlRI ' ,.., 00 lapidly,~,,~ ' ~ ~\W to ~ luo 50,00,,.,,~ ' ~ to 51'0 ) ,,= to 59SO 5'50 ' ''''' 00 '' , Ul $0. '11 \7 fot.' loa. 11<.. ~1 11 of <no,hlri Ot' 6,k OR arenaqq.us IR I_T l/t.,~,,~ IRltl.l TI'ldIRS~ ~o. 6 lu ~ Load.

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Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks - sorry

1 A STUDY OF DIAGONAL TENSION FAILURE IN REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS SEPT NO

2 -- 8ftIJt ', _lii au.r.-i arenaqq.us»GLib. AI.., 'lv: to.._. JlLndICII' z_as;.,~,.., eo t : II Ill.%'K'arenaqq.us otcut ~ _ hoj_ A tt b ' :Ill.. J'l~ OJ, Oil''''' )- '.~ :Ia~ 1.k~ ~.tto 1Ir. WI' eo a-r-. Qr'..~ -'-ft'. __.IB _ n '-' GIl, :otl 4. OM to tl>oo IIoo.l' r 8, _.. uu,.. ~,. uu. of _ n,-,. rn.r I. CllltnllJa'~ _.tal:r _ a1ilo _..~r. -.~_0It1id'?'''~_ U~ _ r- I;: too:, )Rt Oil 1:Il1& IItud OIl _ proti.i Oil M-' '.m :Ia n1drirceiii 1M IlCri :Ill P< W _ tm --a eo L'bel.'.'-7 arenaqq.us? t OIl' 1'. r.. 'X ':or J.a. ~ v. DoI* If.~ 1'. P. ~ P. eo If1ll o r 40> J. 'I..,.un JaW I.~ u._ e. 3,,J I!IIIIJtM

3 ,U Py-', _-~ '.'.~~ _

4 Ackledqol.t.- h f1 rat..d to tt,ben of tn. bc>a~d of til. Joint KI'l'1' arenaqq.us foroj..,t end UI Prof..,.. K, II, _ arenaqq.us for pvldln<j arenaqq.us lor the proj. SpecUI arenaqq.us<. U 'llv. to pror Il. J. OUtz.,llhr. _jor profso and UI IU H. Le. 10r tll1< arenaqq.us quldance. _<tvlce. n.. wthor atao arenaqq.us t.a Pr arenaqq.us to I'.r. G. ', ron and Hr, G. p. McClure, arenaqq.us teehnlcu., end t.o N. J. l>. Pound. 10r tt,el.- 'l'ltneruuon. 1n the hbcir:arenaqq.us

5 Digitized by the Internet Archive in with funding from LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundalion; Indiana Department 0' Transportation

6 ' TABL.1i Of' comalt'$,m 01' TAa~ UST ~ l1guau ' 9_ o. M'~ ~ LIST Of' S'dt1OUl urtaoductioll The FrObl. Stendd Dee19 'roc_r 0 0 1_ of the l.1teuture, ~ without Wooblnfore_.nt thb _.lnfore_ent 0 arenaqq.us Chan'!._ In l)euqn pro,,~r PUIlPOSI AN!) licops TEST SP8;IHI5tl$ ANti PROC DURa5 Da.,rlpt1on 0' Speelmenlt 0 l1aterl.h Conet. M.1>< 0 0 A99r~.t 0 1I_'nforctn,! Stood arenaqq.us end 0-> iqulpoo..,t.. arenaqq.usn Tu' Procedure 0 0 Ttn UIllt.1I ''''' arenaqq.us_) Ill o Stirrup.) $erl h ,0 SUrrup. _ nul). yen of T'.lo<> ' ''''' arenaqq.us -, yen of T..,uon arenaqq.us) 14_J Stiuup.., 1.&ytn of arenaqq.us Itull..,

7 ,. llea~ la_4 (No St1rrup. _ 2 Loyar. of arenaqq.us Stu! ) Ser II Ba.~ llb-l (No Stirrup.) Bell. lib-2 (Low arenaqq.us of Stirrup. 6 arenaqq.us) 8e.~ li8_] (Klqh arenaqq.us or Stirrupa J 1/2 Spaclnq). Bea.. HB-4 {3 1/2 Stirrup Spacln<)_Lonqltudlnal See.l Cut-oro 8ea~ (No Stlrrup. _ Lonqltu~lnal Steal Cut-Off) SIIrl60 III. ' IU (No Stirrupa) II' lu (' Parcentaqa of Stun,p. R ~clnq) IUII_J (lilqll Percantaqa ol Surrup. 51/2 SpcIn<). II,. IlIlI_4 (Hiqh arenaqq.us of Stlrrup. - 4 SpClnq) lia IUB-S (4 Stirrup SpClnq - Lonqitu<llnal Steal Cut-Oft) II IIIII-f\ (No Stlrrup. - Lor>qltudln\ suel Cut_Ofr) Be IIA-I. 2, and 3 (No Stlrrup. _ 2 Layer. or arenaqq.us ) OISaJSSIotl 01' TEST RE5Ut:rs Mo<ln of 1a11re Bell arenaqq.us Stlrrupa &e,,~. ~lth Wb Relnforcent IIICtou ALtectinq Ba,. arenaqq.us Spn to OtIptll Ratio I'arcal'ltq.. ot Web Relntorcnoant serua U Ilea,.. liari Ilea Arranq,..,Mlt ot Tanl10n Stal!llor Cut-Ofr OU,arenaqq.us Crack Lo,,uon ANALYSIS Ok' T~ III1:WLTli No,arenaqq.us,,r1n,.. litre at DI.~nl Crckin,.. 1J1tl ta Shear Snenqth '.oroent It SIl60r_Oo.,arenaqq.us rlllur.. Ultl.,,,ta 5tren,arenaqq.us ln I'lara '.. ' ' ' no no,n ' ' ' n. ' '

8 SUI'II'w\RY /\lid CWCWUQill SUliGlftla<1 roil rur'l'ttilt arenaqq.us<:H 8IeLIOGaAPHYl'~l>IX A _ ITltUll_UltAnl: 1'arenaqq.us 01' f1i1 ll&wroilcimii<'i'l'ij'i)l1( 8 _ l'rcckdtilu:' rolll'lica'i'iql AN!) loottli:ill'rccrlllc or Tt\.l s.~. litrani GIloG&S A;lPlilil>lX c: - LC<\O--STltAII' fjata ' '

9 ., Paqe '0 ~. P~arenaqq.usl or the stirrup st1 5.,ryof 'rut 1I..,lu. 7. CompArl~n ot 'eet St~. ~lth ~I ~. Commltt ~en<!.tioll' (I) III u.. n I!!. ~rleon ot arenaqq.us ~tft9th. ~Ith ~HO arenaqq.us Splrl~atlon.!or HI9h~'Y 80Id9 (4). Mon. at Sh'r-COIIIprlon luu {T t. Oolhl.d frono uatl<>n. of ad. ' ' ' Heel, Conen lituln. a,~, _0 litul ConerHe SHUn_,, IB_2 ' Concrete arenaqq.us 1'_2 ' l'arenaqq.ust Sh.~._eo.,p.'IDn hllur. (Tn. '. arenaqq.usd trolo liquauo,.. arenaqq.us 75) _0 Concute Strain. U._l '._1 StrUnG r _. ~c t. arenaqq.us I-'l-e Sled,. _. Concrete ileu,.concte StUln. It &-2 ' ' '.~ '

10 .u arenaqq.us Of' TAS.l.U 'CCflTINIJC) Tble P.~. Iteel, Concrete Stul~ IJI_l '. ited, eoncrete Stral..e 'M US-.,~. Sled Stralna - lea ,. st_l, Concret. StUln. 'Mo lua-7 - St1 ' _. Conc.-ete itrlt!.. e UII ) ' '.,.., ited St I..a - ~ Concrete Stralne UIB_.. St1 <on Concrete StUlne -,- un,. '. St,,1ll StIn. _ B.a. ItlA-)

11 vi II arenaqq.us or riqi/lu f1guca ~.q. L ConvllIItl.l Sh.-c iqu.t'on '. a..a!o~ arenaqq.us',. rot-ioll 0' DI TI CUd< U Sh..r Stran9th.,./.RaUo lhtu1h ot tp-':ln. VI. Prlor to arenaqq.us,'ntorln9 Cooqa In Tnt I'OU uon PeUlh ot Tan!;arenaqq.us, > tt.r T.n Serl '0' U.. U. s..,tt.r TUt lou' '. ~,. it1 Ur.'n Sui,.. D. ~.. o.!le<:uon Sui..,. ~.. ll,.fluon serl, (ont'd) D. ~.. Conr.t. Strain - 'ert.. 1. StrUn DUtUbuUon _.. _.,~,,~,,~,,~,,~. ~

12 ,. LUt. or ftqur.. (ConU,oodl l'19ura. 'd,~, '9a.- ~ ~,.'. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us iarla. U.'. iurrup Suln arenaqq.us U.. n. ~, u. D.U..,U On Serl.. U. ~,,.'. Conerata IOUil1n - liarl.. U tualn l)arenaqq.usn 'd' SUain l)arenaqq.usn 'd' IIII-2 n. IUatn l)urlbuuon 'd. UII.. ). 'tuin l)lltnbution 'd. IIB-4 n. 'd. II 'd. IIII 'd. lis ). - UII 'd. IIB.. $. ~,.'. u. ~,.'. ~,. ~,. ~,..'. it_t arenaqq.us Sarua m M 't._l 'tuln hrl.. m (cont.'d) it1nup Sttaln.. Sene. m u. DoIfl..,U_ $erte. m u. lleu..,u_ $one. m (cant'd) n. ~, u. <:OO:>eraa Iualn _ tam m. ualn l)utrlbuuon 'd' IIIII_) Stuln. Itratn Dtatrlbutlon.- liib_ Dutrlbutlon 'd. IIIII-'

13 l.u t ot '19r (Con Urn.>.-d I.. Fl9U..,. P i0 9 -~- au.. l UIB ' Ul Ul ~. n. - 11IB-~ - HI' lua.-l - IUA.-l. llia CrIte ) 5. ' ' ' I (or $h..r-,=->t CopaClty ', n. T.,.lon - ~. 6 arenaqq.us -,.. T.,uon ' TUt _ No W1re

14 .. Haney, WU, II l:sci:. Purdue Unl~udty. Aug,,.t, A Study of lluqonl Tenuon,..U.e In ReInforce Concrete s 'Jor I'arenaqq.us M. J. OUUIoer. Th18 reoureh 18!On l'arenaqq.us of the lt1o'.t I behavior of ulncored COncrte _ arenaqq.us '&11 In eh..r. arenaqq.usly. th objectlv of the investigation ere, II to compare the.t..n9th.. and»ode. of failure of «'4''1 ~.,. ~ tth and Io1tho\lt arenaqq.us rlnfo_nt (arenaqq.usl. :II to deter..!n.. the.h It'!'I9th arenaqq.us part of the longitudinal arenaqq.us tl I_ Ut'arenaqq.usln th arenaqq.us ~one. rwenty b m. of 6 x ,ungula. cro-eectlon loae to (>Ortlon of.. conti. '1Udu.,bJected to concntrated loe,,_. The b e.e d19n~ eo that th critlal r~lon for rellure the length betwe.n the point of ero _ent an the polnt of>< neqau. _ent - co..,..,nly o:alle<! the ahur apan. Thajo< a<uble. we.. tha ahear apan to epth ratio an the a~nt of vertical at1rrupo w1thln tha.h..r apon. a wlth n,lna1 arenaqq.us to epth rauo. or 2,2, 2,., ~.g,

15 .u , wno! tnted;, In..~.n of til. bea the n~.uv.. tenelon a'l provilled by r,r bar. 11'1 two laye\11 other bu,.. conulne<l two ler'1u bare In.. _In'll layer. In.',Ution. tour b,.. ere cen with the 10/'lqlt,,<ll_1 arenaqq.us b.o.. cut ott at the point. whe. t1,ey..e.e no longe. required to reelet tenelon. In all othe. ap,i.. the 10/'1'11 tudl,,_1 neel WlIoe extended throughout tn full h/'l9th 0: tn b It tolln that the arenaqq.us of thhlcal ''1&90/' arenaqq.us crecl< arenaqq.us\v, to tl> pport had.. 1.'9 arenaqq.us On t. _<I,. ohlle CUlu /'Ill arenaqq.us.n,,,,!t. Thfl location of the crlti.l <luge.l crecl<, In turn, WU dependent upon til.. length of eu. epen. ttl.. eo'lojnt of arenaqq.us'it. end upon 10ealkn IndUce' by cuttin9 off the '1'11 eu<lln.l in the Unllon ton., Detalled <IleOJ_lIon o~ the tuluu arenaqq.usd individual b arenaqq.us are pruented.. long with arenaqq.us or tnt arenaqq.us,

16 LllOT Of' 5Y!'.BCLS a _l 1 am of tenaton neel A' _Inal arm of arenaqq.usl..,ro-alottio ar_ 01 ontirrup a,, le'ju> of HI.I ah_arenaqq.us (<thune fr_ aec:uon of 1 t to point o~ Infhcuon) <'I' <'arenaqq.us lrcllo '*1'lon fe. to en'arenaqq.us<'l ot CClIO_ poion ated J<'I tntnet NOm*nt S..m, sai9ht llne theory ~. _Is o(arenaqq.usy 01 a.e Initial Ungen. _,Iu. of n'arenaqq.us, (' arenaqq.us CO/arenaqq.us. e s'''.ngth, ' 12 aun<'ls,,<'i,., '., ~ '.,.,~ c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us'''''''h,,- arenaqq.us etr In 10l\0Jt'<'ItlIon arenaqq.us at In 10,,<' arenaqq.us at_l t2 at.n<lsr<'l c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us.a In arenaqq.us Iteel at arenaqq.us of b

17 , '\, 'I.,,, ',. '0, ~ - 'lob ~.lnto~c_.nt UUO,,,, '0,..~ 1n crlucu oh..a.. apan ohn' Igne<'! to concreu (..,rl<l'1 nca').hn' tgn~ to etlrcupe (WOrkl'1 etc arenaqq.us) , OhN:I9 nee ~ b; or ~ e. e1'lne<! In t.c DOnlon ot arenaqq.us _h_un')'.n._.au'), to concrec u~_, at duqo l cuc:l<i'l '. portion 01 total.1'0 1'1 lot 1'1' to ectrrupa

18 ,. ultl~arenaqq.ush lncllrauon of aurrupa ~arenaqq.us' to lon'arenaqq.us\.xu Inclination of ~l.'li0nal lonqltu<ll,i I. tract with pee, tb '..,~ s. C;:. D.T..u &n at out ~r'10n tiber at UU arenaqq.us In t,arenaqq.us' a.._1 at r.,uura.~r-eo-prlon rallur. arenaqq.us fatlu..a U_) to'na'on tallu atraln In ~Icro-inch par Inch \

19 , D<TRotlUCTJCf' In en effort to depart t tt>.. arenaqq.usa ll1po the,uon. arenaqq.us,,,,v)or, )ny..t1.~u for b\' venl yeou t>av.. nudj. th. ultllmt. load boo,,,! of I..!oo., arenaqq.us:t<> arenaqq.us itlu1 tor d19n en be obull,, t the arenaqq.us fcliol. ofc1l. It U _11 ~nown that u,.,wet beha,'or arenaqq.us COne hoi do not eon!o.. Ith th. auo.('1 th..,.1' of pr''''uce. On 10 0: thl arenaqq.us I. th.. ability to p.'.c:. lth.-,,,'arenaqq.us the ttl_la I a. of.. ~.. aectlonbjected t.o pun _dl9. 'at UUI ben aubj..,, t.<> the c:o-oblned action of bltn,21nq arenaqq.us tore.. ~'lueh _y n,.ly H_ll tm' _pc:lty of.. _. To ntabhah til..,.n.1 eondltlona u,,hieh arenaqq.us nrh ot.. _ arenaqq.us.,, Or eontiou..t by.h. o..a.l'l'ht C'Oflaldu the c of.. U.,lypport _. und two av-ur1<:al con<:flitutol<l loa<l., In U'I1a <:<IIaa tho r.,,1on b.t loada U 1n t<llt. of pur. bend1nq,> th. lqul

20 , rro<o ~hlt load to tnlt Ituppert, =_only all. tn. ahear apen, Ie ltubjected to ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.usq and bending torc 'hen the len'ilth or the ea.. Itpan 10 hrg_ (6 to 7 Um tl>. bea.. depth end qrht.e.. I. the!'ure bend!n arenaqq.us a.,,<i-epanit lat '. A. the I' 1. arenaqq.us typical ent.'arenaqq.us cracl;arenaqq.us~r on the!>ottom Ude of the b,. Collap ot the b ccur by cruehlnq ot U,e concrete In co.,preulon. rot beamat> no,., aooounu of..,e'on arenaqq.usnt ohio 10,uH1.y preceded by yleldln,:/ of arenaqq.us!. 1'''. ptuenee arenaqq.usn the arenaqq.us apane ha. no elfect on t.h. loed carryl9 ',,chi'. Ilo~r. If the lond. a,,,<><1 <:lo to the eupporu. the ratio of eh.a.. to,olun I>1g.. TIle eoo>binauon of _arenaqq.us Ittr end bendlq arenaqq.us produce_.. principleelon actinq a~ ~he Inclination of approxl_tely ~5 at the n,,~rftl axla or the bea.. and n rly horlzor>l'l 't <he bottolo ot the be EvIdence or thls Incl!ne tension Is arenaqq.us by the gradual chane In InlInatlon of th. tenston crocks.s th.y appr~ch <he neutral axl. of <he beam. Betore auttlclent arenaqq.us momant Is 'e~arenaqq.us to produca tallura In arenaqq.us un6er the load point or ~n tha Iddlpan, a dutlnct diagonal tension crack appaars and panetratea well Into th. arenaqq.us zon.., ~'h1l. lhu crack 'a usually an axunslon of tha Incllned oortlo<l of a fleral arenaqq.us craclt and cannotlly b. conudered aeparata one, It la <lutinct troll the tatter In ~het It pen..~ ~es deeply Into tha,rulon >:one

21 , ~t tnc un..,l:,> flter alope, c~.ln'lnlt1,,~nt re,h.. trj._ h,uon ot lh internal.t In,.BUI, 1t I th abll1ty or the b to i,et>l tm atr arenaqq.uson that <arenaqq.us the Hi_te, Btrenqth at the beam fter lor, Uon or th1. dlaqonal craci<. -or b 'arenaqq.us reinforcement the atrength beyond dt90nal cra<:l<lnq to b. dq>,,,.ntlniy upon the hear epan to depth ratio. Pro,t.!on of 'eb reinforcement or Bt\rrup., In general terma, has the effect of con~inln9 till. cr.c~. pre'.t!g 1te deep penetration Into the c~preion ~one, delaying the atre arenaqq.usl~. and thereby lncl9 til.. Btr!'>9tl>. A arenaqq.us~ch to the problem of predicting the load at which th lncunot<! crack 'UI form Bn<l penetrate Into the arenaqq.us tone ~uld em to ba an analyaia of ~he principle ~arenaqq.us ~.valope~ trom arenaqq.us of combin.~.tr Howevar, ona can r ~1ly aee tl>at the ~arenaqq.us of ahearln':! an~ norl arenaqq.usu belo,, the ntul axu 1. hl,:!hly ln~etar~inate. CraC~ln,:! In the extr.m. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~k.e place at arenaqq.us9.e of loa~ln':l, At aec~lona coincl~ent with arenaqq.us cracka arenaqq.us orl,:!,nally takan by the concre~e 1. ~renaterred to the arenaqq.us a~e.l. ~~.ec~lona arenaqq.us~ ~he racka _a ~,ree of tenuon..,et be arned by the concr provl~ln9 the bond between the ate.l an~ COnCrete is arenaqq.usd. In addition, arenaqq.us once carned by the concrete ut b. :uro ecroaw the CUCl<. As a ruua.h.r. ia probably a concentration of aheerln':! atru. a~ ~he top of the creck.

22 t ,, t ~ ~ 1 1, ~,., ~. I,. l,, arenaqq.us T+4T J li,,' ' T-f=- HloT '

23 ,,. < for _ It_t eonalderlnq A lengu,. 0.><. of 1> 'I~h arenaqq.us ti.,..,r_l ~arenaqq.us cred<a 1F19ra IbL t of the _enu about. point at be arenaqq.us dtj<i*vt> IEq'n. 1) ~arenaqq.us In the 'lon zona and 1. of conaunt. 'louu. belo.. the nintr41,11, (he Figura Ie! 51ne8 at principle lenelon equal. l~ arenaqq.us bjd ld be OJ.' _aura of pro,cln\l arenaqq.us cu,,\ IncU,,1td cu<:\<. When thh >1. a,,rln'l' atr.u Je e>«:.'''',._r u!nforc_en.. In a fo.. U rmiulr!. n.. _thod u..t to 19 ti' 8hMe'fore_en.. U broe..;! on tim _ c.u..,.1'\1 an_lolly,

24 , ~r ton _. carrte _r eon_pondt,,') ~ <:: 03 f~. Ic1u<l,,1_ U the 'PHon t the <l1goo',&1 arenaqq.us crack p_u..n t.o.. <l~th arenaqq.us til,arenaqq.us (that Ie, t.o,he centroid of arenaqq.us). F19Uce 2. en tlue 1 the follow'jy. PlGtllli 2, aalii$ YOi' TIlU:ii AlU~UlGY 1ndlnetlon.,,>0 dt<jonel tenelon en' ldleu arenaqq.us!, ~~, nme._ to. nih'''!''_ tt,. ulrrup. he arenaqq.us by the CVfIcrte

25 ,,. ahnr.\arenaqq.us ~~arenaqq.us., au,.p, -,, A eroolle-iollcuonio 1 HM 0' ~. iott rrup '. Ure.. ' au..,,? n.. force 1n on. aurcu? h ':'~t un,~, lee1 co- ponent. of the terc In ell arlrcup. ero. br the diagonal J!/ -\-t v Un Q 'J' 0' ::I UnCI I cot a tv y', ( Un ) (l!iq'n.2) O' ',l.. Y', KUno_coeo

26 , porwon of the total unh 81> earned by v bjd V.. ne! the UlrrT' ntio a. r.. ba n> of b~. ~lth atlrrupe Ie 0 3, ȯ (l::q'n. Probably the la..g.1 _ource of _rror In lhla analysi_ H arenaqq.us of the po<tton or the tout.h beam behaior. ~a!.. deugne have reaulted prrlly through the Y u ha.. yielded.. Ide arenaqq.us In ulely arenaqq.us> upe<:! to tile atren'l<:.h8 pre<l1c:ted by thu melmd. Teneion ~w.d (1). aluauon of dau from _ te be arenaqq.usn ben COneret cylinder 'arenaqq.us!> and the nominal arenaqq.us at diagonal cracking arenaqq.us In arenaqq.us to the BIBLlOOilM'1fi at en<l 01 theue.

27 , arenaqq.us>ou..h U b.~ of In~tt10t'1. Il'IvolI1'19 ah baalor.. be tr_,. oer tile hh 1,<> <'Ieeadu, It he. be only ~lthln tile l t J to ~ yea that enou'lh Infor.. Uon eouid bio_l:>l{l<1 to otter.. d~nr. fc.. the e.>r'arenaqq.us i thod of au'!'n. 'Jor 1>01'19 ~.r. 'e 'Ithpeel ~ all In tile latt rwv!alon ' the AcI 8Jlldin9 Cod., K Ulan. tl',,1non r triel. to \I,tl>od for dauna1n1n9 arenaqq.us h_un.. au at dw<jqt>al CUCl<ln'l to.. btoa 11'> nlnfofc_..t. A l a1>i. Infor_t,,,,,, on the b_lor of _,Ith auhupa. nat _..,fuel to UloI09y cone..,. d..,nue_ fro. tm conventional A Utl l ailj'arenaqq.us of the boi.!e dtaulbluon of IDtan,,11 n.r art.r dla_at Udllnq 1& atill lack!,!. Ibw-u. IntenUUItd attorn o,r til. hnu! _n have 1:r_ht about,,,..u better,arenaqq.us of the q er..t Rechan1_ arenaqq.us t I~ U ~h. purpo o! Ule fouo>.lnq lu'ulon t.o pol~ ou~ _. ot ~h. d'l'hl.n~ Unlr<arenaqq.us 11' u.. h~.nr arenaqq.us_~ IN. t.o p t arenaqq.us l_n~ 1.,.., ~ Uv arenaqq.us 0). lui. (11)

28 WI ttl the.,cepta of the of unl t.h ~arenaqq.us crlte'-lon. It t~t th.. 'un~~t.l. or the probl.. WUS {O'tt folob of yean, IiIorly ln~arenaqq.us.n all tl\.ot the arenaqq.us. t hlct> dlill<jonilll creck!q OCal.., not ill {uction of caneale iiiue'!th alone., arenaqq.us ill tenlu arenaqq.us, InvU'l'U.o atill iii<n>ln'l' to the I.. ot ill l1l1t1ting unit ahm.., beqill.. noucln'l' \hat the '''eraciill arenaqq.us9 n.r at dh~l crilldcl'j depende..t on thr _jor v_arenaqq.us, liii''' of one. The iii..e. 1) tim cor..,arenaqq.us arenaqq.usll auiii'i!'th. 2) the p.r ~'l'. of lobgltudlnillltnfo and H IlM _'lint. of nol be,,'hn9 Ute rool_ttue = tim arenaqq.us arenaqq.us eu U. ttle cnucal,,,,uon. The arenaqq.us eu..,.. of U>lrd of the eilled ill n rn I.. t~~arenaqq.us l~. to tim ~'lc conatoleratlon tl\.ot the prabl.. _. on. ofbl u. W>.U. a r abl 1 of prlndpl.. ~..,.Ion atr.._.~r.._.. _lur arenaqq.us<ln9 'nno~ t. eale:ulnad. ~h ttac~ of bvldin9 on ~h arenaqq.us\9.~ ~ &A9Oft.l c:ra<:l<l1>9 c.n b<o a>q>r d by the '1l_1onl_ arenaqq.us), I\IVd. 'or ~h. U-pl. b-. njar arenaqq.us loall. (F19\1r. l) tim IV'Vd r_uo at ~h. cuti.!.uon I. arenaqq.us _p..,_to-<loopth ratio,./d.

29 u r-', I P I I P,n ~ 1'_,1 ~p I I I I I I v pci b-<uri I I 'I I I,, I I I I I '-NT! J L --= ' '!!!i..! ~ Vol P ~ '. I,,~ ~ I ~ct- ~===~ b-_= ==~~ _I.-' a-.j 0-$ FI.,u,OI t ',oe:. Full P..,,_1.'0 cooh FIGURE 3 FORMATION OF or.. GOPrl TENSION CRACK

30 P'~.~ ~~6,~~~.A'~'.tq~,,pT~~ ~TqT4X. '~ ~~~ ~~(~.A '1H,~nE '(Onou Pt./! ~O) onu 4,dap o~ ul'd.1'4. '{l uo<lo' At'U pdotp en._. ';Ul'1:U:> arenaqq.us~lp ~ ~~1 p,~. '1~..n '1~ ~u;,ojul' q.~ ~~>T..' dap.p,arenaqq.us. Ul '1H.(,.uont1. Ap (..d on Z.d) '. UOl ~.4~ on ~~arenaqq.us~x ~.c~t ~.:> arenaqq.us~.,p.'{l.,,~~,. T.~,,.~ tutl bun.l,0 dqq~ b,pnl~ul ~1~ Au.w '(. ~d O~ E '~d) I.~. ~l.u~.4~.p.~o~ 'l:'vq P'. (E,d).'O~ ot d~~.4~ O~Ul 4~oq p,..,,,,, pu.. '(Z.d) 4~dapPt.. ~,oj Pf'~0'.,..' lpu 4.J. '(E '~<1 o. Z '~d E n&ul '~U:> ou. t; 6't'''1~. )0 'Olod P.'TY:>UI.. ~~ arenaqq.us:,.o'd~~ 4~ Oll O,~x.. u.1 ~u:> '~ 1.,obTp '''Ho '(H) '(In '(ft) '(01) '(9) arenaqq.us 11 4.~ P'. ',I4.~ arenaqq.us J n,,, 4.~ 'I 1ulPn:>16uol arenaqq.us,>ud.~~ A'u 0 onu 61,1n,wH >\:>n PI'''T1:>1,I1 l>ntn.,,~ dot P 0. 46,.., ''1 ~. o,.u.~ arenaqq.us,p.4~ arenaqq.us~ lit..~nx.i; '.~nn, onu 01/. IO~~.:>oq. ~4'.:> I.n ~UI'WOIII,0 on:>~ul.t4' jo ~.PtM ~4.,,n~6,(lb,>' 01' , '''''Hn 4.~,0 ~,'~ ~. 6UIPu;,q I~'OU / hu1 :>1,oJ 1'<u. 'fez) '(SZ) 'nt) '(61 '(9) '01 61~u 1.'0&'.,'I., Iun.6U 'I. 'PU':>ld )0 4~6u~T.4~ '~'I u.~. unq AT.H'Hp.0<1 H

31 the to tl<>n ot the lnltiel dugonal CUCk. for relatively arenaqq.us,arenaqq.us the tolll3tlon of th.. du'lonal Unn crack and 'plete huure ohoon Uk.. plae tanly. arenaqq.us ~lth the.e arenaqq.us arenaqq.usr. have repcrted two 'leneral <ec>dee ot.h r fuire. Takln'J for arenaqq.us the.i,lyppo.. t..d b<iiam undr a COnentut~ load. It hag been noted arenaqq.us belo~arenaqq.us val.. the ek arenaqq.ust so,e point I thin the arenaqq.us ~on. ~Ith Inclng load It arenaqq.usy penetutu deeper. ' the =ne II arenaqq.us reduced. the coeulve Itreet be grnuy arenaqq.us Ultimte fallre II by,.hlng of th <:<>ncrete In thll redued OOIIIpruu<>n ~one. ganeully arenaqq.us to the Iad point. Thl. type of fallre I. c,only ca Iled t h.. ahear.~prion fell r. arenaqq.us from thi. 1. th o call..d.u~en dla'jonal ten alon arenaqq.us. ocurrlng 1n bn of arenaqq.us span. arenaqq.us hllure occur SOOn a. the du,gonal cuck torme. It tallur.. do not occur altejltaneouely, th.. cuck penetrate. upldly Into th.. comprion tone, and very little lncr In lo.d arenaqq.us to au.e couapee. ~ho In Fi'lr a plot or arenaqq.us at d1agonu arenaqq.ust ltlte load vera. arenaqq.usp.n to depth ratio tor a group arenaqq.us-iiupported beam. upon..d by 1' and Yleet (25). Tor arenaqq.us b (IA'd. 1) the ltl,au!allure ld about t'le the,uagonl cracking la. Other Invutiqatora have rported Ullre loade ae IIUch ae to 1 tl~e. the laoonal crack In'! loae fo bea Aa the

32 _ I I I.,.;,. - _.- '.Uu 7 M I J ~. 'f' G _. I I,, _ 4;_' M,, ' I,_.,,- '-I. ll~l I I SPIlN fo ll(ph' OIATIO 5lI1Ail ~RIQiG11l '>'$../d \ t.o ~h. d ~doo ~Y1'.. In the du.,,1 ~_.ton lulue. ',.., Gtnl e_ln 1o 'arenaqq.us elu fe_ <h. arenaqq.us'.

33 -0, > I ,, > >!,, - 0 I ~ > 0 < ~, jl > - 0 ~ I > ~ -> 0, ~ > < ~ g, - a,, - 0 ~ - 0,, ~, < g > - - g --,, 0 >, -,, -, - > 0 0 ~,, < a -, I <, -, , -0, ,, g > 0 < > 0 >,,, g 0 > 0, -, -! -0 >, -, --> 0,,, 0 0, >, - 0 > - - > -! g > < 0 0, -,, > -0 0, : -, - >, > > 0 0 >,, - - <. - >, -0 0, 0 0, 0 0, -, 0 >, > i, > - 0 < < ~ - - 0, - g 0 0 ~ 8 ~ > g,, ~ -0 g,, -, I g, > 0 0, 0 < 0 &,,, -, >, > > 0 8 ~ 0, 0 0, > - -,, - - I >, 0 0 >, 0 g - -, < -, l, - - < < 0, ,, ~ ~ 0 0,, -,, 0,,,, --, -,, ~ - -, <, - - g - 0 < 0,, -, 0 <, -, -, < 0,,, ->, - > 0, > ~ ~ 0 -, > < 0, - -, -> < -<, < > -,, > 0 > < 0 0 ~ ~ - -< 0 0,, --, -,,,, -, - 0, 0, > - <, !,, 0 > < 0 > 0 >, 0,,, 0 - ~ -

34 end toohear rallyre 1. delayitd yntll the b,<11ng COlO arenaqq.us oyer the arenaqq.us 1. high enough to arenaqq.us ln cntehlng. In the CUe of the longer she..r sp..n, the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ferth..r out free the l~d arenaqq.us loc..l oo~prn ha. 11ttle r trlnln9 arenaqq.us upon the creck developent. Thle hypoth..l..,apport.d by arenaqq.us tena _al,. or.. Uret, 'ith arenaqq.us concentratad at the top and. eecol'1d..,lth the load. appu, a. ahean to arenaqq.us The lv'vd ratio ~ a. ~. In 'the flret ce 'al1u.. ~ a. arenaqq.us c~relon, while In the latter fellure we. the audden dlegonal arenaqq.us type..t.. greauy r~citd 1<1. LooJ<lng OIor. arenaqq.us. t arenaqq.us oi..h r!allure, on. clln eee the prnc. of other effecu..,mch ~' tend arenaqq.us the two arenaqq.us mode. of fal1ure. OnC th.. dl9anal crack b'lln. to penette the c,..,arenaqq.us tone,beuntiel redutrlbut10n of lnternel atrt ocr. ~ec..u of the re<luc.d COncretr both the comprlve arenaqq.us1l9 force. In the r'llon aboye the crack ~.t be Increed. Locking at a fre. body of the poruon of a be<l outside the cracl<. (pts ) re 3, the,,,,uon of _u aboon the arenaqq.us of <»arenaqq.us ln tile uneuclce<'l portion of the (Section, no.. tnt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us b-b,et eerry.n Iner e<l arenaqq.us, arenaqq.us!n,! to the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us. tctlon a_ There 1. undoubtedly.0lil all\olln' of dowel action arenaqq.us, whle would td to reheow., ler cerrlitd by til. arenaqq.us eollllpreulon :<one end til. arenaqq.us

35 In tnt l at th1& point. ~~.v.r the crack ~ld.n. and routlon tend. to concentrate about the uncucked portlon arenaqq.us a_a, the dowel!orcn are greatly increased and aoon dutrey, through the tot'''lon 01 the crael<, pt. 2 to pt.~. 1. Innd sue! eneton, In ad,ution. pro.. qrutly increflaed arenaqq.us beteen the ction at Ul. crack and arenaqq.us clo to the _upper.. Thle, combined with ti,. dowel,ctlon, otten lade to pr09rha dunjctjon o~ ben throll'lhout the ahear epen. 1 ~'.ttie!,' ancl>or 'ile by hook or by extuon beyond arenaqq.us idt!ilure could ' ''It. When anchou h provide<!. true action and behavlor 1. the alar to that ot tied erel>. pa. (29/ TIler. haa been.'. quu01'i arenaqq.us til. ehea. strength DC.. 'I-Section can loa prlcted in.l>fi,1 of t onctangulatlon 'There_. to b. 11tU. Into~tlon on ~Ic. ~arenaqq.us ol T_amn~ arenaqq.usr b.''' r ho,,eer. ln~lc.. tlon thh.. I08~ the for_ t10n of.h. <l1,on.1 crack In.. T arenaqq.us to tmt of ectangula. b ot the.''' wl<lth a. th.. T_Bet (31) Th. ltlma ':lth J:>ehavlor of T_8 _. to b '..~i>at <arenaqq.us ~I'PIpan T-b t by A!-A,(5) in<llc.t. th.t th. 1&,e cplon aua proi<l by th.. 'l..n9 ill not a11o,, <l lopni..n. of thheacompulon typ.. fau $!arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us0.,,r arenaqq.us from 2 to 7.~. and.. 11 failed by diagonal arenaqq.us All bxhlblte<arenaqq.us. tu,th l:>8yond diagonalklng ith IncrHUngly gru

36 nu ~or /'./Vd retioa below four. Thhear ~ha~lor of a bea~ 1. alao arenaqq.us!r.c~a4 by cutuil9 ort arenaqq.us r.,lnforc_ltnt In accordane with,nt requlr \.; b/ilu ere ter.. ln~.<l -- say In the arenaqq.us r~lon of.. oontinuoue bea.. -- where they ere no 10nq.. r~lra4 to rlet tlexurel tenlon, there occur.. Iaoontl nu1ty 'len IlU been rooted In 0lIl C to carty fouon of th dl.o.. 1 tlltlalon <:ra<:~. l'er'juaon (14) h reported thlot th load at,u\lonal CraCI<Iy be e.. lo~' 70 percent of t~t tor the beam With th.. ete.l Cully extende, In ddllion,arenaqq.us tor_tlon of the Uqonal erkel<., the occurs.. lar9 lncr In eteel tenlon at til. pointh th crock arenaqq.us,re th ated. If th.. etl h been reduced at. thla point, It U of ehe enalon rel,,!orc..~t pulbl.. ther pr_lure yleld!n, c=l<': rult. WhU. the.1' t.h''-.c'oiiil'r.''lo hi1r. 'arenaqq.us <':ecr 1th lncrun<j II/Vd nt.\o., \1r. ~, the,t rloqulrltd to prodc. the ltt t.. cn>.hin<j 1> b.. found to b ronably coatant. (61, (9), (~1). '1'h1. hct 1'1. tltd to varlou. att_pu to for..,l.. U crltrlon arenaqq.us~arenaqq.us fulr. ba..,<,: pon U'ltin9,arenaqq.us Th. pproach hu _n,11r to th tu Th1. Inol the t. load arenaqq.us for f1exuul fuure. '''pt10n or an ultlt. <:arenaqq.us dutrlbutlon, th.. puter. o[ hil>,at b. durmln.d ''1'1rl11y. Upon..r1t1n<j the arenaqq.us o[ equlllbrl. the prob!' redu to arenaqq.us,;!.tru eo<npt1blllty cro the

37 ,UO<l. WhUe It. be.~wn that the dutnllution arenaqq.us In tl,ul typ.. tauuu U Hnr, th!_.,,,,,ptl0 cannot 1,. <1. for the ahear,,,,,,lon htlure a of the inu of the dugonu crack. ; the crack ~1.d..n., there..,d. to 1><1 concentrated roution boat the eompn8uon ~on. above the creel<. Thl. i. further «IIIlPl1cated arenaqq.usg &1=9 th atl occun. /l.t ln tour diu t arenaqq.us ha..e be.,n<le u> tabu.h.. U,.ltlng _ent equauon. no, ( (25). (JO). tn ~ch ca however, the u~ed paratera have ~arenaqq.us., h,' on _plrlcal detenninaucn tl\.!lt It 1. <loubttlther they en be toun<l to be generally ppl1el:>l.,. Hoody'. arenaqq.us, (24), developed {oro.. rl of _1,1,, p8 end arenaqq.used b.a,. wa. found to gle good r arenaqq.us for aerl of t..,_span <:onumla>b b undar ena and rio<> lod (27). Ho.v.~. ~h.n axtended to a ae'l.a ot t~_apan contlnuoua beama unde' ~ltlple polnt load., tha compa'arenaqq.us ot taat to calc\llated arenaqq.us au poor and lnconcludva (8). In addition, the,e Ioma queauon a. to wlletllerch a at,enqth Crite'arenaqq.us be arenaqq.us, alnce tlla arenaqq.us of the ah.., comp'.lon hlluu In _ Itll,,t ~'eb,elnfo,ceroent 11<1. be.n t,,nd to d,,'d on 1\ the load 1. t~arenaqq.us<1 to the be and In fe.. c upon chance locauon of til.,aaqonal cnd<. ll 'ch 11<1. been devot' purily to thedy ot b ltllout web,e1nto~c,.nt. Of tile few arenaqq.uson.

38 0 i S,.. i , I 8, > -,, 8 > ; 5, > ~ 1 ~ I I,,, > &,, > r < & i i >,,..,, 5 > 5, I.. ; I i,, I - i >,.. I i ~ ~ s.., i j,.. 2!.. 8 ;,,, ~ I, >,,,.. 8 t.. B i i I, :,,,, 1 ; >.. ~ <, >, i,.., 5 ;,.. >! I <,! I t ~, -, >! ~, i I t,, t..,! 8,, I I, i I.. I,.., ~ B i B! >,, ~ e,,,,, i ~.. 8, t..,,, i > I,,, 8 >, i.., i ~ 8 ~ ~ I, I ~ I ~, i, ,,,,!, ; 8,..,,.. e,.., i I.. I 8, i.. >.. B.. i.. t..,,,, & : i i ~ ~ 8,,,!,,,,, i ~,,,,, I i ; 1,,..,, i ~ i, ~,.. ~ i,.. ~ i ~ i,.., i I..! I I,..,,.. i,.., l ,, i B, >,, I j!,, i 1 ~.., : -,,.. i ; f

39 of arenaqq.us (9), (16). (23). Yor arenaqq.us th.r. ldc. that the _. of Ullr 1. ho.h r tloiilpreulon. (7), l. Although thlhown (7) to '0 U for I./'o'd ratio. ot 4, 5. nd 7, the ntj..l:>er of tuta arenaqq.us~rltinrorce<l, arenaqq.us b h been ry arenaqq.us Th.r. 18 '..,.,pecuutlon Ill. that tor bell whh h1gh H/Vd rat and.~11 amount. ot w.b arenaqq.uslng, falr. HUI be of arenaqq.us<',1&9=,,1 arenaqq.us type with arenaqq.us yielding i_a<1utdy pon dugonal cr,,c~1n9. The arenaqq.us of b w1th w.h re1nforcement h~. arenaqq.us ben found to '0 oerly conaeratl w1th arenaqq.us to that predicted by the conntlon.l nuu any. It 18 arenaqq.us accepte<l In thl.,ntry that both the concnte COfI'arenaqq.us tone and the web relnrorcement arenaqq.us to the arenaqq.us capacny. The al umptlon 18 that the co/llpreu10n %One will carry the.h r corrpon<llng to th dlagonl arenaqq.us of th bu' without web arenaqq.us'''''t. Stirrup u proportioned to carry arenaqq.us 11'1 xceu of th18 valu /Iow.r. with the prnc. arenaqq.us the.h r carrying cape1ty of the compr10n Zone 18 grtly lncrd. n>1. 18 pnrlly beee or the arenaqq.us to arenaqq.usn of th. diagonal crac offrn by arenaqq.us 11'1 adc1ltlon tlr<up. qraauy incr th <Io'd Cp,,1ty of the '1'11 tu<l1n.l arenaqq.usent quntlty arenaqq.us by th. arenaqq.us of the trun nalogy.

40 8telM arenaqq.us 10 Dtl!9Q Pros;II1IIU. ~l.~oo.l arenaqq.us- b~.o eo~r.l'lloq th. ~t.-cunl of r._reh <~hUd: In ~h. USO'.. arenaqq.us!:>arenaqq.us RIKUnq th. thz _Jor arenaqq.us c:on,r~t. nr~th, IVVd r'llo,d arenaqq.us of tlon arenaqq.us._..t the to obt'l ~arenaqq.ush1p fo~ the dlt'}on.l erac:!<llhj load. Thi. _. arenaqq.us on tht l00)lc'l a>n.l<1tr'uo.. lhat the probl arenaqq.us~. prl..c1ptl tlon productd by c:arenaqq.us'l1on arenaqq.us1 nol arenaqq.us The arenaqq.us eonui tht follovquon.. proporl1ontl to the.~.raq hearl..q.u' over the,arenaqq.us, 1, 21 The tu. btnc1i, nr (f t ' I. proporu'l to th. arenaqq.us l.u (arenaqq.us' by u ot the e~'c:l!arenaqq.us:tlon thtory. 1. f ~ ~

41 til. pnnclpel arenaqq.us point _ed arenaqq.us axprlon for the arenaqq.us _t arenaqq.usl cr.c~_ VC ~ (A., ~) ',., V., a ~ a (A' Vf~ I'~), th<l ul Of til. C'arenaqq.us A'.n I'. Ttl.. parat.u A' I' r. c1'oo._arenaqq.us thet the equauon ytel conuv. UU_t. for the _lonty of the b_.,~ (Sq'n. 4)

42 ~. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us to Include d.t. of o~.r teat beam ~eddltlonal In~t19at10n. 1ndlc.t.d th.t tha equat10n wa. al.e app11cabje to varlou. loadln9 arenaqq.us cond1 tion to ~arenaqq.us ahap..,.nd to _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us'lth arenaqq.us Althou9h the equation 1apHical and aa auch tll<:l to the conditlona of the tun which dlll'ln.. tt. arenaqq.us, It hso a IllUch,r. lo91cal baat. than the COn~n~ tio,l ahear arenaqq.us9n equat10n. Th. the variabl.. Mch had arenaqq.us been shown to affect the arenaqq.us ahear.t d1eqonal cracldng are no 1ncluded. Thh equation, aa arenaqq.us by Coaftitt In th.1r report (1),,a. later adopt.d 11' the ACt Bu11,Unq Code rev1alon ot (3) Th. arenaqq.us ot bmthoutb re1ntor,ent In exea.. ot the duqonal crad<1nq IOSd, exparien.d In baa,a ot arenaqq.us apan not racoqn1ze<! by th.. eltta, Thi. ~ a. prrlly e to the fahnq th.t the condltiona arenaqq.us tma xa. atrength could be fully utlllze<l are arenaqq.us det1ned. In add1tlon. ahear tallurea 11' the arenaqq.us. arenaqq.us rntor,t au audd..n and brittle In natu;re, 9enerally q1v1n9 arenaqq.us little rn1nq. the ultiloata atrenqth arenaqq.us method, To be oon.1atant lth 1t talt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ba provided fot lo.d. In exee.. of that at dlaqonal etae~ing to arenaqq.us mote duetl1. type fallura. Becau.a ot tha lad< of 1>eS, tun ttl.h r relnfore_ent, tha itt <:'OUld not tend any changes In.><1et1nq

43 proc:.dur for proporuonlnq '.b nlnfor_.nt. arenaqq.us ttle 01 trun.1oqy tho<! of'1 arenaqq.us by..h Urnlpa aull r_ln A con Jor,,nil. In the arenaqq.us we. h. provlatoo! on t l at1 cut-of(,.lon ateal now arenaqq.us t arenaqq.us within the t..,.lon zen., unl On. arenaqq.us requlr r ~1. '1. aro from t recul 'Ih In<a<arenaqq.us,,ctton tn ah a _..h ln b dth bare OJ off.t the potnu w!>er. th.y _re no lo'1er n_od to r&.. t.u_

44 .. <, > ~,..,.. > I i I i ~! > i I ~ I ~., 1 <..,.. ~.., < j ~.. ~ < <,.. S I, < S,,!..,.. B i i.., B l.. < I,.. j,! I,.. I r..,.. I B,, i J! < i ~ <,.. 0 I >.. i ~..! i,,,, ~ i >, i I < i I ~ 0,..!..,, i.. ~,..! i < I i.. i <.. <,.. ~ i < I.. I i..,.. I i.. i.. - i I r ~ 1 ~,..!.., 8 I f. g i,,.. < <,, I i!! i..

45 All _loa v,11'- arenaqq.us w1~h one arenaqq.us en.. concentnted l~d (I'll arenaqq.us to the o_chang.d One ('2) to c4ig'10fl bot the IlUpporta. n. lo.i. _..& bht to arenaqq.us Uona tea a_j.d. naq. 'ft>a point load to the U.! be-all _. poall1on.-f to ddopculeauo arenaqq.us nequ.l -.t to _Xl. poaiu. _to Th<O du~ll. ion dl lon. of tl'>e.p.~_. &19 wtth U>arenaqq.us.,._ and arenaqq.us arenaqq.us>_ In 1'19& 5 and Tabla 1. All _sa hood th;> clktangula.. <:cou-a-e:uon. no.. 'Jor un_bi. _ra the la,ti'. of arenaqq.us''' UtI! &=&1>9 of the 10ft91bJdlnal Uon at_), and u.. ~nt 0:' _b arenaqq.us(or 'arenaqq.us tt,. ah_,. apan. roc Onuol pucp_ 0 ~nloll ep..,l _ra t with no a runlorcaen.. arenaqq.us the l,u'o. In te _ O.e lonqltu,'arenaqq.us au a1 _. C\lt oft ha It _. no 10<l<Ja.. r~lr,, to H, n 'Uan. In au atha 1' tt,. atl _. _arenaqq.us the tull length 01 th. t>.o To tut tau to thhpan a,..n arenaqq.us,nt of arenaqq.us._t povided In tha ot>anq and

46 ,,,,, '.! j i 4 I I ' -; ,I f.i! d ' ~ I,,,,, '.,, I',, i,,,., i -:, c..,. l;. ṇ :,/); I ~ J I i j i II.' _. -__..

47 , Hi.j I Z9 :,,''''..~~. U iii Ult.U,, I I mm,uh,.:~< :;;;: i iiii mm l!, I, j,, I!,, I!,. - ~-._.j -!'ijj =it J '.'.'.', i, I

48 in til. ~1I91 oulili. H 1.,. P2' In.4<l1'-1on, th. 'X1 mu. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, M~, waa ~lntaln' iot I 1/2 an 2 tl~.io the,.aimu,. arenaqq.us _ent, Ky' -:hpct ario 9~oupiOd )nu> t1h ri, a.,arenaqq.us u> the len9th o!.h,,~ iopan, Se~lu Sui.. III I 32, (4, ~,,, ~,, ~,,,- 2_No on. hy,~.. U All on,,~.t. aa. with 'TYI'. 1 po~dan,t. \oitll

49 by arenaqq.us4-*arenaqq.us-<lry U..,arenaqq.us lj.~ (c_ent. aand'arenaqq.us 'Ithtu-C_er>t arenaqq.us (/c:-i by..e1,.,ht end. arenaqq.us {accor ot ~o~./~l. 'The r-.a1n1nq b d horter CUr1nq u_. The' th_ cha9~ t.o.o 1,l.6l _lx../c,.sord c:_t arenaqq.us ck./~j. 7.s.y Thl. _1x 9'U_th. o{ co < arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~.re purc:ha tr 1oOIater.. InjUn. Ioqqregat Corporuon. arenaqq.us. Th. ~ <jt tu.o1 arenaqq.us of 1 1/2 0 arenaqq.us1~.. At the arenaqq.us._ tory It.o,arenaqq.ust lnto t Ii~.. to,,,h. '*lre<,arenaqq.us <!url9 hiidl1nqnd r9er th.n 1 0 dl.c.. rd-.l. ay.''lht, 48 arenaqq.us or No. to 1/2,u 0 cofobl<od,, ith 52 percent of 1/2 to \ '~eccordl9 to rur'. ~xlmu in. lir. lou.1

50 NO. ' ',~ Ip<',,' arenaqq.us4 0.' '.' ) ' OJ'.J Th. lor-ql1,,.l relnfarct, hl' arenaqq.usl ><arenaqq.us'<j' propertt.. a1io~ II' Tabl. 3. Th. No <, S, 'n arenaqq.us<l boon u.1id ''ue rolled fr, til. Ole lint. Th. propenho_ r, <Me arenaqq.us from four ~ponl~ted.t r'ndon. A r~arenaqq.us\r.,,-,tr'ln curv. 1ho1ol in H9\u. ~~. endl ~ _,. arenaqq.us Uon,t til,_.itnu 01 ASTfo:_o\J Yield Sun. arenaqq.usi 3. 'ROPiItTI~ of arenaqq.usudiila.l arenaqq.us t'arenaqq.us nr'9u, _1. of I:l'Uitty Il'arenaqq.us In 9 '.' te.],,,

51 'Ill. I/~,Ut.r plun bon uu., arenaqq.us In the ovn~arenaqq.us the 18 exterior.p.n _r. o! ~rd..r.d. nee.! havlnn.' ylald point or ~.ooo p.l 5tlrrvp. In the ~arenaqq.us ~r arenaqq.us ~ 'Ir. (du) obulnod fr_ n QonUn..,ul $ arenaqq.us 1'.oJ<o3o. IndU.. A '_ ot' tm _ atec' rrolll the.. roup arenaqq.us In..h bea. to.t.r. arenaqq.us properu n.v.r propu- U.. of 0. couponrho In 'noble 4. A repr arenaqq.us. rln I_ Ingur. ~6. arenaqq.us. A. TUli; 4. PllOPIlt'i'Ih or THil STJJUlUI' $'UiI. (, k.t Ult1~t. strh I'Iodlllu. or a ulty ka '.1 arenaqq.us:I,arenaqq.us c In th. 3/ plywoo<l roho arenaqq.us, In F1qur. 6. arenaqq.us to th. br.<: four -'i\arenaqq.us' 'arenaqq.us ue pl.,.ron tt\<o top to arenaqq.us'lt ~lng or ttl arenaqq.used Into. r<1 '9. Vi th therrvp. arenaqq.us th. lon9ltll<l1 _1. To pi<arenaqq.us9. the tr to IH O hooi< atx:> In rt9r. 7. < bent Stirrup bent

52 I'la,Jlli 6. Vl~ FIlJOJI: 'I'D CASTl..

53

54 arenaqq.us. mini,, of 1,, cl'r arenaqq.us IongHudln1 bar. and 1 1/2 concr..t.. cov..r on thld Th.. uble<i relntorcln<;l ca<;l placa<'l on riqld n cmlre to prov1de 2 el r cov..r on th.. bottom of thpecln arenaqq.us dl.- pl.. nt of th.. '1 <'luring pounnq.. arenaqq.us<:l by ~'irlng it to th.. arenaqq.us to th.. fot th.. top. Th.. oncret.. forch eplmen puce<l In thr equu bati\ T..u 6 x 12 ontrol yllnd..n were Ul<en fro,ch bath. Materiah for all thr..e batch w.r. welgh..d prior tonq, nd the total ti for phc nt wa arenaqq.us 1 1/2 houri. 'ch batch thorouo;hly mlx<><l tor a_io minute In arenaqq.us; drum mlxu. 1\ 3/' arenaqq.us vibrator u.&<i <'luring th.. placinq of th.. concrete In th.. for,.e. Th.. I1d.. fo wer.. remov..d twenty-cr houu after caat1ng. Thp'I.. alon\1 ~'lth control cylind..r., ~..r.. re<'l,,er mout burlap for 5 an' 12 day. for the nd 14_day r arenaqq.us One d.y prior to tunq th.. burhp ~'U r,ec that the bm could be prepared tor te.t. A IlaldWln hydraulic te.t1ng arenaqq.us. of lb. cacity _<1 In th.. tt1nq proqum. II qenul view of.. _.. In teat po.1uon 1ho~. in n!l'h 8. H\JUr.9 'II v.. th.. d._ tuh of the loadln<;l arenaqq.us arenaqq.us teel nraln. ~'''reured by Type A-Ill $'-4 arenaqq.us ';1'1 mounted prior arenaqq.us Thee re pperb8ck

55

56 , '. : o' 0' o. ' o. g. o' 0', ' r.,.' ~i.0, =::I, b,,,; :,,., - '..,,.,, 0,,- f \ 0,, 0,,,,

57 ~~9C. of IIp' 'lege arenaqq.us, The proc~r u.~ for ~ntln9 endterproof1n'l' ere In Append1 8. arenaqq.us r,oeded wlth IloOlclwtn _.1 t, arenaqq.us In,Hetor. '>10',,,', nui,,_ In the lonqltudlal rintoedq ere..h! only at the eltc'uon of>< _«le. In ell but t e the '1''1'. >;,ore loe.t~.or J 1/2' frq<ll the ntet_ H of pport To obtain am{\iete _terproounq.. 1ftl'ilth of 2 1/2 to ) of arenaqq.usclno;j blot owe. with an phalucterprooun'arenaqq.us rique. 7. a telt UlAt l! '. 'ore arenaqq.us In li'arenaqq.us the of bor.d would algue>ontly _Ueet _. arenaqq.us Thh effect atrorqly In,arenaqq.us In _ la end I.~l. or. tooo '.9a were phced.t I' and 2.' fr_ thevo'ort.!otraln <)'J _re.1_ ntc on ntrrupe U, the crluch ann,.pn. jtn.,. li'l 9'9 'a pia.. at Ule poir.t ~ llen U,e duqal en xpecud to cr eurrop. the '1-'1_ 1oe_Uon. _r. 1_ tor H 1n,HIU _. on u.. r.a. arenaqq.us!met ~rh. arenaqq.us 1n ttl.,t,non =n. er. _ed.t 1 1/2- t ttl ppon ><1ttl. oll1u.., '1eg_. n. arenaqq.us1._fliote _ to ttl. net Inc. it '1.'1. pointe 1/1 ttllek _beddl 1n ttl. COnCt. to,ti. u.. l'.ltt.., ''1 11'n1cel po.1uon. of th 'IiI.'I. pointe arenaqq.us4 't! _. to _., u!o the pat1h.. 10Ci1.t1one il.l_ <1,,1_ on the et:.eu. d< piottn

58 l>4ill-et1on. unu the ove~,nq 'e~e ~.. 'lth , rltdenl 9a,..,.uppon~ arenaqq.us1~ pedl. run, on the tloor. t.o.d applied to til. _. In Inc~_n' ot to liv. kip.. In the ~ly.'1u 0: l<mlotlr>g fl,. Up 1nc:~_''''~. u.e<'!. the l\1a'lu c:r;o.a. beqan to to~ the c:~e~,,arenaqq.us ~_c:ed. A! ~ th. appllc:.uon of eoc:!'l loooc! 1c:~_..,t the loooel 1ntUned c:onnt. arenaqq.usl an' elflll.c:tlan chd1n,c. reeoc~ed. arenaqq.us:. c:cr. c:arenaqq.us tnc:ed,en<l thei~ arenaqq.usn at c:h <1 _arenaqq.us the U<I.. of the be<1 arenaqq.us arenaqq.us painted ~'ltll arenaqq.us ot -rle.n<l qc1<1de<'l to tac:lllt.t. tcac:lnq the c:~ac:k arenaqq.us~na. Thr.e c:ontrol c:yl1nan for aac:h bn arenaqq.us in c:oo'p~ldn and thc arenaqq.us An O eunloloetu ' attlc:ha to two ot the c:otapcn c:yllndan toc OIO<Iul. ot.1i1t1c:arenaqq.ustlen.

59 .. Table S ub,arenaqq.us _ry or t.1i. puu..,t arenaqq.us tor.u I'I>oto<jph.. ot the _ art arenaqq.us_ in <gul 10 an:! !Jtrillin an:! d,uo __U for..,ii _. are pr tltd u;>lucally In thletion and..a 9'''.'' 1 U1bllhr to ' Appendi e. In arenaqq.us,.. bri.t d.,rlpuol> of ell tea in arenaqq.us corrdet.. ther/lad _OJIJru ith th.. PC09r.l<>n of c<:i<.,<1 vnh p«rucuhr ob.. tto _de during the t All lo.,,!. rported herd,arenaqq.us the loa. appl1lt<1 by the luting,,,.,, The dead weight of th.. loed!,!bly an b. obtain, from Hgure 9. roi be_ita withaut web rdnforcement til. 10lIO<1 at 10'_ UOn of the <luq..l arenaqq.us creel< 1 OIOet c lly determined. The eltecta or th.. crack'. penetration lnto on :ton. ere 'l.n Uy i dute. Ito.'uer, lor b arenaqq.us hrq,nt. ot 1> ralntorc_..t the n_r cl1nch~iu_. 'ln~iol. iord io diocln1u arenaqq.us l eucj<1n'l loa<t _. OCt.. <t1!f1cult to <tatan-lna. For th.1a c, thoa arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us<1rq load 1_ dan ned harain._ th. load at arenaqq.us th. erluolll dta9o&! ec_a o'arenaqq.us:l to c ttl.

60 - k_ Vltl_.. Aotulq lpI_ arenaqq.us ~ It, <, -, _1 -, ~.-, -, , -. -, -, '- I -, -, , -. -, ~ _'U WH DII Su ', C..<\I., -. (Up.) (\1,.), (pal) ~,,_.,,_.,,-,,,-. 6} ,,-.,,-,,,-. ~}.o,,-,,,-.,) } '-.,,_. ' '.~ ~. ' ' ' ' '. m m (,ai) ' on.»».,.c., S.C.,.c ',~ D. T. Un D.T. k..,., '' ' ' D.T. ~, D. T D.T. D.T., D.T. S.C.-'.T. TI_I ' ' s.c.,.c. D.T. s.c.,.c. arenaqq.us I ra 1_,..L :~.. '.C. '.T. T_ ~1 o». D.T nt.n m D.T nt ff T I.,, ( ,r )

61 rioou B5AA$ AlJ'1ll TUT _ $arenaqq.us I I\HD II

62

63 Ho eutnl _><1. for th_ of thl. arenaqq.us'ijuon U'lT t too fro- tm co-prlot1 Uc ;ru.. J ~ral cr.~.t II fr' the ~~pport. ~. ~.ll Into the co-prlon r*>n.t ~ ' 3r}<. Ho_v.r e1qnltlcant _che<!. t P ' '<.pUnu alo,!, tm re<!latrtbutt ot.t fie! not ocellr nul. 10<1d or ton thrhout the ah'r apan,.. Ine!arenaqq.us<l the atnt etreln ne of i'19ure IIoU U.., a l1,n1fl. Cant break In the I v <IetlUon curv. or F1<J1. u. Concr.t. comprlv. atrajn. at arenaqq.us~.. rlber. arenaqq.us~ axi~.. of ~lco lnche. per InCh (arenaqq.us t, arenaqq.us<l MIll.t P, and then arenaqq.us~ npldly lth and 2.I>ova tho bot..,. aur!.c. ~er. Inl1Ul!nce<l y the e-p p«>.tnu 01 th.. cu<:lc ane!,r. arenaqq.us<arenaqq.us a 1.,. of J6k. lb_v.r. It 1.!;<!ll,ecl that chlf\9 In thu reg-ion the p..l_ry ceua. of arenaqq.us ThPP''''nc. or tm _ at coll.p _. arenaqq.us to that of _.. III. In IIIl-I

64 .. n.. _.e, d1l arenaqq.us c~.c!<.dop.1 1n t-h. aa_arenaqq.us in la-i: N,t. tmt It ~hllt* lli9~t1y <:l~ to the Fl'Oet adduhtly h19h a. It p,._ arenaqq.us i~..,tly abof! the 'ppget bloc':. At. ~ x..,k aputun9 cuc1< ~. ol:.erv.., o t t.e tm polt of lr>flote-.m_.ton. - loadin<s arenaqq.us<l, IplltUn'l arenaqq.us Into the poa1n raor,.nd.t )')1< hoo,urde<! to the othu load arenaqq.us, ~in. _ l.~gncr 1n dclectlon.c~nled arenaqq.us nd ~arenaqq.us~ o~!;ond Concrou coctp~ell1v nrlnlin.j practlclly con. arenaqq.us!ro/ll thll poit nul the hit arenaqq.us<]. erl Uk t 54 k, A. 51 k dllgon.1 crack tormed In the polltlv. mcmanl e''llon, Jun peloe to tul,,~e arenaqq.us. le<]e ae ot arenaqq.us to.h.. load 1',.PP~' to bul,!- arenaqq.us arenaqq.us otr, At collp.,arenaqq.us ab,,, the bottal 1\.1 to u..,teelor eupport. ivtdf!ntly fallr. _. p~i_r11y due to '.hi, ot the Penllon arenaqq.us to tl':e load,,. I\o'..e, 0 I\.UIeet.,e , In th1. reqion.

65 n.. ltUI dl&<]on&l tuon cnet< crouloll arenaqq.us'<1. arenaqq.us JOk. lot;. ~~ ~ )6k '''''' arenaqq.us Inc.1lr&<l crack. l>~.n fol tt n_t i..u..,uon 1>oth ~_rd th.. 1I0rthn &..d la_rd U <'1 pol..t. 1>2' The load ~.ll ot: arenaqq.us boll.n ~ open nouc..l>ly. A _><,. Id of ~ _. ' &lch U. lllee. two cr&dpli'arenaqq.us thrh the _,.,. d1&'\.l crack..~arenaqq.us tha c,proplo.. %On. &t At 37 tile crack arenaqq.usd rapl11y arenaqq.us til. te.._ioed..,.,vu.. <:oncrettra.n on tile bo..o, deer dlqlltly fro, 37 '0 3 and arenaqq.us =nlt~..t alx>u. lui p lo th arenaqq.us th<lir<j _t.t<. ;,<k Iral lor.g' IplitUn.. cr.. a~ at Intuval Lon.. tha arenaqq.us arenaqq.us&<l rd the load poll'll. At the hort tin. c,,,. pplnr&<l i.. the arenaqq.us ~n Mlo.. th.. o( u.. arenaqq.usl en. Thl., pi. arenaqq.us 01 of arenaqq.uslon poi.. t. Indl.,.t ~b.'.'arenaqq.us'rlb..l ( the lou of 1>or.d tn. arenaqq.us Crac!<U><J.,,4 IOpIIllln9 ov.t oil _11 _r hel tn e:>d 01

66 .. the crack conu,',.. Vl~ l~d InerIt'l. 1 app..r. ene.. et collepe arenaqq.us th.t arenaqq.us ~. by Ihl..r. arenaqq.us Uk.. thollt ld,ced Ir IUI e.e l..,<;e arenaqq.us It.r''ln. e,e '*<>Dtded. _.. la-i (~ itl,,,,,p 2 LaY'll,e of arenaqq.us' ited) of no t._~lor of th1. _rly 1<Ie.l to tnt ~_II U>y..n of '1''''''1 it_i) The dl.~or.l tenlon erek fo~.r~..t. 12 k loeted ~eh arenaqq.us fr~ th.. luppert. arenaqq.us In.A-l nnd. llovdopooent arenaqq.us rapid, a1lun arenaqq.us dden.t P _ 14 k.,t..u ~4IrY IIIJch Uk arenaqq.us fluure 1n the I>N of long.r Ihe<tr p.n. In thu p41,ueuhr bnii train ~.ge cre phc-.l OUt In t.h Ipn (on.. at l~' an one at 24 fr. thupport.l no. pr ee of t y hii~e M<'l.1'arenaqq.us or. th.. ' uon of the crek an. In turn, On tha bolly of the _.. to reh _ 10rce equil1t.h _Iter &9:)<'&1 craclr.1r>q.

67 - 1- ' ~, :. I LILUIT' arenaqq.us' L, 1. r +' J 11'

68 f - ~ dtt ',I..

69

70 [l:l:vi'hr;l+ :j' T- t3=l+-l'~::;~:~j,~-~'if~f_y:~~ -iit ?l ~ ~; -d~lf_-: -, ~'~'je~~~;,h~p'~~~t'±'t I, I I'TI, ' - I~} I '11'1 ',;, ii, It 'I 1', ',_ 'it~

71 H~',

72 -[dt[i:;~!l ~-,., _ , _- -_ _,

73 - ~ _,~. ~ --_.- -, - _ ~ _,r,, ',..

74 II i' :~?.tf],, ,..' ~ -Q--\~ tl ~_.___,

75 -~.',~J7]' -~, , _

76 _.. r ~ -,.. '.!'T ;!v{'~=,.,, Q'~~' I..' ~. -~ ~ ~ ,,' '

77 -~'--''j',,=,=,.._~-~~..~.~~_,',. l:.>(. j -., ~ ~ ~ ;:'; ~.( _,

78 liff! P nrueal!lo:ural ~'l cue (riqu,. 31). arenaqq.us ddoped tnto til. fiu.l , arenaqq.us c:r.<::ic, surtlod at. _boon 12!r.. ttlppon., arenaqq.us to.. 4~O arenaqq.us~t.h. an'!..d«l arenaqq.us for tpport.. Yr_, ' Ji< to l..l< 0>,. &..,,,,,,.1 CUd< arenaqq.us Into t.m eo. ptnnan Ulf>_ to U.h1n 2 o! t.h. ~rtu. hee, arenaqq.us hiiel< at 45 to.. <w-pth to t,.ton ne.i,.,,<:1 \oldened.,.,aiduably. 'MHa _. aha.. nou, d<ocr In the attft ot t.~ A!; b_a. J,.hort. incl1ned<:1<. beqa arenaqq.us_''1 the t.~.lon & At 40 thl.'pllttl9 t~(i1od arenaqq.us~h the POint ot tn!lecu, to the other 10'1,1 point. At thie potnt, the load dropp, ddenly to k, end thebtu, erncke, t<><;lnller,,lth arenaqq.us In diegonel crael<, arenaqq.us Ide, 'roro tht. point On. the concrete etrotna at I' abo. the botto~ suruce Inered rapidly. Hovu, U on th.. bott' So.. I'1qurn 2&..n<l Flqr plot c>f th. ouunt arenaqq.us J 1/2 tre. th pport..t arenaqq.us'. < At lo~ 1.,.<1. th. <lhtub>tlon _. nrly liflelor. 1'h.. r,,utrlb>tion of arenaqq.us follow1n'l arenaqq.us of th. <lu<jnl cr_.:t< 1nto tlw co-. prnu.,.. ~n. 1. l,.:!1c.t. by _.h1!un'j ot U1 arenaqq.us _xl_ to,.., t _ at ~ n<l Je. At)Ok, th. <1 at

79 10Ihich thplltur.9 <:'<:1<. app fuhmr u;arenaqq.us <:'UH ed a1on'1 th.. tension nee!. th.. poln. at _>< arenaqq.us _. flo. lon9 at 01 exu_.. tlben. UIU fehur by ruahln, of til. arenaqq.us bolow the _<I of the du9oniol,ck at.f!< u.. I of.. of th.. OM.r of SOOO lui on the el<te. I\owevllr. a. Ule 10&/1 of.j< _Utn-<l. arenaqq.us 9r.<arenaqq.us au. BM,. _2 Into the coolplon zone end ext6ndllcl back t.o th.. tenelon U I at th ,. P '!'he peetnuon of bottl crack.. 'nile.. tnt.<> th.. -Pre.!,, ZOn clearly r><>t rapid that ot bh. 1I~1 'Hhc:lut surrup_. ole th.. 1.''1'' cr (Flqur SUrt'U;> (t) ch.-l yield auetn at the loll ;! In eddhlon. du' al'jiuet b'mit In the

80 arenaqq.us,,. other arenaqq.us aurrupa, ccoued by tim cr _ yleldl,! at 4,1< and 44 k By 46 k th. act< _. do to arenaqq.us one lrch of thepe,.!. hce.\1.,.t % aplhtiro <&<:1<_arenaqq.us9 the tenuon nee1 beqa.. to by the pc,,,. or aurrupa, H load PO'''l t:y,.. 55 a,<1., to Ule other 1>ot~ b*;la.. pickl up re!iiiu. to th.. uu,,,.. at xtr_. tibe, ~ thle _pl'tt1,! occur I~. 'ique.. 2~.1 At th.. uln.t. load of '- arenaqq.us analna of 'UI 'arenaqq.usd at t1,. 1/2 <;1&'- Una a.. d cn,ah1n9 0. th. 10 I 1/2 to,. _OOn follo. notlao from Ylque.. 2P that th.. point of arenaqq.usne<arenaqq.us neuony!rom P uk to tauu a arenaqq.us appro po_iuon 11> T!Mt cehtl.k cro..' u'e arenaqq.us at J$k. but rurthe.. 1c,. 1n looll:! (oco' S!)I<) woo.. requ1ia1 to u:t_ It ~ to the tenuon

81 iiinp lel tillt Un.. t.o yield a SOk. 'hlt arenaqq.us t,.unph.u ylelc a 56 k ancl k. lliltlt Vl'JUu p'''''i ~h Ulit 1ncIn.. 01 aunp bit. _Uclltub1y d.l.y.,arenaqq.us dl<t. Itxt<1 lnt.<> UI. poitluv. _.. ra):lon nul n&o IU_t.1t lcad..t. k arenaqq.us._alo baq.n t.o 1'<1, (F.9U. 23). arenaqq.us~a aa.1ao Incrnq arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lead Cf1q1J. Ul..n:f arenaqq.us over tillt lor 1/2 ppren..!a k 1\&<1 be_,. for -., <.1_. (lie. T.l:>l. In Appen<llx C.l Col1.p.1t follo~.t. 6,t. The aftec.. o~ ha of web ra1!orc On ~.a arenaqq.us ot.r.'na tol1o nq dl.9o.1 erackl'] can bn by c::arenaqq.usq rl'.lr.. 2~ a..d 2~. ll'arenaqq.us In _3 did not. oecur any great. arenaqq.us un lr~p. ara ylltldlng a.. k. I'arenaqq.us CrOll F1qure 29 hahe h19h arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us th. arenaqq.us tlbltra _~ a. notl In b..~a IIB_l and _2 _..a not. aldent. in beam 11&-3, at._l <l1d not. allo arenaqq.us acuo<l. arenaqq.us or the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ofb relntor t. la, 1n<'lICOt.' by arenaqq.us loa<l a. dauect1o<l curvlta of Fig '''. t&l0<i cr.. ' t, _a grltdu.l1y arenaqq.us arenaqq.us load lnc.-waed. The arenaqq.us apac'.urnlpa of

82 .. df!! lecuon,,,'er arenaqq.us,. apace<! <l1'ilon.. } cr.. (F1q.,re lei ero..' tnt.<! th. C'OlIE'arenaqq.us re<;ion arenaqq.us-., the l~ of 3SI<. Th. U'O htu, I cos thpport,arenaqq.us op«led ~i<'l. Olt failure. an. 01 Ut arenaqq.us d.!1oltelyoclated wittl eh u.-oh an d arenaqq.us to o:lth1 1/2 of the ~arenaqq.us lace Olt SOk. Both arenaqq.us 'uti 'l'aqu yielded at < _ 5~k dh'jo,n type lal1r. ,,_ ott S,at> both cnck. <)pltnlrq ld.. arenaqq.us 'Urely ctl'l'h th.. b,. Con. arenaqq.us r~lned 10 adjacent to the.,ppott. Although tl'l. _. of fatlur. of u,a bum quit. <arenaqq.us!c, iu companion beam Uhnlle:! neel (HB-3J, ti,. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~. nurly the prior to latll1' rlqur 23, 26, 20, and The lo.~ deflection eu of ', howeyer, In<'llcate.. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us 'Ie foll~-ln9 fo~tlon of t~e dle90nal cra~. B-. 1Ill-5 (Ifo Stlrrupa - Lc.c>:;ltu,hnat Steel Qlt-otJ I e dla'lonal crado (Plre lsi foe<l at 2S alcm<j th..

83 ~. psth lib_i. At 29,11< the creek ~. ~lthln 1/2 of the bot~ 'n~.,,1iitl'1 oecl:lrr~ Uon'.! th. _ClOd to U,. eut-o!f. Th fell,entll' to i<. Lo&c!. ''IS in Inc:re<t to <.t'l1ch U t;oth top boopht out.j

84 ..

85 -e I -I,, I,' c.., -, 1 I,,,-, 1-+- ' : r-'- ~ -' I ' I -.',, -J Hc--~ f,-, -,, I: $ ~L'- 1,'-' Fie 'I:: ' L-JI-i'-i-_-.L-L'-J U 'l'-.l-~~j.'arenaqq.us-,,--,,- ~L'_h ū,,-,'1_--'arenaqq.us-.j'

86 Lf-_, -., 1-,[, 1- ~I H:iH,,cf+cl-.,;:: -,;- -.+;, j,., h1~:-'-, '.,:c+ - c., ',,±jt P,.

87 ..

88 _..,I

89

90 i ~

91 : ~ I- _,.-' loll,

92 It.d\-t~JJ. ,- -~..~~ _.~ _.,,.._.-, -_,,, ~ ~..,.,'

93 , J.. ~. ~,. -_.- ~,.._ _. ~ ~.'. ~.. r ~ ,..

94 ~,!f _' ;../J. t ; ;. - _.. _._._0','

95 <.',,, l.,;. ~_ -,,,,~,. ~,-_.,~ - ~ ~, ~,. - 1 ~mi&li.{j' ', _, _. _.f'- ~,-_ -, -~, -_ ~._.- ~~-_., ~, ','

96 .. - -,. ~ I -, _. /,, -.n, _~.~

97 lip to the load P w J6k the nxu l cradle ~d petlet-rateol no arenaqq.us the d~th t.o the cnet<arenaqq.usl u;a f the ~r1y. fa.,.l. $e Y''JUe as. At)6k.. arenaqq.us~ct lncllr~ creel< ptr.t~ deep Into Ute arenaqq.us loa One (arenaqq.us 1 1/2- of a>-r'a'. on ttl arenaqq.us' nil ext_<ied beel< 'rda the t,..,,,len tl. Including the ~ 0: the exjatlnq ll~r.l cr.~. h~ nil ery.,e dl9onal telon tllp tuire c>e<:urrfll!..!tie o! nuin! with lottie ~' at Ura Complete.~arenaqq.us thetl took piece _I.e arenaqq.usouely lth arenaqq.usble 1denln'l or.,arenaqq.us of the,n90,,_1 cne!<. ThU arenaqq.us undlrable type of tail, occurring 'Ill> v y IHth 'nlng. There..u no nouc b1e lou In etilln he the,hqonel cueir. fol'llled at J6k (llee ilgure )'1). Prior toihp.. the..e no In<He''ticn lIg lailu, Un. the crlt1cd c~.d< only hli1run. in,,~. Ilea.. Irl1l-2 _vlo~ or thi. ~ at low 1 tully i'uc.l arenaqq.us tl>&t of EN. &-1, Ttl. crlucal 1~or.a1 eu<:i< fo~ at th 1<>11, P w k IS.. 61'l11r. '6),

98 tlowev.r. in arenaqq.us n<>t quh. arenaqq.us 1n IIlIl_L,o~tlon or the crluc,,1 Cr'ck OCOJrr 'fter th.. loe of J6 k hood ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us!l' U. Non the 19 incr 1n UlnUn of 'Urrup. lbl 'nd Ic:) 11'1'1r. 3) 'nd the Incr' dueeuon CI'1r. ]9).ft.r the d1qor.l c:reel< hood fo,. CIt> the _arenaqq.us Ul. dl'.!.l cr''''' 'arenaqq.us'uon of the tlr.q U r arenaqq.us ere, r on _arenaqq.us. It ~r.t. r:'l c<'i the Un,..l encl<. rolto><1n9 the fot1on of crltlc.l dl91 cre<:k. the stlrru. etfecuvely _lnulr' b ctlon. n by only ht decree.. In atiffn,,1 by the Iln..r loed_.t_1 nrun no. I r1qur. JEI. itir,..,p Ie:) be9n yl.1dln9.t l'. arenaqq.us thl. OCOJu.t1rp Cb) l>e9'n picklnq up rain arenaqq.us At 4~arenaqq.us Ib) yld. th. loe r orr to 5nd the I'']onal cnc Ipllt arenaqq.us throuqh the b,.. No lurthr Incr In load could Stirrup C.) ' not al:eet..d by the crhlc.1 dh'jon'l cr I'UIrntHUy th. dlqon arenaqq.us typ. UHur a in Il IIIIl_l. occurring 'fter arenaqq.us' c:ro, by the c:r'ek hood yl.i'. In thl. partll.. r te.t the loed r 'arenaqq.us 1<..,d of , hooci been WU., bee. _. th r'loedad arenaqq.us to f'l1r f'lqur l Jo._ the arenaqq.us. in t:elor bet_ the rc:rea<ad.t1on (1nlt loe.i1';1)

99 ,f-9~ PU U'0 IlO ~o<.n 'I~ AU'Td~_ \1:>_ dn P'lPld.p,. ~'0 _ 'Rnl'''':>'''':) P1 a, ~:>.. I~' IItp,d.~ p'~:>u,.utrn~>uo:>.'0 UOPTPP. UI -ltlaul_, IJR_~nH.; t.~nx.h PUR ~..~Rdd_ ~~oddl(arenaqq.us An:»arenaqq.us~:> ~'U.\ll 10 1I<I'''.Pl'' '(~Sl arenaqq.us O'l un6e'l. P'I 1.U. UOl~.\ uoo..~nln~ l. arenaqq.us' ~arenaqq.us Ul.r >P.~:>.'\j.L '.dol. l.u ~~,,.. ~. 1l. arenaqq.us \I~ p.j_o'l ~arenaqq.usn' 0'l> 'l:>u:> OU.l 11I00n>'arenaqq.us \1' lv 'xgg 0' x.s, U!J Pl., ~\I:>va.J '1'. 11Ilpn,!oUOI Ill Il OUOI. '(Q) p {) OliO Il.d'UI arenaqq.us '~-'IIl, AlI'ldll.J, Vl '_Il1 ~O~:> '1:>':> w'j:>ut..,,6i!q.'.l arenaqq.us1~arenaqq.usu.~.l}tp l ~ UO'~dco:>.\I~ O::arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Il:>' '~'O;.lP.J:> nl '\:. '>p..~:> Uual 11I_.,P 6\tn }O uono;arenaqq.us, lou H PTd\1' U~arenaqq.us ;0 ''''--''>Ul.I..l. ILl<.~n6U) t1iu,,_;.s 01 peo.;..t/l S,. lrd. ~'' I RdI! dtu.. U (-tlih,,_ I (6ul:>1!'de:.t/l ~.dru,'ls }O.1;., :> \llith) ('lith u~:>o~d n JIq pel:»n. Alq1ll.,.ddll ~ou ( :>.n 1'''''1 61'1:>':> arenaqq.us'.'P _.Ill ''''11 '.:>1P! XCZ ;0 I.'n puoaa'l fg I pu ' 'I~' JOJ.u,.llJ. liil11i1.j) =11'. 11'.'1:>':> Attn;.\ll PUR

en>.mnlj _. ~bh on t.h at _I. ov.~ th. 1o, 1/2, Aa load furlh_.. lncr ed arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ipr.. <Jt.~arenaqq.us thl bon.,. to th..t.1 UIUt. '.Uure by arenaqq.us of <:1'1 conc:arenaqq.us in lohl lower 1 1/2 to 2 at the a..,tionj.,ent t.o the Ilppon. fb~..r. indication. Wire tmt the,arenaqq.usl cral< also l>ad hcve ankt. At ltl_lot ''' duoj'onal cracll; _. th. only On. U> ope leidy, In ado'lt1on. It two. b_.he that loki arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us over eelon r~ln. lin_ in..!laxural tulu 'or U.U ~. Ole 'Unlte concentruon of e<iiiprl Uin 0. the 10_r 1 _..<'I an In<'l!cauon tholl. the dlau-uuuon _. ot conti, hjt hroj<t _bout 2 _bo th. bot..,..,. Ilqure arenaqq.us, the ~. of fulure for t1'\1_ b_ ld bl. be dcrlbed a. II c:ooohin&uon.h..r-<:collpr arenaqq.us Ur.i e,on. ~ri of the l_ci t dluio<:uon <:t,:rvl (1'19Ur. 3'11 of tlu. _. lo. u.-~ of _ lu8_arenaqq.us_ 9r..~.r duetolny or _ nr.. iippelur><j rulrt BIB_) _. loa'''' by. arenaqq.us!. lner. ln d.n..,uon. TIl h<nr tulr. of _. UI, ho~.r,eh _rt brntl. 1,b,lr >ry linl. _rnl1>9 0' l-p-rdl9 '.ltur UU_4 ( rcenu9. of 5tlrr\lp. - 4, Spa.,t9) 'nl. cnck dl_..l or UIB_4, i'lqur. 48, _. 9rdu.t du. lo It.. 19 arenaqq.us or _b arenaqq.us!orc_et.

'rhr_ '1l.9On.l uck. beg.n pntln the arenaqq.us tone on the dd. at a ld or J!>II: 'nl.. cu. nnl ' ph,,_ent on d> ~. ot arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ito) ~ pl<:kl,,'l arenaqq.us pldl\, 3Sd _. d>. ttnt to arenaqq.ust s<c1i:. stirrup. Ie:).rd Cd). ~rth out t.._ d> pport (5ee ''' yield' l d. ot 70'<.nd ; p Udy. '.e arenaqq.us -.'. e. not cc toy the c<ttlc.l <jOn.l whlchqaln ndd nuln In the 10nqltudinU_ reached load or 67' co'p*red to yield load ot ss'< In a IIIB-J. Altheuh the ned 1ncr, arenaqq.us the load ot 6t' _ Iad arenaqq.us (!'Iqu u.. con_ a.p lvtr.i~in'arenaqq.us and eqltti1torl tor'. At ' ot 6e k arenaqq.us1. I both the arenaqq.us lind the «arenaqq.us COIOplon zone ' Inlnpidly con t..a1n ot J2C1<l arenaqq.us thu load u t he. SI<;1n. ot cruahtnq t>eca,. 1atbl. 0' the 10 1/2 a. the l d of 6~1< '.Ulned equl_ l1tort &<;lain arenaqq.us ar.d.., load _ pplled. Tl>. _ cou.p.c 70'< the cont. o.r the 10_ 1 1/2 to 2- _. arenaqq.us ellur arenaqq.us U l tn w arenaqq.us th aqal concentr.t1, otp h. atreln oye..

.. tt, /arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us.n lndleuon th<ot. th. 1Ibutlon ofin t.h. eoocuon not 1Ir In _. IUB_J the IIU90n.1 ee!< op-.d '.t hilur. :~ t' Ined pereenu ~'.l> at r..t n<i,d t.h. p arenaqq.us of u erd< coooparild t.o _ 1II8-I. nou e.n arenaqq.us In Pl<JUr. 41 by e<loiprl'l' te arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us u.., _'. at eoq:>oible l~/i 1M' UI8-S I/IUI with tt of the ~lut fou. b arenaqq.us At I' w JO k 10<]arenaqq.us~ l~ellned e d< ~ arenaqq.us arenaqq.us') the arenaqq.us d at th.. cut!! P'''nt. '/'he eraek ep thn nt\arenaqq.us only arenaqq.us' ~. arenaqq.us Th.. 'n In arenaqq.us UrNp lel iner frooo 0 to MIt loa Ine<I. the eek arenaqq.ust a arenaqq.us to Within I or the e~r.i f.e. at the yield I~d arenaqq.us' lei.,,, SOk. / arenaqq.us tyr. lehura oeeu~ at ~'l.6k. when t~ia arenaqq.usy th.~,qh tta

,,e fgt-nlon of the <!Uoqor>Ol arenaqq.us<.on,1& occurred arenaqq.us.,.,dy at Wk. (See 1' SOl nil,h. :'Il1Jonel tendon cud<. n.t_lon In the,,,renton 10<'_ of.. ne l U'e!<arenaqq.us _. Initiated at U'e cut-o:t point of the top a.._1 in the tlon r~lc,.,,u. the _. of UIl t.h<o u co-panu, BoP, JIIith nl lui ed thro'lhaut the full lft'')th of til. t the nun'l'tl\ _. arenaqq.us*'. The ld at <<'_1 <:U<:l<1r,~ r~,,' fl'olll :>6 t.<> 30 ad-iu_t. load ]()k. _,u IIII. 2. and 3 &\' of t1'l three b <ii'!l'ieu.1 to that nr Beam rub_i, (P1<JUr 51, 52, and 53lx.,,,,,t u,a.. U,ey 'ere al'l'arenaqq.us &arenaqq.usr bflo,. In thla aultunly Uh Ule fo..,arenaqq.us or UI..& &1 arenaqq.us cuc~. ~. other t, _tre<! dl'jhtly load <.han tnt at.1!\1ell the <UiIoqel tude ptute<l til. a:ooprlon zoe. _1>'. arenaqq.us t>eoo;un.., I t.h 1'arenaqq.us>l. W1d.n.~'i of th. du'iof1u <1. prior to ulua

, - I~ I,I'-II 14 C'.. 1 ' I_~ I'., 1. 1, I,~, I -~--

, _.r ~_:-;., I I -- h-h.. _ -=,. '~, :,- I..

f -'. ' t'. - t

i

:;;- ~~~,

,-' ~c +'~. -, _of'''': :t: : arenaqq.us arenaqq.us:-~O~~ ;JIt! 5K;1 ~ _..! _.{ I arenaqq.us' ';,,

,-,_. -.' _~ _ p

.,., ~,.,._ ~~ _. '.,_, ' ,<,.~.-+- ~, I~..,.,

~ ~'~.<; ;.,.:, ',' ~.. -,. -,',,.~. ~.y.. _., L ~ _._' l,,~.. _ -cr~~\iil~jlzf&!.. 2J\~!J tl -.''<';'.,, ~ _. J I : ,.~,'''/'-.m_- --;. '.- -_,,, M..

u ~ ~.~ ~._-,.~ -,.,.~ -~ ~ ~.'..',,- 'w _., ~~~. ~' -'_.~,.,'.~,, :mf.,,,

,,- _'.'..,- _..~ _.-'.-'1.; n~j.1!tl.;~':zr~~. ~ _.._- _, ~ , ~ ~._~. - _.- '.' _

- r i _.- ,~, _/. _,, _/' r,i _ <' -,.,.. I

J '''' ~.. ~ EwYb?~c:'(}1If dj' _.,., ' - -,.. J ~ ~ -.

'1!~'.LJillilt:nl'::lt};<Ji, fsfm,._ l., ',

, Tf1ja:kj:l!fS~1!Z.~' w,.0 _._ ~-' _~, _-~ _-~, m..,.,,,0,,,.,..,.. c'.-, T,_.

' DIllCUsstON 91 arenaqq.us R&5t1LTli Mo~ of Failur, The behavior and mechenlem ot fellure tor b..m. with arenaqq.us arenaqq.us In the critical,h..r 'pen 'greed generally wtlh that <'I'crl~ by other InvuU9<>ton. (6), (23). (2~). PI!. {29/. 'revloue tut, by. both Monow (2~) an 8or (6) In<11,.tl<l arenaqq.usn tulure tor arenaqq.us bdow approximately and.u~en dllqonel tenlion rallur. tor aid arenaqq.us t~n Serle. III be of thle arenaqq.uson ~d nomlnel a/d ratto- of arenaqq.us reinforcement In Serle. III ~.udden, occurring either 'lnultenecuely tth or et!llghtly arenaqq.us 10ed then the to~.tlon of the dl'90nel crack. The b of Serl I hed n~ln.l./d ratio' of nd 2,' and thai' of aerie. 11 had en aid ratio of WIth two axcepttona (B IA_arenaqq.us lib_5), _II be_~1 of Serle_ 1 anc! 1I wlthout Itlrtupa ljuatilnec! a fallurl loac! lublunttally 'J'rNtlr than thl c!ligonll cracl<1ng c!. Crick penetration Into the ~rllon ~one WOI gra<lull, anc! I eub_tant

' arenaqq.uslon of etralne.a. obeved. the top neel thr<jhout th. ah_r ep4ln SplltL!nq alon9 followed /lu'],,_1 crack1, arenaqq.us o~ th b..~.. Ultl rallura ~. elll by cn..h19 ot the.,erua at the en<l. of Ul. dl&90,,&1 tenalon crack. Th. t, arenaqq.us, _me la-a and nb S IA ldaual to both I.\-2 and 'cept t.t t_ aua!n 'fa'!'.. _til p1aca/l on the taalon areel In the all epa {at 18 and 2. trom arenaqq.usl. While IA-2 and IA-l tetled by arenaqq.us at load. much qr_ter than the dlaqonal crackl'] la/la, B la-a /ltd not experlen. any nlf1_t nrun redletrlbuuon. and ' <lu,_lton typ,,..u.. & trees _11DO& l_oidutdl' after the dl'90&1 crack flret penetrated the co~rlon tone. ham IIa the coilipenlon to UB-l wtth rhe teneton etl t-otf In accordanc. with moment arenaqq.us. Not only did the duqonal arenaqq.us cract fono.t a 9q,atIl' reduced lo.d, l:ut al.o the _e or failure bydden dlnu arenaqq.us a.a1ll. With W.b Re1nrorcent Som. b in arenaqq.us II and III were provided arenaqq.us 1n the arenaqq.us Thech.n1_ of failur. in 5erl.. II b with arenaqq.us throu9nout the lenqth or the b thlot arenaqq.us arenaqq.ust to the

' suppon. follo.,lng yield of the eurrop_ croed by th. crack. arenaqq.us u_.el cutoff (11M,. I11l-~) the c:rlt1.l diaqonal <,alon cncl< located,h hrttle.. cut In h. ah..r epan. Yellu ~. alella.. to the diagonal ten_ion tallure lamedlately afte.. the atlrrupehed yield atralna. In II_H. ba ith autrup. both the.h eooo prlen and the dleqonal ten&10n ~ of tallure re arenaqq.us-ad a IIIB_2 Ithdatively 11')ht..,.,nr arenaqq.us relnforceroent hu,arenaqq.usly In theanner lo. Ita,,,,arenaqq.us bum arenaqq.ust., IlIS_l. i'o.,.atlon of the rltleal diagonal crak occurred at the load and In the locauon. 'nl.. Ittte load, of COllue, arenaqq.us g:-nte but the,henl of tuture lo yield of the ulrrup th IInm. IIIll-l and IlII:l-er. provld~ ~i~h hlgher percentageo of ~ob ate.l and ~ero expected to davelop otrangtha near the ulti~te bending copacl~y of the,ctlon. Tho dlagenal arenaqq.us fallure exprlenced in 1II ond IIIB_2 ~I' arenaqq.us~ely prevente. Coillpee wle by cruehlng of the concrete edjacent to the eupport following eubetantlal yielding of the tenelon eteel. Beall UIB-S 1dlnUcal to UIB l>.>t with the longl_ arenaqq.us tott. 80th the crad<ln'l' lead Ind' the ululutl

' atrength were _qui' elgnlt1canuy rwlj<:e~ om colllpared to the companion be.~ With e~tende<l eteal. arenaqq.us variabl ~v. bn noted to.~arenaqq.us the atrenglh of reinforce<! concrete bml In Ih..r. concrete nrength/ percentage of t,,l= arenaqq.usnt' ea.. epan to dlopth arenaqq.us, and the _nt ofb retnforc_ent. Throuqhaut the pr..,t Invu,at1on the'uut t of ther 11'- tatne<l r on_bly conitint. With the exception of t be the concrete cylinder Itrength ~. maintained betn and pit. ror all prlcttcll ~l~ the amount of tenllon Iteel Ill held conatlnt. (p. percent end p. percent. J Whlle thejor dirtn In behavior for the bflam. include<! 11' thtl _cody cln be Ittributed directly to difterenc.1 In lid ratio and In DOUnt of Ittrrupa, the prence of three additional f~ctore~.ignlflcant Inauqh to ~Irlt aeparate dllculon. The additional factor. ar. the arenaqq.us_ eent of the lonqltudlnel arenaqq.us, the arenaqq.us cutoff, and the loc~tlon of the duqonal tenuon crock. The ruulte tobulated In Tebl. ~ Indicate thu the arenaqq.us et dlaqonal cracking qenerelly decrea

' with Incr~ln9 a/d retto. ror ~~. with 1dent1cal tenelon arenaqq.usn9~.nt. and with arenaqq.us the me ooncrete atrengtne the arenaqq.us _how the follo~n9' s' Aeu,!,_ c (pu I IA-2, '. '.' ' arenaqq.us m IS 2 '., ' 11S.1, '., '.', nib_i,,.., ' e v/bd _t diagonal tenn crecking More al'!1nluant then thu. ho_ver, 1& the differen.. In beh.,ior after dl.'l'o~l cracking for beam. of different aid ratto, able arenaqq.us the deep penetretton of the dtagonal creek lote the c~prlon tone and arenaqq.us~ntly more loed for the.& b the diagonal ten.,lon creek wa. an ~arenaqq.us of.. '.rtle_i ten_ion rae!< tltd generally _t d 11 troll the Iupport. The b of longer ehear ep-n. $& III, eould withe tend little Or no loed beyond the polnt where the

. brtttle type ~n.l t~.lon tal lura. The ~rltle.l er.~ In th b~. ~1~~ IDC.t.~ rarther.~y frea arenaqq.us Conold.r, tor e><ample, Ul8-I. The dla,ooi ereck ~. arenaqq.us~.lon.r the flexural track atut 2. ft_ the.o'.,.t. The location of tho trltlel ereck arenaqq.us ~ b - what random. Conalderlng.,aln (_1, ane ceuld n thole the nu.l cud< t e. arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us,,&(:1< tareut from arenaqq.us, ~ee.u of incr real_tanee ~ penetration offered by higher bendln, et at arenaqq.us cloeer to arenaqq.us However, In Be~. liia-2 and IIIA-) the dugn_l nell. _. located In arenaqq.us arenaqq.us e. In IIIII_I. oven though a tle>qlru cucl< hal! tome<! hrther out. The difference In fellure machen!oeleted with the lon, end ahort eh.e. arenaqq.us be pri~ari1y due to the local arenaqq.us induced by the concentrated loade and arenaqq.us reactlon. In Serlee I and II beaoa the dlagonal creek penetrated into the colllpruuon zone nearly to tha.';ie of the eupport bloc~. The ~ertlcal cqftpreeelon at thle point would definltely tend to arenaqq.us the principle tenelon belo~ the end of the creek, end thereby delay or etop the progreeelon of the crac~.

n, ~t~le. lj 'eam,. The effect' of etlrrupe on the r~arenaqq.us_ button of attatnt followlnq ~tagon.l cracking era ahown cl~rly by the d arenaqq.us alrv, 'lqu 25 en,,,, 30, t.o<arenaqq.us with the cracking pathrne, nna. 30 th9n 35, Without aurrupt (lib_i) the ~.<arenaqq.us,lt1on apparent l~arenaqq.us following diagonal cracking at 3&. ~ of bond throughout the apan complete at load of The rlting uenato.,.etton from arenaqq.us to tied-arch action en be n by arenaqq.us lncr.a of comptlva atrelna at I above the bottooll fiber. while. erea In attalna 0''''' at th. etreme Uben. Although the diagonal arenaqq.us creck penetrated into the comprlon aon. arenaqq.us the load In B IIB-2 and _3, Ita proqrl0n at greatar load algn1!arenaqq.us ctou.., by til. cuc- had yielded. arenaqq.us ot arenaqq.us in the ccmprlon zone (Flgur 27, 28,.nd 29) for lib_i, 11B-2,.nd IIB_arenaqq.us th.t the arenaqq.us It dlltlnce. _boy. arenaqq.us fiber. Ire definitely arenaqq.used With the arenaqq.us epllttlng Ind arenaqq.us of bend Ilong the arenaqq.us Itl. In S lib_arenaqq.usg arenaqq.us untll.u lur_ rup. w.r. arenaqq.us1ng (P ~ 16 k ). AI loading we. Increld trom thl. point, the arenaqq.us at 1/2 lbev. the bettom tiber beqan Incrlng tlp1dly ruv. to tho.e at the xtr arenaqq.us

$erie. I.I arenaqq.us, The ~ma of tht. eerie_ ~er. of particuler lntere_t ~&C~_e they revealed an In~lcatlon that the dlaqonal arenaqq.us type failure occurring In lonq ~m. 1. arenaqq.us w1th arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~ the ahearcornpreion ~e of failure. Aa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us the bealth relati~ely arenaqq.us relnforcemant (II!B~2) tailed In arenaqq.us the aama ~nner a. the beam ~ith arenaqq.us~pa. Ho~ever. atlr~pa ere apaced mora cloaely (_3 and I1IB_4). the critical dlaqon.l tanelon crac~ waa ahitted closer to the ~pport. Tha deep arenaqq.us of tha arenaqq.us< resulted in a concentration arenaqq.us In ths arenaqq.us COI!arenaqq.us arenaqq.us similar to that o~.erved In the ahortor ahear span.. hllura by c~.hlnq of this ~OnS and _s arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us yleldlnq of tha arenaqq.us ateel. To tha ~rlter's kno..l..~a very t _yatea.t1c _tudl.._ at relatlvaly arenaqq.us beam_lth ~,rylnqnt& ofeb arenaqq.us heve bn in the literature. On.. recent Inv.._arenaqq.us, however reported by Breeler and ~eordeli. (7) Included arenaqq.us apecl'oen_ quite almilar to the bnm_ of $eriee HI. Bm. of arenaqq.us-apan to depth ratio._ that of Serlea III la/~ _ 4) wara arenaqq.us With ~.b arenaqq.usement retlo Itrt y _ 0, 50, 75, and (Beam_ IIIB-L. IHB_2. HIB_J. IIIB~4 of the study reported heraln had Itrt y arenaqq.us of O ,.nd U re_pecuvely. 'e.. Tabl. I.) 'rom arenaqq.use (1) tha ~. w1th nob relnforc~ant lkrf y OJ fal1ad by sudd.n dlna1 arenaqq.us tn the monner

a. b IUD-I. With the addition orb arenaqq.usnt the tun ot R.t.r.n. P l arenaqq.us<! th.t th. flood. ot arenaqq.us r ltl ot bea,. It~B_arenaqq.us IIIB-. CKrt 84,2 and ) y a~r lth thi. ~lndln~. b, IIIB-2 (Krt y ) f.l1ed In dl.9on.l t.n'lon, Th. only notable dl~arenaqq.us betn bea, IItB_2 and the bell' ot arenaqq.us (7)arenaqq.us Krf th. y arenaqq.us>9-to_depu, ratio, In bea.. IUB/d hil. In the _.. or arenaqq.us (1)./d t. arenaqq.us, ity b. that u arenaqq.ust clor COIIIprion rood. ot tallurf!. arenaqq.us of th. b ith bl._layered arr.n~._,ent ot arenaqq.us ateel to tho ith on. larar CRe. Tabl. 5),. Av.r.~e ' ' v Cpal)

H' UtA ,2,3 '., m ' y~ ~ at ~1'90nal tenalon cracking. Hence, the diagonal cracking etrengthe of the b~1 with the arenaqq.usd arranqement were 1,21 and tim tho of the beam. ~arenaqq.us In alngle laye.. tor Serl I and Ill,p..,Uvely. Thie arenaqq.ustanee Ie believed due to the Increed a Ita, IIB-~. IIIII end IIIB 6 In,HatIO\u r~ctlon In eh.a.. etrenth ~en ~r. ere terain_ted within the tenelon tone. The ben _re cut ou In arenaqq.us v1th the!>covulon_ ot the S~arenaqq.us arenaqq.ustione for K19h~y Brldg- ( The eut-off pointe arenaqq.us arenaqq.us of th b On the creck pattern ehte (Flgur Je, 35, 49 and SO.) AJ.l ro\u bea,.. I, 'P.n.1on.p..,lna >olth e><arenaqq.us etl. The reduction In both diagonal cracking loade end arenaqq.us uranqth can be iro. arenaqq.us 5.n<'l 6, In c the <'Iln.l arenaqq.us t~.ek wa. lnlt1.c.<'i.t the cyt-off point,.n<'l the.a<'l. ot ru~e wee that of <'Ina1 tenelon, Aa,.,1<'1 be arenaqq.us<l, the ett..,t of ba~ cut-ott wee

n. TA D'I'~ or ~TIIU. CUT_Ol'f II W1th Cut-atf arenaqq.us IIB_4 IIB-5 Co!Ilpanlon Dt-goo_l Crad<ln9 arenaqq.us LoaCl II lth ~, bund '< (cut-eft I ' (cut-oft) Sted '< arenaqq.us.,. ) (arenaqq.us<!) lib-) O.~ lib-i UIB-5 UIB-6 nn_ IB_1 l D1agonal Creel< LocaUon arenaqq.us h <arenaqq.us ettltct on the be bl>&vlor _nc! m..,hanum

.., PUrthar In~lcatlon of thla influence 1& _hown by com parteon of ~am I~4 with 1~2.n~ I~3. The lattar two b tall~ In _haar-compralan at loa~. qreatly In axe of tho at dlaqonal cracklnq. B I~4 arenaqq.us~ auddanly upon to~tlon of the diagonal crack with entl_ily no r~arenaqq.us_ butlon of atra!na, While the influence of the atra!n gag out In the chear apan vary likely va. a f.c~r. It 1& of lntart that. alight dlfteranca In crack location ~ld have auch an arenaqq.us po the ability of the beam to r,at arenaqq.us_tion of the diagonal crack.

A11I1LYSili or TUT R&itlLTs 01, 0), (10), (, and (25). TIl. equ..t1on r-=ndltd by acl~asc~ Com-ttt (1) h arenaqq.us to qlve qood arenaqq.us ~ -bd-l. g Vf~ (Eq 'no 4) arenaqq.us arenaqq.us,. fr, the U= of>< _..,t. H :!.. l for th. b of thu arenaqq.us Tnt Jot a., arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~th in Tabl. 7. va1u pritd1ct. by thl. equat10n arenaqq.us cracking load for except tho.e ~lth arenaqq.us cut o(f. Th of arenaqq.us bea ~ith arenaqq.us cut oct 1n

Ul\1~at' Ib.a, arenaqq.us Th. t.n arenaqq.us are CO<Dpared,,'Ith cal=lated ultimate web relnforclm~t Commltt arenaqq.usd.d t~t th, load dulgn a. th, ltlte lo.d capcity In.h TIll. raqulr._ However, until the con~ltlon. un~er which thi. 'd~ltlonal requl<ement I. arenaqq.us Had the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us be.n arenaqq.us}oped, follo~ng formula for ultlth..r,.'..~. arenaqq.us wh.r. v. I.. the portion ot the tot.l arenaqq.usd to bi carried by arenaqq.us<np', given by th.. arenaqq.us '. 'Ihu

, TI.I 7. CCHI'.uISOII 0' nsf $TUlIlmIS liitii.. ACI A9C1 CCIlK1TTU }26 arenaqq.us (l) U) Dt. _.1 Cnckl SO.. Ul&It , Sun - ' '00\ y. cde. t t C& t. ~ (p.l. ) (p.t), ~ calt. fpol) (poi) (pol)arenaqq.us la-i,..,,,. L Ll} U 2 ~, I.}I IA.' e. ~ 1.}1 m.,..,,w l '.. ' !l ~,,.' U ~ ' 11 \. ' ~, L ,~ ' l.a} ',.,~ \ W L~ ' ' ' ', arenaqq.us ' n.' ' I. nl '. I. 12 ' 1}2.S ' I. 12 Ill., m 1'2.S. LOO HI-S ' ' ' ' 0. llu-l,~ ' '.ro,. ' ' UU'2,~ 1.'1 UlA. UU-\,~ UII-2,~ '' ' 1.'7 ' ' 1.' ' 0. ' ' ' ,~ L ' ' lls.a ' ' ttll e,,,, Ull-~ IUI_5 uu-6, ' e 0. ~, ' ' ~'- w, L9K ~, ro< 1Ht_arenaqq.us ohr,.o,, ~ W for be_a UIIo<I. 1',.,,~ L ' ' 0.

u. Hence. a '{'t':; '. (Eq'n. the arenaqq.us<1 by of this arenaqq.us Uno!.c th requlr_enu the ellowabl. ehnring n.t (v.l ,' o (Eq'n. j) ~here tv 18 the working etr for arenaqq.us~p eteel. The eud e.-d in all ten bee of arenaqq.us gull,arenaqq.us stirrup etre t y 18, pai. ror the b of _hotter ehr epan (Serl I and III the than two With rup.t arenaqq.us tanure, B IUB_I>, which had no>infoc,t. arenaqq.us. rauo of only

fli 8. alili',.~.uc. 0' arenaqq.us S1'UllCYI.S VI'nI 4UlIO StoUlDAU SPlClnCAYIOllS PIlI,.I_t 1/lCCt~ ('j k_ tool, IA-\ (,.l) (,.t) (, ',,,.M., m, ' ',,,..,,,.,.eo., } ' '.,. ' 11 \ ~.. UI \ ~ ' W,.. W '.eo., I.7\.,..,., IliA-I ~ ,.,. 2.'2,.~,. '..,.,\., '., ,..,, \ 1' m M.,..,.. = M.,. \ ~ I.U '~,«chull, ~.,. w 90,ot _ vlcloou. OIh ; w 90', ~ f~ wi.<in

It U not.<l that thu b on. '<hlch. hall the undon coiipraaa10n c:oul<l alao ba prad1ct.<l on the baa1. ot a 11ltln~..,.nt arenaqq.us Thla haa ba.n aupport'acl by the tact th.t In rauo. (21), (6). use<l tor the ulut. atnn~th in pur. ben<lln~. fo. the caae AlIIPtlona. A. fdlra occ:un at tha aecuon of><,ant by cruahln~,. ot th. arenaqq.us~coiipraaa10nabove tha an<l. at cryabing. aveuge atra.. k t', 0 ov.r the <lepth c

k 2 C arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ext U~t to the,arenaqq.us arenaqq.us fet., I-,-.~ ' ' t2~1 5TR.,t.! I..~ , IZ4l DISTRIBUTION kkf'1>c o 'f' , (Eq '<I. 0) 0' f' W Id-d') II:.; '<I. f)

.ufficiently by the penetration of the arenaqq.us that the '. p f ''-:;:1 - ~ (l f' bd o e For flexurel ~,. l o (Eq'n, oj klk] eompre._ion failur (over- reinforced bea~.l the probl~ of finding t. u 1impllfiod by two facto. 1) The arenaqq.uson arenaqq.us1n acroa. th.. _ection i. linear, 2) Cruahing _train ot coneret.. in tlexur. pri~rlly a function of,' o' For under-reinforced bea ultimate moment criterion i. further.1~lltied by the fact that f. u _ fl arenaqq.us block arenaqq.us have been by many inve_tigator_ and are kno~ to be pri~.rily Ior toe,' o' _hr_=rion rotation about the comprelon zone. producing a non-linear ~arenaqq.ust. of thltudy. (figur 27_29 and 42_44).

' Moody (24).n~ Morrow (25) mad etra!n ~arenaqq.uslon. a. ahown 1n 'igure On thia baal, each Inveatlqator developed ~lrle'l axprlona for the atl atr at fallure. Moody equation. are arenaqq.us on a.,rln of arenaqq.us end r arenaqq.us~ b under one and two concentrated load., Slaple b.~. and kn-fr form the baa!_ of Morrow'. equhtona. n.e arenaqq.use _nu for the b fubn, In ehr_ compteion 1n thle etudy ere arenaqq.us wit.h the veluee predictad by the two fo~l In Tabl 9 and Moody.t..,e<l hu criterion to Incl\14 beam' with..e1:> u!nforc:emolnt., while Morrow arenaqq.us only bean. without etirrup.. Moody'. equation ~. round to oy.r_tl~te the Itrenqth of ell be of thle etuely. The correlation emad to he eoaewhat better for beam. without web arenaqq.us:~.nt. Morrow'. ~arenaqq.us gave a arenaqq.us ~ pred1ction for baa~. 1A-2 and ta-3, _ac~ of ~lc~ conu1n-.l a double layer of t_n_arenaqq.us F~r bea~. 1B_1 and 11B-l t~. ~arenaqq.us at ~arenaqq.us 1nto the arenaqq.us ent arenaqq.us, uejnq the etr block para~_t.r. fro~ both Moo~ and ~Qr.o~. Inch ca a,ch better prediction of t~. actual.~arenaqq.us~ _. arenaqq.us Thl.. 1. an lndlcahon tha!;. t~e arenaqq.us criterion of Unq _ent vaud, l>.jt the 'Jar probl_ I.. that of accurately prltdlctlnq the ateel.. trt f.. llure. ThtrUn ~ea..,rernenu ae ehawn In H<]Ure nd 42_44 Indicate a al~llarlty wlt~ t~e atrjn d trlbutl~n.

arenaqq.us! 9. t«lhli1l1 Ar SMlAJ. COIlPUSSlOII PAlUIU {rut u. Colculd h_ t uotl_. hfo 2/l \ (Coltylo,.d,._) 1Io00utod ', arenaqq.us Inlnl,uoS,f. (p.1 ) (le_h,. )(Hp. ) ('0 t 1 (kip.) (In- cole. Hp.)..,, IIll.I! la-2,., ulc,, ult. ', ' k~,~oo IA_~ ~~ It-I ',.., k9 5 0., '.0 0.',.., k ' ~. Ill-I 5~, ' 5~.2 11'-2,.' '.0 0. Ill.' IHI-~.., tttl_k 8~.0 ' 51, \ }, ~ 0. ea.'.0 0. ~arenaqq.us - bd Sui.. t, $od n, arenaqq.usd, ',.,,-' ,. I I0&i t~ -- liqn (50) '0 ( 5bl Rf. [ '. \, V 1~59 ~ I;l} (6a) 0 (-I. I.!f~~ ~.'M '<arenaqq.us,,,.' ' Al ; A:z ' (. f~,), 0, 0 (-) ', ( Rot. ot. 0' o~.o< I 1.}8, '2 ' Ich ,lelc.1 con.'o,,', _n' arenaqq.us of Ht_arenaqq.us' ou Ret.. 'ho dln'nc. It_ arenaqq.us _ loti' _no '0 tho

TULI: ~IIT I.T SUc;:otl!'USUON UIWU (T YO. arenaqq.us~h d f._!qi of let. ~) arenaqq.us (tt.o;), 1Io.. d C&arenaqq.us _~TOd, '.eh k_,,, ',, cole., col c&le.,col< (pol) ( 1,,- kl (klpo) (pol) (klp )I ( Ill,.) (kip.) U'2 U-' '7,$00 '7, ',.~ kl,boo '90 kl.9 Si,SOO > ' (1I<,1lnl t1l. Io of <_<arenaqq.us) k 2 P t. K. 0 P f. (I - k l.., TJ W 2 I>.U, BOO _ f' o ' o,,, - 1. ~ k (. ~kit.,f~ ),. p ',,' 1~1I6 d, 17~.. n

_u99f1f1t~ by both Moody and Morr~w. HOwavfI, the tactor_lch could Intluc. the dlatribljuon of _trunfl arfl nuaou_arenaqq.us ot _pllttio9 alon9 the tenflion fltflfli, IncllnaUon ot the du90nal' crt,o:t<nt and _lwcln9 ofb rfllntoreh. atra9eoo..t ot tendon _ UIU U fu.d9th In n,,,,,u capacity In bflndin9. IIy tlity'fi tu_..e arenaqq.us arenaqq.us (taklnq t y 75, pal find f~ _ pfll) ~ q (1 S9ql bd2t~r. q p ~ < (Eq 'n. > Ior ttt_t. eruflhld9 fldjacmt to tl,. fippert. blccll: thia arenaqq.us tor arenaqq.us lila ] and , 1. and ]SI Indlcat. arenaqq.us fli9n_ ot arenaqq.us09 _t thla load, tl,. lti_t. cruahlo9 loadfl.r. fl19iucantly hlqh.r (t..t P u - n.t< and 70 k tor III ] and IllctIvely). nu._ IHerenc. Ifl arenaqq.us to be prl_rlly &.. to the hct that the hlqh fltrenth fltl ua' had IlttI. or arenaqq.us arenaqq.us

<arenaqq.us 1n th. Orl<arenaqq.usn1n'll un'll (, 10, MIl tor both beoo ) Ittt to obtlol arenaqq.usr arenaqq.us_.trun eurv. 1n th arenaqq.us'll rani arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us'llht U aa.t>o th. arenaqq.us tow. '. _-r~;;::,_::~.-,~o' <,, tt,. rhua. ot tour talon ponn a.u'll OIqUatlon tor thtr hl. ra,,'ll ken to b '.r and '.r. thol Xl u an<l C:C:arenaqq.us at tau,<i fin, X 10' (~J.,,' 5UbUltuU.., arenaqq.us Illuauon (.. J (*;I1KU'l' h. ee-plon U._l)

. The propartl of t~. etr block for taken trc. R.t.r~e. (20J, Teble 2.,.. <. c eu OOH,ract; _re clearly lndj..,.te<l 1ft bou. ot the _

' 1. ~.~. t ta reported arenaqq.us ln~lc.t. two,enaraj _.. of en.. fauure In arenaqq.us _creta!:>ea without an re1torc_t.. 4. A chaar arenaqq.us fat lure occurring at. aection of ><_t and 'I\eI.r at <la..,aUntJcUy q thlln tu load at wh1c U,. djaqonal CUe!< Uut arenaqq.us<'! u.. COIaPclon edna, CoII'pa. ~. by ruehlng Of tht ~cret. In the reduced ccapt'lon toa adjacent. to the cupport, following a ai91!14t e<llatrlbutlon of Internal,tralne. 8. A diagonal teneio tallure occurring,cnerally at _oma arenaqq.us '~y from the eupport at.. load ~'l to or only al19htly tar than the <1 u. teh the crlual dla<jofl;u,jon crack to,. -n, faur <Sden. occurrlnitt> ~.ry arenaqq.us9. 2. In the,n,,ee of aurrupa Indlcationa woere that tll. _. or fulure _. dfi'lnltel, '.ljoclatml VItI> th. rehu.

po.1llon ot the dl.~onal arenaqq.us crack wlthln the arenaqq.us n. po.1uon of the CUck, In tum, rdate<! to the l.n~th of arenaqq.us to dapth rauo, In b ot arenaqq.ush..r apan. (ald. 2.i and ) the craex tord clo to arenaqq.us anc! pro<;ld quctuauy Into th., comprlon zo. to ~Int. adjacent 0 above arenaqq.us block. ror ald. 4 the crad< torue<! qenerally n..r the middle of arenaqq.us arenaqq.usl..o.t ~plataly throu9h the baa. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us An arenaqq.us for tha dlftnc. In locarion of the crack In the t.., C.. I c.. nnot b. oue,. It _. 10<;llcal, how.v.r, to arenaqq.us that tha arenaqq.us In arenaqq.usanl dua to 1fterenc In arenaqq.us to th.. crack'. propaqatlon it roue. the neutral ald AdJnt to thepport not only ar. the arenaqq.ust larq.r, but lao there i. hlqh local arenaqq.us ciu. to concntratlon ot the aupport arenaqq.us, In the ca of tha lonq-ipan baa.. tha crack II locat.d tarthlr out, wh.r. the arenaqq.us ar. lowlr and the local co~reilion 1. abient. 3. 'hert-ip..n bea with w.b relnforement failed arenaqq.us In the menna did the arenaqq.us b..~. without atlrrup., foltowlnq yleldlnq of etlrrupa cro by the crd<. Spllttlng.. long th.. tenllon.t l nd tha arenaqq.us atln r.,arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us In baa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us unt1l thurrup. h..d arenaqq.us

' The arenaqq.us ~a~ ~lth light web reln~orc~ent aleo hud In the mnnet H. C01llpanion bn.. 1t1'>ot etitrup.. The diagonal creek formed In arenaqq.us location at the Ume loee!. Diagonu teneion tauut. followed :field of the ettrrupe. In long epan b.. with.. high percentg of web.,tl the dhqonel,lon type tauur. out In thtdelle of the.h apan _. arenaqq.us&d. SUrrup. neer the e..,ppon. yielded firet, ~arenaqq.uslon of arenaqq.us to th.. eupport we. followed by arenaqq.us In thi. r~lon. e. Both the d18gonel cracking load end the ultl,.ate Ihr etrengthr. locrad hen.. given _mount of tene10n ned _. provided byalle.. reinforctn') ban placed In two layer.. It 1. belie, thoot the IncrMd rd1ty of the ~oubl arenaqq.us~er.t el arenaqq.us portion of the total ahaar to be carrled by dowel acuon. 5. sea..a wlth arenaqq.us cut oft at the polnt whare It 1. no longar needed to ra.l.t arenaqq.us auftered a reduction In both the arenaqq.us cracklng load and arenaqq.ush. opacad ourrupo. Thl. held trua evan In bea Wlth cloaely 'Itla two bee..a Without our,po [Uled ouddanly upon fouon of the dugonal cro.<:lc. arenaqq.us collapaed completely aa the bare arenaqq.usd out o~ the concrete. 6. Tut etren<rthe. when COlllpared to the arenaqq.us. pe.,.ltted by the AAliHO ~tandad Specl-

tlcatlon, tor Klqhway Bridge, (4), Indlc.t~ r'c~r. ot arenaqq.us ot.t lt two tor 15 or the 20 bee t.,ted, Of the b_ lth r!.,,~u arenaqq.us, tour hald lonq arenaqq.us (./d n.. lo_.t t.,,~.. ot arenaqq.us _ nu, partlini'r be had lonq.h..r_ap.n, no.t1rrup.,.nd the t.,uofl at..l cut ott. 7, ror the _.. V1th lv<t.,ded.t..l In on. hy.r, u.. new o\ci_uci e-ttt equ.t1on pr~lted the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us r'd<11\<1 wtth qoo<arenaqq.us n. tlo or t_t.n..,qth ~ arenaqq.us UU'lthled t to LIe. Wh., u.. arenaqq.usl wa, provld~ In two layer., the arenaqq.us ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, ~_v.r, tor thr.e or the ~ ~lth the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us CUt ott, the t t etren'lth e01' ot arenaqq.used v'lue, e, arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Indlat. that.. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us_ OO'l'r'lon!aHur. bed on arenaqq.us1nq _.nt arenaqq.us b. vatld, provldln'l an arenaqq.us ot the Itl otr'io.t '0' In arenaqq.us

' 1. The r.~lt. of the part!cular arenaqq.us eted (dl~.t. that the manner In which the loada andtione are.,arrled to the beami' have a larqe Hel of th,,!umt.. ah..a.. atrenqth and mode of ehear tailure, K1qh local compelve tere In the vicinity of the CQnc~trated ~pport reaction.e~ed to be arenaqq.usble for the development of arenaqq.us_ comptelon type railure, experienced In be or ahott ehear opan.. arenaqq.us mcnohi tn ('18 and reauonl are arrled to the ~.. or qleder dlatrlbuted arenaqq.us trom oth_beu arenaqq.us Into It Ud Ilene, further t,uta houlcl Include _. 'ltl oj IO<&da and arenaqq.us Ll11thr to the b of arenaqq.us, but ('II_tribute<! over q,,.re.' lind b) loada and ctlona dletdwted over the full depth of the b rather ~.n concentrate4 on the top an~ botto~. 2. TO pro~i~e l1ght percentagee of web reinforcement et practlcal etirrup epac1nga the uae of a~ll ~arenaqq.us, emooth wire etirrupa wee require4 tor t~e beame of tnta atudy. While.~equate anchorage wea pro~ldad by wrapping t~a atirrupa around the tenelon eteel. there may ha~e been eome ~I!!erence In bha~lor had,,!orm,, bar eurrupe been uaw. To confo= mor cloaely with practical beam ~eelqna. teat beame In the

' future should b. arenaqq.us that the larger atre,,tormed bar. can b, ueed. 3. Four bnm. or thl, Itudy In,!1cH.e a definite lac!< of tety In the arenaqq.us ~HO ~arenaqq.us 9p&Ctftcatlona for Hlqh~y Bridge.- ~lth 'plct to allowing longitudinal bar. arenaqq.us cut off In the ten_ion zone. This r~ctlon In eh,a. arenaqq.us9thoclated t1. boor cut-ort, hl>a arenaqq.us reported In other Iwdl,.. of rleun,lar b (14l. (21) Nee<! of further Itudy of tll1, eftect 1>&, definitely been Indicated. Aa moat brldgl glrde.a ere ~ollthlc with the deck alab Ind are arenaqq.us '1'_bH''', tha 8ltuUOny be aom,et auevlated In the bridge _cructure. rurtller ten. ahould Include companion 'peelna of both rectan,1'. and T_aec_ tiona. Alec, thi. reduction In atrangth may not be eo lever. when the tenalon ateel consists of a larger number of s~aller b<ln. In blums With etend~.ted the dhfuence 1n 8tren9tha bstween the 81n91e and double-layered arran9~ent. was baunuat. Hance, 1n study1n9 the bar cut-off effect. a var1ety of ated arun9_enu m19ht be cons1dered.

u 81BLIOGIlAI'IfT

' BIBLIOGAAPKY 1. ~I_ASCI ~ltt.. , Shear.n~ Dna1 Ten_Ion ACt JournU, Jan Ieb Proceedlpga Vol o.c:I eoittee , llull<llnq Code arenaqq.usolenta tor li.t!1nfor.,1'ld Concrete (ACt ) AC! JannI, Mooy proceesllnga Vol. 52, PI' ACt Co~ltte. , Ilutl<ltnq COde Requirement for Relntorce Concta.. (.>.ei ) ACt aundard. Jun arenaqq.us of SUte ll1'!1'h_1' Officiale, Standard SpacHleHone tor Hi,!y IIrldqu. 5. M-Aluel, A.r., OU<;Ional Teneion strength of Retnlor,,' Concre.. e T_Bu,,, nil Vryin<;l Shu.. Span, ACt Journal, KIll' , Proceeding Vol. 53, pp, Ber. 3,1. and Vln, ':., Shear Stten,th of arenaqq.usd Concrete 8.,e wit't Web Ralnfon,em..,t, loci Journal, JUly 19M, Procudlpg Vol. 57, PI', 73, 7. Bred,, B. end SCQrdl1a, A.C Sh litn'jt.h of arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Bea~ ACI ~ou..n.1, Jan, , ro U!U[lql vol, 60, pp, SL.

e. B~yant, R.H., B1anchien1, A.e., Jlodrlguu,'., I(edar, e. :>h r 5tren9'th ef T\<o-:>pan Contln,,,,,,. Re1nfe~ced Ccnc~.te B.a, w1th,,1t1pl. Point Ldln'CI JCllrnal. sept. , P~gs;arenaqq.us, VeL ~9, PI' C1~l<, 1' utaqonl Tend 10 arenaqq.us~ced arenaqq.us Beau, ACI J,~n&l. OCt. , 'r9se<!lrq. Vel. 43, pp d' eoie. R.D., and 51 C.P., 8ehoOvie~ and Stren'Jth 1n :>h ~ ef B, and I'~ without Web R.1nferc_ent, -'CI Journal, Yeb. , Pros;udin9 VoL. 56, PI'. US. arenaqq.us~, R.C.. end Ilcgntad, K.. Labo~ato~y In..U 9ation ef Riqld Pre..e f'ulu~e, #oci Jeu~nal, Jan, , Preceedipg. Vol. 53, pp l'e~'arenaqq.us, I'.M., and Thompeen, J.N., Ohgenal Tenuon In T_IlEI without stlrrupe,- #oci JCll~nal, ~a~. , p~2cmgin9' Vol. PI', Pe~'JUaon, 1' SO I,epl1catlono ef arenaqq.us OU90nei arenaqq.us Teat., ACI Jou~nal, Auq. , Proceeding. Vol. 53, PI' 'e~'arenaqq.us, 1' and ~ tlcob. Y.N.,![ffect ot 'r ot-of! on Bond and Shear St~en'Jth of Reinforced Conc~..t.. Bea,, #oci Journal. July , Proudingl Vol. 56, PI'. S.

, arenaqq.us $.A. Sh..r Strenqth of Reinforced Conce.t\Se&, Vol. 85, IiTI J.n. 1') Pap.r auulnl<:l<. S,A. Ill Str''''1th t>efor,~ Sred Ban for Concret. ~.lntorcement. ACt Journ'l, Sept. , arenaqq.us Yolo 57, PI'. , n. Kanlon,.I.A. Shear Strength of Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beam., ACI Journal, Sept. , Proce~ln9. Vol. 55, PI' Hoqnt.d. I. Yundement.l Concept. in Ultl~t. ~d arenaqq.us\lD or Reinforced Concrete I'l,t>en, ACI Journal. Jn. 1') P'S!C'*<llnq. Vol. 48, PI' Hoqnend. E. Wh<lt Do I.', I'DO' About arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us 'nd W,b arenaqq.us in Concrete?' Circular Serle. No.6', Univ,arenaqq.us ot Illln inglnrinq EXperiment StatIon. Har. , IlognUd. E., arenaqq.us N. ~ and McHenry, D. Concr.t. Stren Ohtrlh>t1on in VIUlo. ~lor'l'th arenaqq.us'iln, ACI Journal, ~c. , Proca,dingt Vol. 52, pp, , Ulupa, SI, C.I'arl<, N.M.. Stro;lth In She,r of R,lnforcld Concr.t' ij,,~.,. Bull,tln No. , arenaqq.us of Inol. Eno;llneerlnq i:><perlnt St,t1on, 19~~.

' ~th..y. R,G., and 'WllUln. D. hur Stranqth ot 8u,.. arenaqq.us Web arenaqq.us!orc_' Cont!n! arenaqq.us,~ Ban of Il1Herent Yield 5tUllgth. ACt,mal, feb. , proctglng. Vol. 60, PP Koody. 1'.0 Vlee I.M Illtne.., R.C. Sh StreqU, of Reinforced CoM: II Poet ournal, tlee:. , an reb. , Proceedipge vol. PP. , , Moody, 1<,0 and Vi'''''t, I,M Shear lotrength of Rein_ forc~ Concrete S Part 4 - ~~lytlc.l Stu~les. ACt Journal, V~r. , arenaqq.us' Vol. 51, pp rho, ) and Vi, I.M. ShINe Strenqth of Reinforced Concrete fr MeIIlbue without Web Reinferc n ACt Journal. )lac. , P Oo;Udi!!9. Vol. pp, , Ren i,m. Shear. Diagonal ~arenaqq.us end Anchorage In Be ACt Journal, I)e.c. l'1~e. Proceeding' Vol. ~~. pp. 69~. Rodri'l'u. J.J.. Bhnch1onl. A.C.. Vl..n. I.H., IIftllu. arenaqq.us -lihear litren'l'th of T..,-Span ConUnuou. Reinforced ConcH,t. Be ACI Journal. Aprll 19~9, arenaqq.us1n9' Vol. 55, PP e. Taub. J., and Navilla, A.H. R,arenaqq.us to Shear of Reinforced Concrete Bea'., Paru 1, ACt Journ.l, Au':/ 'ept., Dec. , Pro eedinq, Vol. 59, PP. ,

' ~arenaqq.us D and Mathey, R,G. 5tratna 1n Bea~. ha~ln9 DUqonlOl en., ACI JoUrnal.,08c. l<;l~8. FroC.,<:Ilngl Vol. PI', Zowyu. 8.M and C,P. UIUPU Strength 1n Sh..r of 51mply_SUpported arenaqq.us Concrete without Wab Reinforc_ent, loci Jeurnal. OCt. , Proc<l1n!!. Vol. 51, PI' , Ho9nta<!. Il Kanac>n. N.W., Ma<JUra, 0,0., an<!.., M.A, Sheer Strength of Slendu ConUnuo 1l.1nforcec! Concrete T_Baam., PCA Journal, Vol, 5, No, 3, sept

' 1W>PDIHX A ftliu'.~ arenaqq.usIU or TIll 'ltl'qitc~t

I-rt-f-'-t- tote ',', ', 'T, ' ', '.. ' 'i! 'c- 4 c,~i II ~::B~ I - ~t:

,., J\l>PINDIX PRClC:IlD,JR' ror IU'PLICATION AIIIl MAT~'ROOrI!lG Of' TN. '_4 sta Il1 GAG..

' A,iOPlNOlX arenaqq.us&li,arenaqq.us,UCIITlOO ~ WATCR'IlOOYING O 'l'ki U_4 STUlll GAGU Type A-lll, ir_arenaqq.us~rle atraln 9'ar.. u.~ for all b,.cl'''.. 'MI. InataUaUon,roc,_ u~ wna In qlttleral.!io rltcollirll.,.,dltd by arenaqq.us and ior. ql~.n follo l. nt ot 9''1'' on the arenaqq.us boon uqulred the r.~v'l of 11 portion of two of the lu9' to arenaqq.us tor ti',. gag., The g8 arenaqq.us a,,&l.. are r,,arenaqq.us lilrlery cloth of 1;1, eoanen' _. then,ltd to obtainooth e\lda Tha area Undly clean<1 with arbon tetrachloride end.,ethyl_ethyl keyton AepUfauop The qa,arenaqq.us held In podtion by taping tl'l. lude to the boor. The linda era In,lated fcoiii the bar by phc1n ptace of..t_cuirt arenaqq.us undar the ,;, and tip of the 9a 4 Hhara1 '-ojnt of lluco houhqld ' nt arenaqq.usd hoth to ttl. bar and to th ' to

the '(lag. _a appl1ed thcou'(lh arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~ firmly lth arenaqq.us After epplyln9 the ce=ent, Preaeure _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lnutea,.fter which tl,.. the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us _re rerooved arenaqq.us~' proper CUring of the c_.,t. The c_ent _e th.n cured et e1r t_ereture for three houu,.t UO o _l20or for 2 hour., end.t _, arenaqq.usn.l odght hour., copper wlre arenaqq.us were eoldered dlreetly to the te~lnal wlre. prop.r functioning of the arenaqq.us Waterprgofhq a touqh, but plubh Uphelt1c _t.r1el ee<l, 'e boor over. 1e'l'th of 2 1/2 to 3), The aaphut poure<l hot arenaqq.us1t Ho. arenaqq.us from the Amerlcan arenaqq.us\.IpMlt Company, '1 stre.t, san arenaqq.us=, CaUfornU.

ovar the bar 1n t, iioyeu. 5'rlor to appucauor> ti'le boor ' heated 1n the vlclnity ot \&'1. to.-event the plt f.-om cool1nq too qul<:kll'. Atter the hret layer had cooled. the inde e lapped back.,ro.. the to obtain eiillad_,,.nt ovn vb_untut 19th of the W1re. 'the Uut laye.. ot pha1t wa. pre1ld and I<nd~ whl1e atl11 aoft to.-e.g.._, po<:keta wh1c uuy lonoed, pa.-ucula.. Ly arenaqq.us the lde.

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,, ;, J. I,. ~ 8:~ 8 ~ ~ ~ n ',,, i'..,, ',-.!,!, ~ II U ~.:~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ' 0, ~ Ii ~ n - U, -- -, 8,, ~,,0,,Ii --, ~, 8,U,, 8,. ~l!::': -,, - N' -!i! ;1 ;!, '0 'I I :~ ~=i! i ~,ll i ~ 0 II i - 8 8!!~ ll~ 0 _N ~ ~~ - _N - 0OOOO2~~~ ~~~ - ~,, -'.-,lpl_u, -oo~.. ~o~' 1, :1~ '1-\1 --ooooo;;;:;:lijl.,,-~oo _..,,,,'S. _i lpl-lj..,., '. ~'~~li~~~~~;~~!~!~!~~~i~~'~~ ~- -, H,. Q2~gG~~~~~~~j~:~~:;:I~J~~~~~~. -,,

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; j,! ' I!,. - l,,! II'. -.I:,..q:l,. ~.I:: -., :':'.x il:~ '.' ~',,.. '~,o,~'~',.,..,, '''' 'as.~,,.: l!o,arenaqq.us', -,, ' -;- OOO~&;;;l!.q.'):~_q ~ _,.. 1l~,'8.~_ - -.!, -~!,

>6, < J,, J - -, - gfj~~f~~ ~~a;;:li. 0,- -J -I J.J J -.,! gi~~!~~,n~;,~ , - - H J,.,.., 0_,.. 2~1il'$l : ' '! 0 -

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;; TAILE 2). SlUL A1<lI COIiCUTI StllAln - ANt au-} ~o. 6 lou S<ln. C_'U,10R :!om., 1/2 ft_ Suppon (11II } (KII) ~K, 1/2 IIot'_ 1/2 f._ \lot<_ I 1/2 tt__ CoRt.. 10 f ~..t woo< k_r~., (~I,.} f,_.ul'!'on I J, ~, 6<>,, ' ' '.., ~ ~ ~ '' ~ '10, ' ' '. '', ', ''. )6,,',,,,,.,. ''., ',,,.. >, loa,., ',~,,' '>0, ~,,~ '. =,,, ,~, ~ '00,., ''''' ' '> ','.., a,.,a a ',~ eo,' ''''' ''''' UIQ '''' - W78to}lB ,,., e>-IIBo ' 6<> 90 to 'S}Q '10 1~,,., ~oo ' ' 00 ''''' )6sQ to UW TloldlRI ' ,.., 00 lapidly,~,,~ ' ~ ~\W to ~ luo 50,00,,.,,~ ' ~ to 51'0 ) ,,= to 59SO 5'50 ' ''''' 00 '' , Ul $0. '11 \7 fot.' loa. 11<.. ~1 11 of <no,hlri Ot' 6,k OR arenaqq.us IR I_T l/t.,~,,~ IRltl.l TI'ldIRS~ ~o. 6 lu ~ Load.

. I -, t -,, - o., - H, I.- u. < - i~,. - - OQOOO~~~~~~a~ol-:~E -. ~ _ ~8. - oooo~~~8~~i~~~~j:~2~:s / -- -~ ~ ~~,: t= ;:~ E o~~~~e~~i~~j~ - -, -! oo'~2~~ -~_ *:~li: _ 'oil ' ',' , -,- o. ~~~~~!.t~ E~Oi~!i~E2i - N.. ~ ~ '~_,.- H - ~2~2~g~~~2~~1~~~~$~SS~

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Most troublingly, Activision says that the &#;cheat&#; tool has been advertised multiple times on a popular cheating forum under the title &#;new COD hack.&#; (Gamers looking to flout the rules will typically go to such forums to find new ways to do so.) While the report doesn&#;t mention which forum they were posted on (that certainly would&#;ve been helpful), it does say that these offerings have popped up a number of times. They have also been seen advertised in YouTube videos, where instructions were provided on how gamers can run the &#;cheats&#; on their devices, and the report says that &#;comments [on the videos] seemingly indicate people had downloaded and attempted to use the tool.&#;

Part of the reason this attack could work so well is that game cheats typically require a user to disable key security features that would otherwise keep a malicious program out of their system. The hacker is basically getting the victim to do their own work for them.

&#;It is common practice when configuring a cheat program to run it the with the highest system privileges,&#; the report notes. &#;Guides for cheats will typically ask users to disable or uninstall antivirus software and host firewalls, disable kernel code signing, etc.&#;

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

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So, if we look at the GUI. It is so easy to use and no doubt it is user-friendly. The menu on the left side contains an option to set up its settings. With Acronis True Image Crackyou can also transfer your files, data and many other important things to your external drives with few clicks.

Acronis True Image Key Features:

  • Complete Image Backup: Free and full image backup and recovery support. In case of data loss easily recover your full configuration setting as well as files.
  • Ransomware Protection: Protect your files from ransomware from encrypting with intelligence and machine-based advanced technology.
  • Survival kit: New features that are used to create a full backup of the system on external devices.
  • Cleaning Utility: Full access to remove older version backup by deleting necessary
  • Dynamic Disk Emulating: Create an exact real-time image of your running file, media and configure the setting of MAC or Windows Operating system without running or stop them.
  • USB Back up: Now support plug and play automatic back up with just plugging your USB into PC.
  • Virtual Support: Great thing comes with the latest update is now you can run, test and install your back up files or programs by converting back up on virtual disk drives using a virtual
  • Flexibility:  Acronis True Image support maximum flexibility and its guarantee user protection.
  • Simple to use: Your workflow will not disturb whether you’re a beginner or a professional. Because this comes with a great simple interface.
  • Individual Backup: Additionally, Create part of the backup, i.e., files and folders.

Acronis True Image MAC + Keygen Is Here

In conclusion, by a team of CrackDev’s is that Acronis True Image is well suited in the industry if we see it by the standard.  This Backup tool and has comes with the latest new features and improvements. All in all, it is good enough for backup and recovery of your files. There is No doubt that this software has the best backup features module for protecting your data.

System Information:

  • Windows: 10/8//7 (bit or 64 bit)
  • MAC OS: Sierra13/Sierra 10
  • Memory: 1Gb Minimum or Maximum 2 Gb
  • HDD: 4 Gb required for full software
  • CPU:  GHz or higher

How to Crack and Install?

  • Copy the Crack ACRONIS TRUE IMAGE from the link
  • Paste crack in the software folder
  • Now Run it as administrator.
  • There you go!! Enjoy with premium features.

Acronis True Image Crack + Setup With Keygen Free Download!

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

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Источник: [arenaqq.us]

1 A STUDY OF DIAGONAL TENSION FAILURE IN REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS SEPT NO

2 -- 8ftIJt ', _lii au.r.-i arenaqq.us»GLib. AI., 'lv: to._. JlLndICII' z_as.,~., eo t : II Ill.%'K'arenaqq.us otcut ~ _ hoj_ A tt b ' :Ill. J'l~ OJ, Oil''''' )- '.~ :Ia~ 1.k~ ~.tto 1Ir. WI' eo a-r. Qr'.~ -'-ft'. __.IB _ n '-' GIl, :otl 4. OM to tl>oo IIoo.l' r 8, _. uu. ~. uu. of _ n,. rn.r I. CllltnllJa'~ _.tal:r _ a1ilo _.~r. .~_0It1id'?'''~_ U~ _ r- I;: too:, )Rt Oil 1:Il1& IItud OIl _ proti.i Oil M-' '.m :Ia n1drirceiii 1M IlCri :Ill P< W _ tm --a eo L'bel.'.'-7 arenaqq.us? t OIl' 1'. r. 'X ':or J.a. ~ v. DoI* If.~ 1'. P. ~ P. eo If1ll o r 40> J. 'I.un JaW I.~ u._ e. 3,J I!IIIIJtM

3 ,U Py-', _-~ '.'.~~ _

4 Ackledqol.t.- h f1 rat.d to tt,ben of tn. bc>a~d of til. Joint KI'l'1' arenaqq.us foroj.,t end UI Prof. K, II, _ arenaqq.us for pvldln<j arenaqq.us Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks the proj. SpecUI arenaqq.us<. U 'llv. to pror Il. J. OUtz.,llhr. _jor profso and UI IU H. Le. 10r tll1< arenaqq.us quldance. _<tvlce. n. wthor atao arenaqq.us t.a Pr arenaqq.us to I'.r. G. ', ron and Hr, G. p. McClure, arenaqq.us teehnlcu., end t.o N. J. l>. Pound. 10r tt,el.- 'l'ltneruuon. 1n the hbcir:arenaqq.us

5 Digitized by the Internet Archive Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks with funding from LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundalion; Indiana Department 0' Transportation

6 ' TABL.1i Of' comalt'$,m 01' TAa~ UST ~ l1guau ' 9_ o. M'~ ~ LIST Of' S'dt1OUl urtaoductioll The FrObl. Stendd Dee19 'roc_r 0 0 1_ of the l.1teuture, ~ without Wooblnfore_.nt thb _.lnfore_ent 0 arenaqq.us Chan'!._ In l)euqn pro,~r PUIlPOSI AN!) licops TEST SP8;IHI5tl$ ANti PROC DURa5 Da.,rlpt1on 0' Speelmenlt 0 l1aterl.h Conet. M.1>< 0 0 A99r~.t 0 1I_'nforctn,! Stood arenaqq.us end 0-> iqulpoo.,t. arenaqq.usn Tu' Procedure 0 0 Ttn UIllt.1I ''''' arenaqq.us_) Ill o Stirrup.) $erl h ,0 SUrrup. _ nul). yen of T'.lo<> ' ''''' arenaqq.us - yen of T.,uon arenaqq.us) 14_J Stiuup., 1.&ytn of arenaqq.us Itull.,

7. llea~ la_4 (No St1rrup. _ 2 Loyar. of arenaqq.us Stu! ) Ser II Ba.~ llb-l (No Stirrup.) Bell. lib-2 (Low arenaqq.us of Stirrup. 6 arenaqq.us) 8e.~ li8_] (Klqh arenaqq.us or Stirrupa J 1/2 Spaclnq). Bea. HB-4 {3 1/2 Stirrup Spacln<)_Lonqltudlnal See.l Cut-oro 8ea~ (No Stlrrup. _ Lonqltu~lnal Steal Cut-Off) SIIrl60 III. ' IU (No Stirrupa) II' lu (' Parcentaqa of Stun,p. R ~clnq) IUII_J (lilqll Percantaqa ol Surrup. 51/2 SpcIn<). II. IlIlI_4 (Hiqh arenaqq.us of Stlrrup. - 4 SpClnq) lia IUB-S (4 Stirrup SpClnq - Lonqitu<llnal Steal Cut-Oft) II IIIII-f\ (No Stlrrup. - Lor>qltudln\ suel Cut_Ofr) Be IIA-I. 2, and 3 (No Stlrrup. _ 2 Layer. or arenaqq.us ) OISaJSSIotl 01' TEST RE5Ut:rs Mo<ln of 1a11re Bell arenaqq.us Stlrrupa &e,~. ~lth Wb Relnforcent IIICtou ALtectinq Ba. arenaqq.us Spn to OtIptll Ratio I'arcal'ltq. ot Web Relntorcnoant serua U Ilea. liari Ilea Arranq.,Mlt ot Tanl10n Stal!llor Cut-Ofr OU,arenaqq.us Crack Lo,uon ANALYSIS Ok' T~ III1:WLTli No,arenaqq.us,r1n. litre at DI.~nl Crckin. 1J1tl ta Shear Snenqth '.oroent It SIl60r_Oo.,arenaqq.us rlllur. Ultl.,,ta 5tren,arenaqq.us ln I'lara '. ' ' ' no no,n ' ' ' n. ' '

8 SUI'II'w\RY /\lid CWCWUQill SUliGlftla<1 roil rur'l'ttilt arenaqq.us<:H 8IeLIOGaAPHYl'~l>IX A _ ITltUll_UltAnl: 1'arenaqq.us 01' f1i1 ll&wroilcimii<'i'l'ij'i)l1( 8 _ l'rcckdtilu:' rolll'lica'i'iql AN!) loottli:ill'rccrlllc or Tt\.l s.~. litrani GIloG&S A;lPlilil>lX c: - Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks fjata ' '

9 ., Paqe '0 ~. P~arenaqq.usl or the stirrup st1 5.,ryof 'rut 1I.,lu. 7. CompArl~n ot 'eet St~. ~lth ~I ~. Commltt ~en<!.tioll' (I) III u. n I!!. ~rleon ot arenaqq.us ~tft9th. ~Ith ~HO arenaqq.us Splrl~atlon.!or HI9h~'Y 80Id9 (4). Mon. at Sh'r-COIIIprlon luu {T t. Oolhl.d frono uatl<>n. of ad. ' ' ' Heel, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, Conen lituln. a,~, _0 litul ConerHe SHUn_, IB_2 ' Concrete arenaqq.us 1'_2 ' l'arenaqq.ust Sh.~._eo.,p.'IDn hllur. (Tn. '. arenaqq.usd trolo liquauo. arenaqq.us 75) _0 Concute Strain. U._l '._1 StrUnG r _. ~c t. arenaqq.us I-'l-e Sled. _. Concrete ileu.concte StUln, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. It &-2 ' ' '.~ '

10 .u arenaqq.us Of' TAS.l.U 'CCflTINIJC) Tble P.~. Iteel, Concrete Stul~ IJI_l '. ited, eoncrete Stral.e 'M US.,~. Sled Stralna - lea. st_l, Concret. StUln. 'Mo lua-7 - St1 ' _. Conc.-ete itrlt!. e UII ) ' '., ited St I.a - ~ Concrete Stralne UIB_. St1 <on Concrete StUlne,- un. '. St,1ll StIn. _ B.a. Nexus vst 3.3.4 Crack Archives vi II arenaqq.us or riqi/lu f1guca ~.q. L ConvllIItl.l Sh.-c iqu.t'on '. a.a!o~ arenaqq.us'. rot-ioll 0' DI TI CUd< U Sh.r Stran9th./.RaUo lhtu1h ot tp-':ln. VI. Prlor to arenaqq.us,'ntorln9 Cooqa In Tnt I'OU uon PeUlh ot Tan!;arenaqq.us, > tt.r T.n Serl '0' U. U. s.,tt.r TUt lou' '. ~. it1 Ur.'n Sui. D. ~. o.!le<:uon Sui. ~. ll.fluon serl, (ont'd) D. ~. Conr.t. Strain - 'ert., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. 1. StrUn DUtUbuUon _. _.,~,~,~,~,~. ~

12. LUt. or ftqur. (ConU,oodl l'19ura. 'd,~, '9a.- ~ ~.'. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us iarla. U.'. iurrup Suln arenaqq.us U. n. ~, u. D.U.,U On Serl. U. ~.'. Conerata IOUil1n - liarl. U tualn l)arenaqq.usn 'd' SUain l)arenaqq.usn 'd' IIII-2 n. IUatn l)urlbuuon 'd. UII. ). 'tuin l)lltnbution 'd. IIB-4 n. 'd. II 'd. IIII 'd. lis ). - UII 'd. IIB. $. ~.'. u. ~.'. ~. ~. ~.'. it_t arenaqq.us Sarua m M 't._l 'tuln hrl. m (cont.'d) it1nup Sttaln. Sene. m u. DoIfl.,U_ $erte. m u. lleu.,u_ $one. m (cant'd) n. ~, u. <:OO:>eraa Iualn _ tam m. ualn l)utrlbuuon 'd' IIIII_) Stuln. Itratn Dtatrlbutlon.- liib_ Dutrlbutlon 'd. IIIII-'

13 l.u t ot '19r (Con Urn.>.-d I. Fl9U. P i0 9 -~- au. l UIB ' Ul Ul ~. n. - 11IB-~ - HI' lua.-l - IUA.-l. llia CrIte ) 5. ' ' ' I (or $h.r-,=->t CopaClty ', n. T.lon - ~. 6 arenaqq.us . T.,uon ' TUt _ No W1re

14 . Haney, WU, II l:sci:, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Purdue Unl~udty. Aug.t, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, A Study of lluqonl Tenuon.U.e In ReInforce Concrete s 'Jor I'arenaqq.us M. J. OUUIoer. Th18 reoureh 18!On l'arenaqq.us of the lt1o'.t I behavior of ulncored COncrte _ arenaqq.us '&11 In eh.r. arenaqq.usly. th objectlv of the investigation ere, II to compare the.t.n9th. and»ode. of failure of «'4''1 ~. ~ tth and Io1tho\lt arenaqq.us rlnfo_nt (arenaqq.usl. :II to deter.!n. the.h It'!'I9th arenaqq.us part of the longitudinal arenaqq.us tl I_ Ut'arenaqq.usln th arenaqq.us ~one. rwenty b m. of 6 x ,ungula. cro-eectlon loae to (>Ortlon of. conti. '1Udu.,bJected to concntrated loe,_. The b e.e d19n~ eo that th critlal r~lon for rellure the length betwe.n the point of ero _ent an the polnt of>< neqau. _ent - co.,nly o:alle<! the ahur apan. Thajo< a<uble. we. tha ahear apan to epth ratio an the a~nt of vertical at1rrupo w1thln tha.h.r apon. a wlth n,lna1 arenaqq.us to epth rauo. or 2,2, 2., ~.g,

15 .uwno! tnted;, In.~.n of til. bea the n~.uv. tenelon a'l provilled by r,r bar. 11'1 two laye\11 other bu. conulne<l two ler'1u bare In. _In'll layer. In.',Ution. tour b. ere cen with the 10/'lqlt,<ll_1 arenaqq.us b.o. cut ott at the point. whe. t1,ey.e.e no longe. required to reelet tenelon. In all othe. ap,i. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks 10/'1'11 tudl,_1 neel WlIoe extended throughout tn full h/'l9th 0: tn b It tolln that the arenaqq.us of thhlcal ''1&90/' arenaqq.us crecl< arenaqq.us\v, to tl> pport had. 1.'9 arenaqq.us On t. _<I. ohlle CUlu /'Ill arenaqq.us.n,,!t. Thfl location of the crlti.l <luge.l crecl<, In turn, WU dependent upon til. length of eu. epen. ttl. eo'lojnt of arenaqq.us'it. end upon 10ealkn IndUce' by cuttin9 off the '1'11 eu<lln.l in the Unllon ton., Detalled <IleOJ_lIon o~ the tuluu arenaqq.usd individual b arenaqq.us are pruented. long with arenaqq.us or tnt arenaqq.us,

16 LllOT Of' 5Y!'.BCLS a _l 1 am of tenaton neel A' _Inal arm of arenaqq.usl.,ro-alottio ar_ 01 ontirrup a, le'ju> of HI.I ah_arenaqq.us (<thune fr_ aec:uon of 1 t to point o~ Infhcuon) <'I' <'arenaqq.us lrcllo '*1'lon fe. to en'arenaqq.us<'l ot CClIO_ poion ated J<'I tntnet NOm*nt S.m, sai9ht llne theory ~. _Is o(arenaqq.usy 01 a.e Initial Ungen. _,Iu. of n'arenaqq.us, (' arenaqq.us CO/arenaqq.us. e s'''.ngth, ' 12 aun<'ls,<'i., '., ~ '.,~ c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us'''''''h,- arenaqq.us etr In 10l\0Jt'<'ItlIon arenaqq.us at In 10,<' arenaqq.us at_l t2 at.n<lsr<'l c:y1tn<'arenaqq.us.a In arenaqq.us Iteel at arenaqq.us of b

17'\, 'I.,, '. '0, ~ - 'lob ~.lnto~c_.nt UUO,, '0.~ 1n crlucu oh.a. apan ohn' Igne<'! to concreu (.,rl<l'1 nca').hn' tgn~ to etlrcupe (WOrkl'1 etc arenaqq.us)OhN:I9 nee ~ b; or ~ e. e1'lne<! In t.c DOnlon ot arenaqq.us _h_un')'.n._.au'), to concrec u~_, at duqo l cuc:l<i'l '. portion 01 total.1'0 1'1 lot 1'1' to ectrrupa

18. ultl~arenaqq.ush lncllrauon of aurrupa ~arenaqq.us' to lon'arenaqq.us\.xu Inclination of ~l.'li0nal lonqltu<ll,i I. tract with pee, tb '.,~ s. C;:. D.T.u &n at out ~r'10n tiber at UU arenaqq.us In t,arenaqq.us' a._1 at r.,uura.~r-eo-prlon rallur. arenaqq.us fatlu.a U_) to'na'on tallu atraln In ~Icro-inch par Inch \

19D<TRotlUCTJCf' In en effort to depart t tt>. arenaqq.usa ll1po the,uon. arenaqq.us,,v)or, )ny.t1.~u for b\' venl yeou t>av. nudj. th. ultllmt. load boo,,! of I.!oo., arenaqq.us:t<> arenaqq.us itlu1 tor d19n en be obull, t the arenaqq.us fcliol. ofc1l. It U _11 ~nown that u.,wet beha,'or arenaqq.us COne hoi do not eon!o. Ith th. auo.('1 th.1' of pr''''uce. On 10 Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks thl arenaqq.us I. th. ability to p.'.c:. lth.-,,'arenaqq.us the ttl_la I a. of. ~., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. aectlonbjected t.o pun _dl9. 'at UUI ben aubj., t.<> the c:o-oblned action of bltn,21nq arenaqq.us tore. ~'lueh _y n.ly H_ll tm' _pc:lty of. _. To ntabhah til.n.1 eondltlona u,hieh arenaqq.us nrh ot. _ arenaqq.us., Or eontiou.t by.h. o.a.l'l'ht C'Oflaldu the c of. U.,lypport Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. und two av-ur1<:al con<:flitutol<l loa<l., In U'I1a <:<IIaa tho r.,1on b.t loada U 1n t<llt. of pur, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. bend1nq,> th. lqul

20rro<o ~hlt load to tnlt Ituppert, =_only all. tn. ahear apen, Ie ltubjected to ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.usq and bending torc 'hen the len'ilth or the ea. Itpan 10 hrg_ (6 to 7 Um tl>. bea. depth end qrht.e. I. the!'ure bend!n arenaqq.us a.,<i-epanit lat '. A. the I' 1. arenaqq.us typical ent.'arenaqq.us cracl;arenaqq.us~r on the!>ottom Ude of the b. Collap ot the b ccur by cruehlnq ot U,e concrete In co.,preulon. rot beamat> no., aooounu of.,e'on arenaqq.usnt ohio 10,uH1.y preceded by yleldln,:/ of arenaqq.us!. 1'''. ptuenee arenaqq.usn the arenaqq.us apane ha. no elfect on t.h. loed carryl9 ',chi'. Ilo~r. If the lond. a,,<><1 <:lo to the eupporu. the ratio of eh.a. to,olun I>1g. TIle eoo>binauon of _arenaqq.us Ittr end bendlq arenaqq.us produce_. principleelon actinq a~ ~he Inclination of approxl_tely ~5 at Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks n,~rftl axla or the bea. and n rly horlzor>l'l 't <he bottolo ot the be EvIdence or thls Incl!ne tension Is arenaqq.us by the gradual chane In InlInatlon of th. tenston crocks.s th.y appr~ch <he neutral axl. of <he beam. Betore auttlclent arenaqq.us momant Is 'e~arenaqq.us to produca tallura In arenaqq.us un6er the load point or ~n tha Iddlpan, a dutlnct diagonal tension crack appaars and panetratea well Into Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. arenaqq.us zon., ~'h1l. lhu crack 'a usually an axunslon of tha Incllned oortlo<l of a fleral arenaqq.us craclt and cannotlly b. conudered aeparata one, It la <lutinct troll the tatter In ~het It pen.~ ~es deeply Into tha,rulon >:one

21~t tnc un.,l:,> flter alope, c~.ln'lnlt1,~nt re,h. trj._ h,uon ot lh internal.t In.BUI, 1t I th abll1ty or the b to i,et>l tm atr arenaqq.uson that <arenaqq.us the Hi_te, Btrenqth at the beam fter lor, Uon or th1. dlaqonal craci<. -or b 'arenaqq.us reinforcement the atrength beyond dt90nal cra<:l<lnq to b. dq>,.ntlniy upon the hear epan to depth ratio. Pro,t.!on of 'eb reinforcement or Bt\rrup., In general terma, has the effect of con~inln9 till. cr.c~. pre'.t!g 1te deep penetration Into the c~preion ~one, delaying the atre arenaqq.usl~. and thereby lncl9 til. Btr!'>9tl>. A arenaqq.us~ch to the problem of predicting the load at which th lncunot<! crack 'UI form Bn<l penetrate Into the arenaqq.us tone ~uld Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks to ba an analyaia of ~he principle ~arenaqq.us ~.valope~ trom arenaqq.us of combin.~.tr Howevar, ona can r ~1ly aee tl>at the ~arenaqq.us of ahearln':! an~ norl arenaqq.usu belo, the ntul axu 1. hl,:!hly ln~etar~inate. CraC~ln,:! In the extr.m. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~k.e place at arenaqq.us9.e of loa~ln':l, At aec~lona coincl~ent with arenaqq.us cracka arenaqq.us orl,:!,nally takan by the concre~e 1. ~renaterred to the arenaqq.us a~e.l. ~~.ec~lona arenaqq.us~ ~he racka _a ~,ree of tenuon.,et be arned by the concr provl~ln9 the bond between the ate.l an~ COnCrete is arenaqq.usd. In addition, arenaqq.us once carned by the concrete ut b. :uro ecroaw the CUCl<. As a ruua.h.r. ia probably a concentration of aheerln':! atru. a~ ~he top of the creck.

22 t , t ~ ~ 1 1, ~., ~. I. l, arenaqq.us T+4T J li,' ' T-f=- HloT '

23. < for _ It_t eonalderlnq A lengu. 0.><. of 1> 'I~h arenaqq.us ti.,r_l ~arenaqq.us cred<a 1F19ra IbL t of the _enu about. point at be arenaqq.us dtj<i*vt> IEq'n. 1) ~arenaqq.us In the 'lon zona and 1. of conaunt. 'louu. belo. the nintr41,11, (he Figura Ie! 51ne8 at principle lenelon equal. l~ arenaqq.us bjd ld be OJ.' _aura of pro,cln\l arenaqq.us cu,\ IncU,1td cu<:\<. When thh >1. a,rln'l' atr.u Je e>«:.''''._r u!nforc_en. In a fo. U rmiulr!. n. _thod u.t to 19 ti' 8hMe'fore_en. U broe.;! on tim _ c.u.1'\1 an_lolly,

24~r ton _. carrte _r eon_pondt,') ~ <:: 03 f~. Ic1u<l,1_ U the 'PHon t the <l1goo',&1 arenaqq.us crack p_u.n t.o. <l~th arenaqq.us til,arenaqq.us (that Ie, t.o,he centroid of arenaqq.us). F19Uce 2. en tlue 1 the follow'jy. PlGtllli 2, aalii$ YOi' TIlU:ii AlU~UlGY 1ndlnetlon.,>0 dt<jonel tenelon en' ldleu arenaqq.us!, ~~, nme._ to. nih'''!''_ tt. ulrrup. he arenaqq.us by the CVfIcrte

25. ahnr.\arenaqq.us ~~arenaqq.us., au.p, - A eroolle-iollcuonio 1 HM 0' ~. iott rrup '. Ure. ' au.,? n. force 1n on. aurcu? h ':'~t un,~, lee1 co- ponent. of the terc In ell arlrcup. ero. br the diagonal J!/ -\-t v Un Q 'J' 0' ::I UnCI I cot a tv y', ( Un ) (l!iq'n.2) O' ',l. Y', KUno_coeo

26porwon of the total unh 81> earned by v bjd V. ne! the UlrrT' Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks a. r. ba n> of b~. ~lth atlrrupe Ie 0 3, ȯ (l::q'n. Probably the la.g.1 _ource of _rror In lhla analysi_ H arenaqq.us of the po<tton or the tout.h beam behaior, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. ~a!. deugne have reaulted prrlly through the Y u ha. yielded. Ide arenaqq.us In ulely arenaqq.us> upe<:! to tile atren'l<:.h8 pre<l1c:ted by thu melmd. Teneion ~w.d (1). aluauon of dau from _ te be arenaqq.usn ben COneret cylinder 'arenaqq.us!> and the nominal arenaqq.us at diagonal cracking arenaqq.us In arenaqq.us to the BIBLlOOilM'1fi at en<l 01 theue.

27arenaqq.us>ou.h U b.~ of In~tt10t'1. Il'IvolI1'19 ah baalor. be tr_. oer tile hh 1,<> <'Ieeadu, It he. be only ~lthln tile l t J to ~ yea that enou'lh Infor. Uon eouid bio_l:>l{l<1 to otter. d~nr. fc. the e.>r'arenaqq.us i thod of au'!'n. 'Jor 1>01'19 ~.r. 'e 'Ithpeel ~ all In tile latt rwv!alon ' the AcI 8Jlldin9 Cod., K Ulan. tl',1non r triel. to \I,tl>od for dauna1n1n9 arenaqq.us h_un. au at dw<jqt>al CUCl<ln'l to. btoa 11'> nlnfofc_.t. A l a1>i. Infor_t,,, on the b_lor of _,Ith auhupa. nat _.,fuel to UloI09y cone. d.,nue_ fro. tm conventional A Utl l ailj'arenaqq.us of the boi.!e dtaulbluon of IDtan,11 n.r art.r dla_at Udllnq 1& atill lack!,!. Ibw-u. IntenUUItd attorn o,r til. hnu! _n have 1:r_ht about,.u better,arenaqq.us of the q er.t Rechan1_ arenaqq.us t I~ U ~h. purpo o! Ule fouo>.lnq lu'ulon t.o pol~ ou~ _. ot ~h. d'l'hl.n~ Unlr<arenaqq.us 11' u. h~.nr arenaqq.us_~ IN. t.o p t arenaqq.us l_n~ 1., ~ Uv arenaqq.us 0). lui. (11)

28 WI ttl the.,cepta of the of unl t.h ~arenaqq.us crlte'-lon. It t~t th. 'un~~t.l. or the probl. WUS {O'tt folob of yean, IiIorly ln~arenaqq.us.n all tl\.ot the arenaqq.us. t hlct> dlill<jonilll creck!q OCal., not ill {uction of caneale iiiue'!th alone., arenaqq.us ill tenlu arenaqq.us, InvU'l'U.o atill iii<n>ln'l' to the I. ot ill l1l1t1ting unit ahm., beqill., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. noucln'l' \hat the '''eraciill arenaqq.us9 n.r at dh~l crilldcl'j depende.t on thr _jor v_arenaqq.us, liii''' of one, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. The iii.e. 1) tim cor.,arenaqq.us arenaqq.usll auiii'i!'th. 2) the p.r ~'l'. of lobgltudlnillltnfo and H IlM _'lint. of nol be,'hn9 Ute rool_ttue = tim arenaqq.us arenaqq.us eu U. ttle cnucal,,uon. The arenaqq.us eu. of U>lrd of the eilled ill n rn Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. t~~arenaqq.us l~. to tim ~'lc conatoleratlon tl\.ot the prabl. _. on. ofbl u. W>.U. a Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks abl 1 of prlndpl. ~.Ion atr._.~r._. _lur arenaqq.us<ln9 'nno~ t. eale:ulnad. ~h ttac~ of bvldin9 on ~h arenaqq.us\9.~ ~ &A9Oft.l c:ra<:l<l1>9 c.n b<o a>q>r d by the '1l_1onl_ arenaqq.us), I\IVd. 'or ~h. U-pl. b. njar arenaqq.us loall. (F19\1r. l) tim IV'Vd r_uo at ~h. cuti.!.uon I. arenaqq.us _p.,_to-<loopth ratio./d.

29 u r-', I P I I P,n ~ 1'_,1 ~p I I I I I I v pci b-<uri I I 'I I I, I I I I I '-NT! J L --= ' '!!!i.! ~ Vol P ~ '. I,~ ~ I ~ct- ~===~ b-_= ==~~ _I.-' a.j 0-$ FI.,u,OI t ',oe:. Full P.,_1.'0 cooh FIGURE 3 FORMATION OF or. GOPrl TENSION CRACK

30 P'~.~ ~~6,~~~.A'~'.tq~,pT~~ ~TqT4X. '~ ~~~ ~~(~.A '1H,~nE '(Onou Pt./! ~O) onu 4,dap o~ ul'd.1'4. '{l uo<lo' At'U pdotp en._. ';Ul'1:U:> arenaqq.us~lp ~ ~~1 p,~. '1~.n '1~ ~u;,ojul' q.~ ~~>T.' dap.p,arenaqq.us. Ul '1H.(.uont1. Ap (.d on Z.d) '. UOl ~.4~ on ~~arenaqq.us~x ~.c~t ~.:> arenaqq.us~.,p.'{l.,~~. T.~.~ tutl bun.l,0 dqq~ b,pnl~ul ~1~ Au.w '(. ~d O~ E '~d) I.~. ~l.u~.4~.p.~o~ 'l:'vq P'. (E,d).'O~ ot d~~.4~ O~Ul 4~oq p.,,, pu. '(Z.d) 4~dapPt. ~,oj Pf'~0'.' lpu 4.J. '(E '~<1 o. Z '~d E n&ul '~U:> ou. t; 6't'''1~. )0 'Olod P.'TY:>UI. ~~ arenaqq.us:.o'd~~ 4~ Oll O,~x. u.1 ~u:> '~ 1.,obTp '''Ho '(H) '(In '(ft) '(01) '(9) arenaqq.us 11 4.~ P'. ',I4.~ arenaqq.us J n,, 4.~ 'I 1ulPn:>16uol arenaqq.us,>ud.~~ A'u 0 onu 61,1n,wH >\:>n PI'''T1:>1,I1 l>ntn.,~ dot P 0. 46., ''1 ~. o.u.~ arenaqq.us,p.4~ arenaqq.us~ lit.~nx.i; '.~nn, onu 01/. IO~~.:>oq. ~4'.:> I.n ~UI'WOIII,0 on:>~ul.t4' jo ~.PtM ~4.,n~6,(lb,>' 01''''''Hn 4.~,0 ~,'~ ~. 6UIPu;,q I~'OU / hu1 :>1,oJ 1'<u. 'fez) '(SZ) 'nt) '(61 '(9) '01 61~u 1.'0&'.,'I., Iun.6U 'I. 'PU':>ld )0 4~6u~T.4~ '~'I u.~. unq AT.H'Hp.0<1 H

31 the to tl<>n ot the lnltiel dugonal CUCk. for relatively arenaqq.us,arenaqq.us the tolll3tlon of th. du'lonal Unn crack and 'plete huure ohoon Uk. plae tanly. arenaqq.us ~lth the.e arenaqq.us arenaqq.usr. have repcrted two 'leneral <ec>dee ot.h r fuire. Takln'J for arenaqq.us the.i,lyppo. t.d b<iiam undr a COnentut~ load. It hag been noted arenaqq.us belo~arenaqq.us val. the ek arenaqq.ust so,e point I thin the arenaqq.us ~on. ~Ith Inclng load It arenaqq.usy penetutu deeper. ' the =ne II arenaqq.us reduced. the coeulve Itreet be grnuy arenaqq.us Ultimte fallre II by.hlng of th <:<>ncrete In thll redued OOIIIpruu<>n ~one. ganeully arenaqq.us to the Iad point, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Thl. type of fallre I. c,only ca Iled t h. ahear.~prion fell r. arenaqq.us from thi. 1. th o call.d.u~en dla'jonal ten alon arenaqq.us. ocurrlng 1n bn of arenaqq.us span. arenaqq.us hllure occur SOOn a. the du,gonal cuck torme. It tallur., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. do not occur altejltaneouely, th. cuck penetrate. upldly Into th. comprion tone, and very little lncr In lo.d arenaqq.us to au.e couapee. ~ho In Fi'lr a plot or arenaqq.us at d1agonu arenaqq.ust ltlte load vera. arenaqq.usp.n to depth ratio tor a group arenaqq.us-iiupported beam. upon.d by 1' and Yleet (25). Tor arenaqq.us b (IA'd. 1) Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks ltl,au!allure ld about t'le the,uagonl cracking la. Other Invutiqatora have rported Ullre loade ae IIUch ae to 1 tl~e, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. the laoonal crack In'! loae fo bea Aa the

32 _ I I I. - _.- '.Uu 7 M I J ~. 'f' G _. I I, _ 4;_' M, ' I,_.,- '-I. ll~l I I SPIlN fo ll(ph' OIATIO 5lI1Ail ~RIQiG11l '>'$./d \ t.o ~h. d ~doo ~Y1'. In the du.,1 ~_.ton lulue. '., Gtnl e_ln 1o 'arenaqq.us elu fe_ <h. arenaqq.us'.

33 -0, > Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks , > >!, - 0 I ~ > 0 < ~, jl > - 0 ~ I > ~ -> 0, ~ > < ~ g, - a, - 0 ~ - 0, ~, < g > - - g -- 0 >, - - - > 0 0 ~, < a - I <,,-0, , g > 0 < > 0 >,, g 0 > 0, - -! -0 >, - --> 0,, 0 0, >, - 0 > - - > -! g > < 0 0, - > -0 0, : - - >, > > 0 0 >, - - <. - >, -0 0, 0 0, 0 0, - 0 >, > i, > - 0 < < ~ - - 0, - g 0 0 ~ 8 ~ > g, ~ -0 g, - I g, > 0 0, 0 < 0 &,, - >, > > 0 8 ~ 0, 0 0, > - - - - I >, 0 0 >, 0 g - - < - l, - - < < 0, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, , ~ ~ 0 0, - 0,, -- - ~ - - <, - - g - 0 < 0, - 0 <, - - < 0,, ->, - > 0, > ~ ~ 0 - > < 0, - - -> < -<, < > - > 0 > Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks 0 0 ~ ~ - -< 0 0, --,, - - 0, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, 0, > - <, !, 0 > < 0 > 0 >, 0,, 0 - ~ -

34 end toohear rallyre 1. delayitd yntll the b,<11ng COlO arenaqq.us oyer the arenaqq.us 1. high enough to arenaqq.us ln cntehlng. In the CUe of the longer she.r sp.n, the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ferth.r out free the l~d arenaqq.us loc.l oo~prn ha. 11ttle r trlnln9 arenaqq.us upon the creck developent. Thle hypoth.l.,apport.d by arenaqq.us tena _al. or. Uret, 'ith arenaqq.us concentratad at the top and. eecol'1d.,lth the load. appu, a. ahean to arenaqq.us The lv'vd ratio ~ a. ~. In 'the flret ce 'al1u. ~ a. arenaqq.us c~relon, while In the latter fellure we. the audden dlegonal arenaqq.us type.t. greauy r~citd 1<1. LooJ<lng OIor. arenaqq.us. t arenaqq.us oi.h r!allure, on. clln eee the prnc. of other effecu.,mch ~' tend arenaqq.us the two arenaqq.us mode. of fal1ure. OnC th. dl9anal crack b'lln. to penette the c.,arenaqq.us tone,beuntiel redutrlbut10n of lnternel atrt ocr. ~ec.u of the re<luc.d COncretr both the comprlve arenaqq.us1l9 force. In the r'llon aboye the crack ~.t be Increed. Locking at a fre. body of the poruon of a be<l outside the cracl<. (pts ) re 3, the,,uon of _u aboon the arenaqq.us of <»arenaqq.us ln tile uneuclce<'l portion of the (Section, no. tnt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us b-b,et eerry.n Iner e<l arenaqq.us, arenaqq.us!n,! to the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us. tctlon a_ There 1. undoubtedly.0lil all\olln' of dowel action arenaqq.us, whle would td to reheow., ler cerrlitd by til. arenaqq.us eollllpreulon :<one end til. arenaqq.us

35 In tnt l at th1& point. ~~.v.r the crack ~ld.n. and routlon tend. to concentrate about the uncucked portlon arenaqq.us a_a, the dowel!orcn are greatly increased and aoon dutrey, through the tot'''lon 01 the crael<, pt. 2 to pt.~. 1. Innd sue! eneton, In ad,ution. pro. qrutly increflaed arenaqq.us beteen the ction at Ul. crack and arenaqq.us clo to the _upper. Thle, combined with ti. dowel,ctlon, otten lade to pr09rha dunjctjon o~ ben throll'lhout the ahear epen. 1 ~'.ttie!,' ancl>or 'ile by hook or by extuon beyond arenaqq.us idt!ilure could ' ''It. When anchou h provide<!. true action and behavlor 1. the alar to that ot tied erel>. pa. (29/ TIler. haa been.'. quu01'i arenaqq.us til. ehea. strength DC. 'I-Section can loa prlcted in.l>fi,1 of t onctangulatlon 'There_. to b. 11tU. Into~tlon on ~Ic. ~arenaqq.us ol T_amn~ arenaqq.usr b.''' r ho,eer. ln~lc. tlon thh. I08~ the for_ t10n of.h. <l1,on.1 crack In. T arenaqq.us to tmt of ectangula. b ot the.''' wl<lth a. th. T_Bet (31) Th. ltlma ':lth J:>ehavlor of T_8 _. to b '.~i>at <arenaqq.us ~I'PIpan T-b t by A!-A,(5) in<llc.t. th.t th. 1&,e cplon aua proi<l by th. 'l.n9 ill not a11o, <l Adobe Photoshop CC 2020 for os Archives. of thheacompulon typ. fau $!arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us0.,r arenaqq.us from 2 to 7.~. and. 11 failed by diagonal arenaqq.us All bxhlblte<arenaqq.us. tu,th l:>8yond diagonalklng ith IncrHUngly gru

36 nu ~or /'./Vd retioa below four. Thhear ~ha~lor of a bea~ 1. alao arenaqq.us!r.c~a4 by cutuil9 ort arenaqq.us r.,lnforc_ltnt In accordane with,nt requlr \.; b/ilu ere ter. ln~.<l -- say In the arenaqq.us r~lon of. oontinuoue bea. -- where they ere no 10nq. r~lra4 to rlet tlexurel tenlon, there occur. Iaoontl nu1ty 'len IlU been rooted In 0lIl C to carty fouon of th dl.o. 1 tlltlalon <:ra<:~. l'er'juaon (14) h reported thlot th load at,u\lonal CraCI<Iy be e. lo~' 70 percent of t~t tor the beam With th. ete.l Cully extende, In ddllion,arenaqq.us tor_tlon of the Uqonal erkel<., the occurs. lar9 lncr In eteel tenlon at til. pointh th crock arenaqq.us,re th ated. If th. etl h been reduced at. thla point, It U of ehe enalon rel,!orc.~t pulbl. ther pr_lure yleld!n, c=l<': rult. WhU. the.1' t.h''.c'oiiil'r.''lo hi1r. 'arenaqq.us <':ecr 1th lncrun<j II/Vd nt.\o., \1r. ~, the,t rloqulrltd to prodc. the ltt t. cn>.hin<j 1> b. found to b ronably coatant. (61, (9), (~1). '1'h1. hct 1'1. tltd to varlou. att_pu to for.,l. U crltrlon arenaqq.us~arenaqq.us fulr. ba.,<,: pon U'ltin9,arenaqq.us Th. pproach hu _n,11r to th tu Th1. Inol the t. load arenaqq.us for f1exuul fuure. '''pt10n or an ultlt. <:arenaqq.us dutrlbutlon, th. puter. o[ hil>,at b. durmln.d ''1'1rl11y. Upon.r1t1n<j the arenaqq.us o[ equlllbrl. the prob!' redu to arenaqq.us,;!.tru eo<npt1blllty cro the

37 ,UO<l. WhUe It. be.~wn that the dutnllution arenaqq.us In tl,ul typ. tauuu U Hnr, th!_.,,,ptl0 cannot 1. <1. for the ahear,,,lon htlure a of the inu of the dugonu crack. ; the crack ~1.d.n., there.,d. to 1><1 concentrated roution boat the eompn8uon ~on. above the creel<. Thl. i. further «IIIlPl1cated arenaqq.usg &1=9 th atl occun. /l.t ln tour diu t arenaqq.us ha.e be.,n<le u> tabu.h. U.ltlng _ent equauon. no, ( (25). (JO). tn ~ch ca however, the u~ed paratera have ~arenaqq.us., h,' on _plrlcal detenninaucn tl\.!lt It 1. <loubttlther they en be toun<l to be generally ppl1el:>l. Hoody'. arenaqq.us, (24), developed {oro. rl of _1,1, p8 end arenaqq.used b.a. wa. found to gle good r arenaqq.us for aerl of t.,_span <:onumla>b b undar ena and rio<> lod (27). Ho.v.~. ~h.n axtended to a ae'l.a ot t~_apan contlnuoua beama unde' ~ltlple polnt load., tha compa'arenaqq.us ot taat to calc\llated arenaqq.us au poor and lnconcludva (8). In addition, the,e Ioma queauon a. to wlletllerch a at,enqth Crite'arenaqq.us be arenaqq.us, alnce tlla arenaqq.us of the ah., comp'.lon hlluu In _ Itll,t ~'eb,elnfo,ceroent 11<1. be.n t,nd to d,'d on 1\ the load 1. t~arenaqq.us<1 to the be and In fe. c upon chance locauon of til.,aaqonal cnd<. ll 'ch 11<1. been devot' purily to thedy ot b ltllout web,e1nto~c.nt. Of tile few arenaqq.uson.

38 0 i S. iI 8, > - 8 > ; 5, > ~ 1 ~ I I,, > &, > r < & i i >., 5 > 5, I. ; I i, I - i >. I i ~ ~ s., i j. 2!. 8 ;,, ~ I, >,. 8 t. B i i I, :,, 1 ; >. ~ <, >, i., 5 . >! I <,! I t ~, - >! ~, i I t, t.,! 8, I I, i I. I., ~ B i B! >, ~ e,,, i ~. 8, t.,, i > I,, 8 >, i., i ~ 8 ~ ~ I, I ~ I ~, i, ,,!, ; 8. e., i I. I 8, i. >. B. i. t.,, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, & : i i ~ ~ 8,,!,,, i ~,,, I i ; 1., i ~ i, ~. ~ i. ~ i ~ i., i I.! I I. i., l , i B, >, I j!, i 1 ~., : . i ; f

39 of arenaqq.us (9), (16). (23). Yor arenaqq.us th.r. ldc. that the _. of Ullr 1. ho.h r tloiilpreulon. (7), l. Although thlhown (7) to '0 U for I./'o'd ratio. ot 4, 5. nd 7, the ntj.l:>er of tuta arenaqq.us~rltinrorce<l, arenaqq.us b h been ry arenaqq.us Th.r. 18 '.,pecuutlon Ill. that tor bell whh h1gh H/Vd rat and.~11 amount. ot w.b arenaqq.uslng, falr. HUI be of arenaqq.us<',1&9=,1 arenaqq.us type with arenaqq.us yielding i_a<1utdy pon dugonal cr,c~1n9. The arenaqq.us of b w1th w.h re1nforcement h~. arenaqq.us ben found to '0 oerly conaeratl w1th arenaqq.us to that predicted by the conntlon.l nuu Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. It 18 arenaqq.us accepte<l In thl.,ntry that both the concnte COfI'arenaqq.us tone and the web relnrorcement arenaqq.us to the arenaqq.us capacny. The al umptlon 18 that the co/llpreu10n %One will carry the.h r corrpon<llng to th dlagonl arenaqq.us of th bu' without web arenaqq.us'''''t. Stirrup u proportioned to carry arenaqq.us 11'1 xceu of th18 valu /Iow.r. with the prnc. arenaqq.us the.h r carrying cape1ty of the compr10n Zone 18 grtly lncrd. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. 18 pnrlly beee or the arenaqq.us to arenaqq.usn of th. diagonal crac offrn by arenaqq.us 11'1 adc1ltlon tlr<up. qraauy incr th <Io'd Cp,1ty of the '1'11 tu<l1n.l arenaqq.usent quntlty arenaqq.us by th. arenaqq.us of the trun nalogy.

40 8telM arenaqq.us 10 Dtl!9Q Pros;II1IIU. ~l.~oo.l arenaqq.us- b~.o eo~r.l'lloq th. ~t.-cunl of r._reh <~hUd: In ~h. USO'. arenaqq.us!:>arenaqq.us RIKUnq th. thz _Jor arenaqq.us c:on,r~t. nr~th, IVVd r'llo,d arenaqq.us of tlon arenaqq.us._.t the to obt'l ~arenaqq.ush1p fo~ the dlt'}on.l erac:!<llhj load. Thi. _. arenaqq.us on tht l00)lc'l a>n.l<1tr'uo. lhat the probl arenaqq.us~. prl.c1ptl tlon productd by c:arenaqq.us'l1on arenaqq.us1 nol arenaqq.us The arenaqq.us eonui tht follovquon. proporl1ontl to the.~.raq hearl.q.u' over the,arenaqq.us, 1, 21 The tu. btnc1i, nr (f t ' I. proporu'l to th. arenaqq.us l.u (arenaqq.us' by u ot the e~'c:l!arenaqq.us:tlon thtory. 1. f ~ ~

41 til. pnnclpel arenaqq.us point _ed arenaqq.us axprlon for the arenaqq.us _t arenaqq.usl cr.c~_ VC ~ (A., ~) '., V., a ~ a (A' Vf~ I'~), th<l ul Of til. C'arenaqq.us A'.n I'. Ttl. parat.u A' I' r. c1'oo._arenaqq.us thet the equauon ytel conuv. UU_t. for the _lonty of the b_.,~ (Sq'n. 4)

42 ~. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us to Include d.t. of o~.r teat beam ~eddltlonal In~t19at10n. 1ndlc.t.d th.t tha equat10n wa. al.e app11cabje to varlou. loadln9 arenaqq.us cond1 tion to ~arenaqq.us ahap.nd to _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us'lth arenaqq.us Althou9h the equation 1apHical and aa auch tll<:l to the conditlona of the tun which dlll'ln. tt. arenaqq.us, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, It hso a IllUch,r. lo91cal baat. than the COn~n~ tio,l ahear Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks equat10n. Th. the variabl. Mch had arenaqq.us been shown to affect the arenaqq.us ahear.t d1eqonal cracldng are no 1ncluded. Thh equation, aa arenaqq.us by Coaftitt In th.1r report (1),a. later adopt.d 11' the ACt Bu11,Unq Code rev1alon ot (3) Th. arenaqq.us ot bmthoutb re1ntor,ent In exea. ot the duqonal crad<1nq IOSd, exparien.d In baa,a ot arenaqq.us apan not racoqn1ze<! by th. eltta, Thi. ~ a. prrlly e to the fahnq th.t the condltiona arenaqq.us tma xa. atrength could be fully utlllze<l are arenaqq.us det1ned. In add1tlon. ahear tallurea 11' the arenaqq.us. arenaqq.us rntor,t au audd.n and brittle In natu;re, 9enerally q1v1n9 arenaqq.us little rn1nq. the ultiloata atrenqth arenaqq.us method, To be oon.1atant lth 1t talt arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ba provided fot lo.d. In exee. of that at dlaqonal etae~ing to arenaqq.us mote duetl1. type fallura. Becau.a ot tha lad< of 1>eS, tun ttl.h r relnfore_ent, tha itt <:'OUld not tend any changes In.><1et1nq

43 proc:.dur for proporuonlnq '.b nlnfor_.nt. arenaqq.us ttle 01 trun.1oqy tho<! of'1 arenaqq.us by.h Urnlpa aull r_ln A con Jor,nil. In the arenaqq.us we. h. provlatoo! on t l at1 cut-of(.lon ateal now arenaqq.us t arenaqq.us within the t.lon zen., unl On. arenaqq.us requlr r ~1. '1. aro from t recul 'Ih In<a<arenaqq.us,ctton tn ah a _.h ln b dth bare OJ off.t the potnu w!>er. th.y _re no lo'1er n_od to r&. t.u_

44 . <, > ~. > I i I i ~! > i I ~ I ~., 1 <. ~., < j ~. ~ < <. S I, < S,!. B i i., B l. < I. j,! I. I r. I B, i J! < i ~ <. 0 I >. i ~.! i,, ~ i >, i I < i I ~ 0.!., i. ~.! i < I i. i <. <. ~ i < I. I i. I i. i. - i I r ~ 1 ~.!., 8 I f. g i. < <, I i!! i.

45 All _loa v,11'- arenaqq.us w1~h one arenaqq.us en. concentnted l~d (I'll arenaqq.us to the o_chang.d One ('2) to c4ig'10fl bot the IlUpporta. n. lo.i. _.& bht to arenaqq.us Uona tea a_j.d. naq. 'ft>a point load to the U.! be-all _. poall1on.-f to ddopculeauo arenaqq.us nequ.l .t to _Xl. poaiu. _to Th<O du~ll. ion dl Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. of tl'>e.p.~_. &19 wtth U>arenaqq.us._ and arenaqq.us arenaqq.us>_ In 1'19& 5 and Tabla 1. All _sa hood th;> clktangula. <:cou-a-e:uon. no. 'Jor un_bi. _ra the la,ti'. of arenaqq.us''' UtI! &=&1>9 of the 10ft91bJdlnal Uon at_), and u. ~nt 0:' _b arenaqq.us(or 'arenaqq.us tt. ah_. apan. roc Onuol pucp_ 0 ~nloll ep.,l _ra t with no a runlorcaen. arenaqq.us the l,u'o. In te _ O.e lonqltu,'arenaqq.us au a1 _. C\lt oft ha It _. no 10<l<Ja. r~lr, to H, n 'Uan. In au atha 1' tt. atl _. _arenaqq.us the tull length 01 th. t>.o To tut tau to thhpan a.n arenaqq.us,nt of arenaqq.us._t povided In tha ot>anq and

46 ,,, '.! j i 4 I I ' -; ,I f.i! d ' ~ I,,, '., I', i,., i -:, c. l. ṇ :,/); I ~ J I i j i II.' _. -__.

47Hi.j I Z9 :,''''.~~. U iii Ult.U, I I mm,uh.:~< :;;;: i iiii mm l!, I, j, I!, I!. - ~._.j -!'ijj =it J '.'.'.', i, I

48 in til. ~1I91 oulili. H 1. P2' In.4<l1'-1on, th. 'X1 mu. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, M~, waa ~lntaln' iot I 1/2 an 2 tl~.io the.aimu. arenaqq.us _ent, Ky' -:hpct ario 9~oupiOd )nu> t1h ri, a.,arenaqq.us u> the len9th o!.h,~ iopan, Se~lu Sui. III I 32, (4, ~,, ~, ~,,- 2_No on. hy,~. U All on,~.t. aa. with 'TYI'. 1 po~dan,t. \oitll

49 by arenaqq.us4-*arenaqq.us-<lry U.,arenaqq.us lj.~ (c_ent. aand'arenaqq.us 'Ithtu-C_er>t arenaqq.us (/c:-i by.e1.,ht end. arenaqq.us {accor ot ~o~./~l. 'The r.a1n1nq b d horter CUr1nq u_. The' th_ cha9~ t.o.o 1,l.6l _lx./c.sord c:_t arenaqq.us ck./~j. 7.s.y Thl. _1x 9'U_th. o{ co < arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~.re purc:ha tr 1oOIater. InjUn. Ioqqregat Corporuon. arenaqq.us. Th. ~ <jt tu.o1 arenaqq.us of 1 1/2 0 arenaqq.us1~. At the arenaqq.us._ tory It.o,arenaqq.ust lnto t Ii~. to,,h. '*lre<,arenaqq.us <!url9 hiidl1nqnd r9er th.n 1 0 dl.c. rd.l. ay.''lht, 48 arenaqq.us or No. to 1/2,u 0 cofobl<od, ith 52 percent of 1/2 to \ '~eccordl9 to rur'. ~xlmu in. lir. lou.1

50 NO. ' ',~ Ip<',' arenaqq.us4 0.' '.' ) ' OJ'.J Th. lor-ql1.l relnfarct, hl' arenaqq.usl ><arenaqq.us'<j' propertt. a1io~ II' Tabl. 3. Th. No <, S, 'n arenaqq.us<l boon u.1id ''ue rolled fr, til. Ole lint. Th. propenho_ r, <Me arenaqq.us from four ~ponl~ted.t r'ndon. A r~arenaqq.us\r.,-,tr'ln curv. 1ho1ol in H9\u. ~~. endl ~ _. arenaqq.us Uon,t til,_.itnu 01 ASTfo:_o\J Yield Sun. arenaqq.usi 3. 'ROPiItTI~ of arenaqq.usudiila.l arenaqq.us t'arenaqq.us nr'9u, _1. of I:l'Uitty Il'arenaqq.us In 9 '.' te.],,

51 'Ill. I/~,Ut.r plun bon uu., arenaqq.us In the ovn~arenaqq.us the 18 exterior.p.n _r. o! ~rd.r.d. nee.! havlnn.' ylald point or ~.ooo p.l 5tlrrvp. In the ~arenaqq.us ~r arenaqq.us ~ 'Ir. (du) obulnod fr_ n QonUn.,ul $ arenaqq.us 1'.oJ<o3o. IndU. A '_ ot' tm _ atec' rrolll the. roup arenaqq.us In.h bea. to.t.r. arenaqq.us properu n.v.r propu- U. of 0. couponrho In 'noble 4. A repr arenaqq.us. rln I_ Ingur. ~6. arenaqq.us. A. TUli; 4. PllOPIlt'i'Ih or THil STJJUlUI' $'UiI. (, k.t Ult1~t. strh I'Iodlllu. or a ulty ka '.1 arenaqq.us:I,arenaqq.us c In th. 3/ plywoo<l roho arenaqq.us, In F1qur. 6. arenaqq.us to th. br.<: four -'i\arenaqq.us' 'arenaqq.us ue pl.ron tt\<o top to arenaqq.us'lt ~lng or ttl arenaqq.used Into. r<1 '9. Vi th therrvp. arenaqq.us th. lon9ltll<l1 _1. To pi<arenaqq.us9. the tr to IH O hooi< atx:> In rt9r. 7. < bent Stirrup bent

52 I'la,Jlli 6. Vl~ FIlJOJI: 'I'D CASTl.

53

54 arenaqq.us. mini, of 1, cl'r arenaqq.us IongHudln1 bar. and 1 1/2 concr.t. cov.r on thld Th. uble<i relntorcln<;l ca<;l placa<'l on riqld n cmlre to prov1de 2 el r cov.r on th. bottom of thpecln arenaqq.us dl.- pl. nt of th. '1 <'luring pounnq., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. arenaqq.us<:l by ~'irlng it to th. arenaqq.us to th. fot th. top. Th. oncret. forch eplmen puce<l In thr equu bati\ T.u 6 x 12 ontrol yllnd.n were Ul<en fro,ch bath. Materiah for all thr.e batch w.r. welgh.d prior tonq, nd the total ti for phc nt wa arenaqq.us 1 1/2 houri. 'ch batch thorouo;hly mlx<><l tor a_io minute In arenaqq.us; drum mlxu. 1\ 3/' arenaqq.us vibrator u.&<i <'luring th. placinq of th. concrete In th. for.e. Th. I1d. fo wer. remov.d twenty-cr houu after caat1ng. Thp'I. alon\1 ~'lth control cylind.r., ~.r. re<'l,er mout burlap for 5 an' 12 day. for the nd 14_day r arenaqq.us One d.y prior to tunq th. burhp ~'U r,ec that the bm could be prepared tor te.t. A IlaldWln hydraulic te.t1ng arenaqq.us. of lb. cacity _<1 In th. tt1nq proqum. II qenul view of. _. In teat po.1uon 1ho~. in n!l'h 8. H\JUr.9 'II v. th. d._ tuh of the loadln<;l arenaqq.us arenaqq.us teel nraln. ~'''reured by Type A-Ill $'-4 arenaqq.us ';1'1 mounted prior arenaqq.us Thee re pperb8ck

55

56'. : o' 0' o. ' o. g. o' 0', ' r.' ~i.0, =::I, b,,; :., - '., 0,- f \ 0, 0,,

57 ~~9C. of IIp' 'lege arenaqq.us, The proc~r u.~ for ~ntln9 endterproof1n'l' ere In Append1 8. arenaqq.us r,oeded wlth IloOlclwtn _.1 t, arenaqq.us In,Hetor. '>10',,', nui,_ In the lonqltudlal rintoedq ere.h! only at the eltc'uon of>< _«le. In ell but t e the '1''1'. >;,ore loe.t~.or J 1/2' frq<ll the ntet_ H of pport To obtain am{\iete _terproounq. 1ftl'ilth of 2 1/2 to ) of arenaqq.usclno;j blot owe. with an phalucterprooun'arenaqq.us rique. 7. a telt UlAt l! '. 'ore arenaqq.us In li'arenaqq.us the of bor.d would algue>ontly _Ueet _. arenaqq.us Thh effect atrorqly In,arenaqq.us In _ la end I.~l. or. tooo '.9a were phced.t I' and 2.' fr_ thevo'ort.!otraln <)'J _re.1_ ntc on ntrrupe U, the crluch ann.pn. jtn. li'l 9'9 'a pia. at Ule poir.t ~ llen U,e duqal en xpecud to cr eurrop. the '1-'1_ 1oe_Uon. _r. 1_ tor H 1n,HIU _. on u. r.a. arenaqq.us!met ~rh. arenaqq.us 1n ttl.,t,non =n. er. _ed.t 1 1/2- t ttl ppon ><1ttl. oll1u., '1eg_. n. arenaqq.us1._fliote _ to ttl. net Inc. it '1.'1. pointe 1/1 ttllek _beddl 1n ttl. COnCt. to,ti. u. l'.ltt., ''1 11'n1cel po.1uon. of th 'IiI.'I. pointe arenaqq.us4 't! _. to _., u!o the pat1h. 10Ci1.t1one il.l_ <1,1_ on the et:.eu. d< piottn

58 l>4ill-et1on. unu the ove~,nq 'e~e ~. 'lthrltdenl 9a.uppon~ arenaqq.us1~ pedl. run, on the tloor. t.o.d applied to til. _. In Inc~_n' ot to liv. kip. In the ~ly.'1u 0: l<mlotlr>g fl. Up 1nc:~_''''~. u.e<'!. the l\1a'lu c:r;o.a. beqan to to~ the c:~e~,arenaqq.us ~_c:ed. A! ~ th. appllc:.uon of eoc:!'l loooc! 1c:~_.,t the loooel 1ntUned c:onnt. arenaqq.usl an' elflll.c:tlan chd1n,c. reeoc~ed. arenaqq.us:. c:cr. c:arenaqq.us tnc:ed,en<l thei~ arenaqq.usn at c:h <1 _arenaqq.us the U<I. of the be<1 arenaqq.us arenaqq.us painted ~'ltll arenaqq.us ot -rle.n<l qc1<1de<'l to tac:lllt.t. tcac:lnq the c:~ac:k arenaqq.us~na. Thr.e c:ontrol c:yl1nan for aac:h bn arenaqq.us in c:oo'p~ldn and thc arenaqq.us An O eunloloetu ' attlc:ha to two ot the c:otapcn c:yllndan toc OIO<Iul. ot.1i1t1c:arenaqq.ustlen.

59 . Table S ub,arenaqq.us _ry or t.1i. puu.,t arenaqq.us tor.u I'I>oto<jph. ot the _ art arenaqq.us_ in <gul 10 an:! !Jtrillin an:! d,uo __U for.,ii _. are pr tltd u;>lucally In thletion and.a 9'''.'' 1 U1bllhr to ' Appendi e. In arenaqq.us. bri.t d.,rlpuol> of ell tea in arenaqq.us corrdet. ther/lad _OJIJru ith th. PC09r.l<>n of c<:i<.,<1 vnh p«rucuhr ob. tto _de during the t All lo.,!. rported herd,arenaqq.us the loa. appl1lt<1 by the luting,., The dead weight of th. loed!,!bly an b. obtain, from Hgure 9. roi be_ita withaut web rdnforcement til. 10lIO<1 at 10'_ UOn of the <luq.l arenaqq.us creel< 1 OIOet c lly determined. The eltecta or th. crack'. penetration lnto on :ton. ere 'l.n Uy i dute. Ito.'uer, lor b arenaqq.us hrq,nt. ot 1> ralntorc_.t the n_r cl1nch~iu_. 'ln~iol. iord io diocln1u arenaqq.us l eucj<1n'l loa<t _. OCt. <t1!f1cult to <tatan-lna. For th.1a c, thoa arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us<1rq load 1_ dan ned harain._ th. load at arenaqq.us th. erluolll dta9o&! ec_a o'arenaqq.us:l to c ttl.

60 - k_ Vltl_. Aotulq lpI_ arenaqq.us ~ It, <, - _1 - ~.-,. - - '- I -,. - ~ _'U WH DII Su ', C.<\I. (Up.) (\1.), (pal) ~,_.,_.,-,,. 6} ,.,-,,. ~}.o,-,,.,) } '.,_. ' '.~ ~. ' ' ' ' '. m m (,ai) ' on.»».c., S.C.c ',~ D. T. Un D.T. k., '' ' Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks D.T. ~, D. T D.T. D.T., D.T. S.C.-'.T. TI_I ' ' s.c.c. D.T. s.c.c. arenaqq.us I ra 1_.L :~. '.C. '.T. T_ ~1 o». D.T nt.n m D.T nt ff T I., ( ,r )

61 rioou B5AA$ AlJ'1ll TUT _ $arenaqq.us I I\HD II

62

63 Ho eutnl _><1. for th_ of thl. arenaqq.us'ijuon U'lT t too fro- tm co-prlot1 Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks ;ru. J ~ral cr.~.t II fr' the ~~pport. ~. ~.ll Into the co-prlon r*>n.t ~ ' 3r}<. Ho_v.r e1qnltlcant _che<!. t P ' '<.pUnu alo,!, tm re<!latrtbutt ot.t fie! not ocellr nul. 10<1d or ton thrhout the ah'r apan. Ine!arenaqq.us<l the atnt etreln ne of i'19ure IIoU U., a l1,n1fl. Cant break In the Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks v <IetlUon curv. or F1<J1. u. Concr.t. comprlv. atrajn. at arenaqq.us~. rlber. arenaqq.us~ axi~. of ~lco lnche. per InCh (arenaqq.us t, arenaqq.us<l MIll.t P, and then arenaqq.us~ npldly lth and 2.I>ova tho bot. aur!.c. ~er. Inl1Ul!nce<l y the e-p p«>.tnu 01 th. cu<:lc ane!,r. arenaqq.us<arenaqq.us a 1. of J6k. lb_v.r. It 1.!;<!ll,ecl that chlf\9 In thu reg-ion the p.l_ry ceua. of arenaqq.us ThPP''''nc. or tm _ at coll.p _. arenaqq.us to that of _. III. In IIIl-I

64 . n. _.e, d1l arenaqq.us c~.c!<.dop.1 1n t-h. aa_arenaqq.us in la-i: N,t. tmt It ~hllt* lli9~t1y <:l~ to the Fl'Oet adduhtly h19h a. It p._ arenaqq.us i~.,tly abof! the 'ppget bloc':. At. ~ x.,k aputun9 cuc1< ~. ol:.erv., o t t.e tm polt of lr>flote.m_.ton. - loadin<s arenaqq.us<l, IplltUn'l arenaqq.us Into the poa1n raor.nd.t )')1< hoo,urde<! to the othu load arenaqq.us, ~in. _ l.~gncr 1n dclectlon.c~nled arenaqq.us nd ~arenaqq.us~ o~!;ond Concrou coctp~ell1v nrlnlin.j practlclly con. arenaqq.us!ro/ll thll poit nul the hit arenaqq.us<]. erl Uk t 54 k, A. 51 k dllgon.1 crack tormed In the polltlv, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. mcmanl e''llon, Jun peloe to tul,~e arenaqq.us. le<]e ae ot arenaqq.us to.h. load 1'.PP~' to bul,!- arenaqq.us arenaqq.us otr, At collp.,arenaqq.us ab,, the bottal 1\.1 to u.,teelor eupport. ivtdf!ntly fallr. _. p~i_r11y due to '.hi, ot the Penllon arenaqq.us to tl':e load. I\o'.e, 0 I\.UIeet.,eIn th1. reqion.

65 n. ltUI dl&<]on&l tuon cnet< crouloll arenaqq.us'<1. arenaqq.us JOk. lot. ~~ ~ )6k '''''' arenaqq.us Inc.1lr&<l crack. l>~.n fol tt n_t i.u.,uon 1>oth ~_rd th. 1I0rthn &.d la_rd U <'1 pol.t. 1>2' The load ~.ll ot: arenaqq.us boll.n ~ open nouc.l>ly. A _><. Id of ~ _. ' &lch U. lllee. two cr&dpli'arenaqq.us thrh the _. d1&'\.l crack.~arenaqq.us tha c,proplo. %On. &t At 37 tile crack arenaqq.usd rapl11y arenaqq.us til. te._ioed.,vu. <:oncrettra.n on tile bo.o, deer dlqlltly fro, 37 '0 3 and arenaqq.us =nlt~.t alx>u. lui p lo th arenaqq.us th<lir<j _t.t<. ;,<k Iral lor.g' IplitUn. cr. a~ at Intuval Lon. tha arenaqq.us arenaqq.us&<l rd the load poll'll. At the hort tin. c,. pplnr&<l i. the arenaqq.us ~n Mlo. th. o( u. arenaqq.usl en. Thl., pi. arenaqq.us 01 of arenaqq.uslon poi. t. Indl.t ~b.'.'arenaqq.us'rlb.l ( the lou of 1>or.d tn. arenaqq.us Crac!<U><J.,4 IOpIIllln9 ov.t oil _11 _r hel tn e:>d 01

66 . the crack conu,'. Vl~ l~d InerIt'l. 1 app.r. ene. et collepe arenaqq.us th.t arenaqq.us ~. by Ihl.r. arenaqq.us Uk. thollt ld,ced Ir IUI e.e l.,<;e arenaqq.us It.r''ln. e,e '*<>Dtded. _. la-i (~ itl,,,p 2 LaY'll,e of arenaqq.us' ited) of no t._~lor of th1. _rly 1<Ie.l to tnt ~_II U>y.n of '1''''''1 it_i) The dl.~or.l tenlon erek fo~.r~.t. 12 k loeted ~eh arenaqq.us fr~ th. luppert. arenaqq.us In.A-l nnd. llovdopooent arenaqq.us rapid, a1lun arenaqq.us dden.t P _ 14 k.,t.u ~4IrY IIIJch Uk arenaqq.us fluure 1n the I>N of long.r Ihe<tr p.n. In thu p41,ueuhr bnii train ~.ge cre phc.l OUt In t.h Ipn (on. at l~' an one at 24 fr. thupport.l no. pr ee of t y hii~e M<'l.1'arenaqq.us or. th. ' uon of the crek an. In turn, On tha bolly of the _. to reh _ 10rce equil1t.h _Iter &9:)<'&1 craclr.1r>q.

67 - 1- ' ~, :, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. I LILUIT' arenaqq.us' L, 1. r +' J 11'

68 f - ~ dtt ',I.

69

70 [l:l:vi'hr;l+ :j' T- t3=l+-l'~::;~:~j,~-~'if~f_y:~~ -iit ?l ~ ~; -d~lf_-: - ~'~'je~~~;,h~p'~~~t'±'t I, I I'TI, ' - I~} I '11'1 ',;, ii, It 'I 1', ',_ 'it~

71 H~',

72 -[dt[i:;~!l ~., __- -_ _,

73 - ~ _,~. ~ --_.- - - _ ~ _,r, '.

74 II i' :~?.tf]. .' ~ -Q--\~ tl ~_.___,

75 -~.',~J7]' -~,_

76 _. r ~ . '.!'T ;!v{'~=., Q'~~' I.' ~. -~ ~ ~ ,' '

77 -~'--''j',=,=._~-~~.~.~~_,'. l:.>(. j ., ~ ~ ~ ;:'; ~.( _,

78 liff! P nrueal!lo:ural ~'l cue (riqu. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. arenaqq.us ddoped tnto til. fiu.larenaqq.us c:r.<::ic, surtlod at. _boon 12!r. ttlppon., arenaqq.us to. 4~O arenaqq.us~t.h. an'!.d«l arenaqq.us for tpport. Yr_, ' Ji< to l.l< 0>. &.,,.1 CUd< arenaqq.us Into t.m eo. ptnnan Ulf>_ to U.h1n 2 o! t.h. ~rtu. hee, arenaqq.us hiiel< at 45 to. <w-pth to t.ton ne.i.,<:1 \oldened.,aiduably. 'MHa _. aha. nou, d<ocr In the attft ot t.~ A!; b_a. J.hort. incl1ned<:1<. beqa arenaqq.us_''1 the t.~.lon & At 40 thl.'pllttl9 t~(i1od arenaqq.us~h the POint ot tn!lecu, to the other 10'1,1 point. At thie potnt, the load dropp, ddenly to k, end thebtu, erncke, t<><;lnller,lth arenaqq.us In diegonel crael<, arenaqq.us Ide, 'roro tht. point On. the concrete etrotna at I' abo. the botto~ suruce Inered rapidly. Hovu, U on th. bott' So. I'1qurn 2&.n<l Flqr plot c>f th. ouunt arenaqq.us J 1/2 tre. th pport.t arenaqq.us', Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. < At lo~ 1.<1. th. <lhtub>tlon _. nrly liflelor. 1'h. r,utrlb>tion of arenaqq.us follow1n'l arenaqq.us of th. <lu<jnl cr_.:t< 1nto tlw co. prnu. ~n. 1. l.:!1c.t. by _.h1!un'j ot U1 arenaqq.us _xl_ to., t _ at ~ n<l Je. At)Ok, th. <1 at

79 10Ihich thplltur.9 <:'<:1<. app fuhmr u;arenaqq.us <:'UH ed a1on'1 th. tension nee!. th. poln. at _>< arenaqq.us _. flo. lon9 at 01 exu_. tlben. UIU fehur by Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, of til. arenaqq.us bolow the _<I of the du9oniol,ck at.f!< u. I of. of th. OM.r of SOOO lui on the el<te. I\owevllr. a. Ule 10&/1 of.j< _Utn-<l. arenaqq.us 9r.<arenaqq.us au. BM. _2 Into the coolplon zone end ext6ndllcl back t.o th. tenelon U I at th. P '!'he peetnuon of bottl crack. 'nile. tnt.<> th. -Pre.!, ZOn clearly r><>t rapid that ot bh. 1I~1 'Hhc:lut surrup_. ole th. 1.''1'' cr (Flqur SUrt'U;> (t) ch.-l yield auetn at the loll ;! In eddhlon. du' al'jiuet b'mit In the

80 arenaqq.us. other arenaqq.us aurrupa, ccoued by tim cr _ yleldl,! at 4,1< and 44 k By 46 k th. act< _. do to arenaqq.us one lrch of thepe.!. hce.\1.t % aplhtiro <&<:1<_arenaqq.us9 the tenuon nee1 beqa. to by the pc,. or aurrupa, H load PO'''l t:y. 55 a,<1., to Ule other 1>ot~ b*;la. pickl up re!iiiu. to th. uu,. at xtr_. tibe, ~ thle _pl'tt1,! occur I~. 'ique. 2~.1 At th. uln.t, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. load of '- arenaqq.us analna of 'UI 'arenaqq.usd at t1. 1/2 <;1&'- Una a. d cn,ah1n9 0. th. 10 I 1/2 to. _OOn follo. notlao from Ylque. 2P that th., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. point of arenaqq.usne<arenaqq.us neuony!rom P uk to tauu a arenaqq.us appro po_iuon 11> T!Mt cehtl.k cro.' u'e arenaqq.us at J$k. but rurthe. 1c. 1n looll:! (oco' S!)I<) woo. requ1ia1 to u:t_ It ~ to the tenuon

81 iiinp lel tillt Un. t.o yield a SOk. 'hlt arenaqq.us t.unph.u ylelc a 56 k ancl k. lliltlt Vl'JUu p'''''i ~h Ulit 1ncIn. 01 aunp bit. _Uclltub1y d.l.y.,arenaqq.us dl<t. Itxt<1 lnt.<> UI. poitluv. _. ra):lon nul n&o IU_t.1t lcad.t. k arenaqq.us._alo baq.n t.o 1'<1, (F.9U. 23). arenaqq.us~a aa.1ao Incrnq arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lead Cf1q1J. Ul.n:f arenaqq.us over tillt lor 1/2 ppren.!a k 1\&<1 be_. for ., <.1_. (lie. T.l:>l. In Appen<llx C.l Col1.p.1t follo~.t. 6,t. The aftec. o~ ha of web ra1!orc On ~.a arenaqq.us ot.r.'na tol1o nq Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks erackl'] can bn by c::arenaqq.usq rl'.lr. 2~ a.d 2~. ll'arenaqq.us In _3 did not. oecur any great. arenaqq.us un lr~p. ara ylltldlng a. k. I'arenaqq.us CrOll F1qure 29 hahe h19h arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us th. arenaqq.us tlbltra _~ a. notl In b.~a IIB_l and _2 _.a not. aldent. in beam 11&-3, at._l <l1d not. allo arenaqq.us acuo<l. arenaqq.us or the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ofb relntor t. la, 1n<'lICOt.' by arenaqq.us loa<l a. dauect1o<l curvlta of Fig '''. t&l0<i cr. ' t, _a grltdu.l1y arenaqq.us arenaqq.us load lnc.-waed. The arenaqq.us apac'.urnlpa of

82 . df!! lecuon,,'er arenaqq.us. apace<! <l1'ilon. } cr. (F1q.,re lei ero.' tnt.<! th. C'OlIE'arenaqq.us re<;ion arenaqq.us., the l~ of 3SI<. Th. U'O htu, I cos thpport,arenaqq.us op«led ~i<'l. Olt failure. an. 01 Ut arenaqq.us d.!1oltelyoclated wittl eh u.-oh an d arenaqq.us to o:lth1 1/2 of the ~arenaqq.us lace Olt SOk. Both arenaqq.us 'uti 'l'aqu yielded at < _ 5~k dh'jo,n type lal1r. ,_ ott S,at> both cnck. <)pltnlrq ld. arenaqq.us 'Urely ctl'l'h th. b. Con. arenaqq.us r~lned 10 adjacent to the.,ppott. Although tl'l. _. of fatlur. of u,a bum quit. <arenaqq.us!c, iu companion beam Uhnlle:! neel (HB-3J, ti. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~. nurly the prior to latll1' rlqur 23, 26, 20, and The lo.~ deflection eu of ', howeyer, In<'llcate. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us 'Ie foll~-ln9 fo~tlon of t~e dle90nal cra~. B. 1Ill-5 (Ifo Stlrrupa - Lc.c>:;ltu,hnat Steel Qlt-otJ I e dla'lonal crado (Plre lsi foe<l at 2S alcm<j th.

83 ~. psth lib_i. At 29,11< the creek ~. ~lthln 1/2 of the bot~ 'n~.,1iitl'1 oecl:lrr~ Uon'.! th. _ClOd to U. eut-o!f. Th fell,entll' to i<. Lo&c!. ''IS in Inc:re<t to <.t'l1ch U t;oth top boopht out.j

84 .

85 -e I -I, I,' c., - 1 I,,- 1-+- ' : r-'- ~ -' I ' I .', -J Hc--~ f,- - I: $ ~L'- 1,'-' Fie 'I:: ' L-JI-i'-i-_.L-L'-J U 'l'.l-~~j.'arenaqq.us-,--,- ~L'_h ū,-,'1_--'arenaqq.us.j'

86 Lf-_. , 1-,[, 1- ~I H:iH,cf+cl.,;::,;- .+;, j., h1~:-'- '.,:c+ - c., ',±jt P.

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91 : ~ I- _.-' loll,

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96 . -. ~ I - _. /. n, _~.~

97 lip to the load P w J6k the nxu l cradle ~d petlet-rateol no arenaqq.us the d~th t.o the cnet<arenaqq.usl u;a f the ~r1y. fa.l. $e Y''JUe as. At)6k. arenaqq.us~ct lncllr~ creel< ptr.t~ deep Into Ute arenaqq.us loa One (arenaqq.us 1 1/2- of a>-r'a'. on ttl arenaqq.us' nil ext_<ied beel< 'rda the t.,,len tl. Including the ~ 0: the exjatlnq ll~r.l cr.~. h~ nil ery.,e dl9onal telon tllp tuire c>e<:urrfll!.!tie o! nuin! with lottie ~' at Ura Complete.~arenaqq.us thetl took piece _I.e arenaqq.usouely lth arenaqq.usble 1denln'l or.,arenaqq.us of the,n90,_1 cne!<. ThU arenaqq.us Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks type of tail, occurring 'Ill> v y IHth 'nlng. There.u no nouc b1e lou In etilln he the,hqonel cueir. fol'llled at J6k (llee ilgure )'1). Prior toihp. the.e no In<He''ticn lIg lailu, Un. the crlt1cd c~.d< only hli1run. in,~. Ilea. Irl1l-2 _vlo~ or thi. ~ at low 1 tully i'uc.l arenaqq.us tl>&t of EN. &-1, Ttl. crlucal 1~or.a1 eu<:i< fo~ at th 1<>11, P w k IS. 61'l11r. '6),

98 tlowev.r. in arenaqq.us n<>t quh. arenaqq.us 1n IIlIl_L,o~tlon or the crluc,1 Cr'ck OCOJrr 'fter th. loe of J6 k hood ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us!l' U. Non the 19 incr 1n UlnUn of 'Urrup. lbl 'nd Ic:) 11'1'1r. 3) 'nd the Incr' dueeuon CI'1r. ]9).ft.r the d1qor.l c:reel< hood fo. CIt> the _arenaqq.us Ul. dl'.!.l cr''''' 'arenaqq.us'uon of the tlr.q U r arenaqq.us ere, r on _arenaqq.us. It ~r.t. r:'l c<'i the Un.l encl<. rolto><1n9 the fot1on of crltlc.l dl91 cre<:k. the stlrru. etfecuvely _lnulr' b ctlon. n by only ht decree. In atiffn,1 by the Iln.r loed_.t_1 nrun no. I r1qur. JEI. itir.,p Ie:) be9n yl.1dln9.t l'. arenaqq.us thl. OCOJu.t1rp Cb) l>e9'n picklnq up rain arenaqq.us At 4~arenaqq.us Ib) yld, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. th. loe r orr to 5nd the I'']onal cnc Ipllt arenaqq.us throuqh the b. No lurthr Incr In load could Stirrup C.) ' not al:eet.d by the crhlc.1 dh'jon'l cr I'UIrntHUy th. dlqon arenaqq.us typ. UHur a in Il IIIIl_l. occurring 'fter arenaqq.us' c:ro, by the c:r'ek hood yl.i'. In thl. partll. r te.t the loed r 'arenaqq.us 1<.,d ofhooci been WU., bee. _. th r'loedad arenaqq.us to f'l1r f'lqur l Jo._ the arenaqq.us. in t:elor bet_ the rc:rea<ad.t1on (1nlt loe.i1';1)

99 ,f-9~ PU U'0 IlO ~o<.n 'I~ AU'Td~_ \1:>_ dn P'lPld.p. ~'0 _ 'Rnl'''':>'''':) P1 a, ~:>. I~' IItp,d.~ p'~:>u.utrn~>uo:>.'0 UOPTPP. UI -ltlaul_, IJR_~nH.; t.~nx.h PUR ~.~Rdd_ ~~oddl(arenaqq.us An:»arenaqq.us~:> ~'U.\ll 10 1I<I'''.Pl'' '(~Sl arenaqq.us O'l un6e'l. P'I 1.U. UOl~.\ uoo.~nln~ l. arenaqq.us' ~arenaqq.us Ul.r >P.~:>.'\j.L '.dol. l.u ~~. ~. 1l. arenaqq.us \I~ p.j_o'l ~arenaqq.usn' 0'l> 'l:>u:> OU.l 11I00n>'arenaqq.us \1' lv 'xgg 0' x.s, U!J Pl., ~\I:>va.J '1'. 11Ilpn,!oUOI Ill Il OUOI. '(Q) p {) OliO Il.d'UI arenaqq.us '~-'IIl, AlI'ldll.J, Vl '_Il1 ~O~:> '1:>':> w'j:>ut.,6i!q.'.l arenaqq.us1~arenaqq.usu.~.l}tp l ~ UO'~dco:>.\I~ O::arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Il:>' '~'O.lP.J:> nl '\:. '>p.~:> Uual 11I_.,P 6\tn }O uono;arenaqq.us, lou H PTd\1' U~arenaqq.us ;0 ''''--''>Ul.I.l. ILl<.~n6U) t1iu,_.s 01 peo.t/l S. lrd. ~'' I RdI! dtu. U (-tlih,_ I (6ul:>1!'de:.t/l ~.dru,'ls }O.1., :> \llith) ('lith u~:>o~d n JIq pel:»n. Alq1ll.ddll ~ou ( :>.n 1'''''1 61'1:>':> arenaqq.us'.'P _.Ill ''''11 '.:>1P! XCZ ;0 I.'n puoaa'l fg I pu ' 'I~' JOJ.u.llJ. liil11i1.j) =11'. 11'.'1:>':> Attn.\ll PUR

en>.mnlj _. ~bh on t.h at _I. ov.~ th. 1o, 1/2, Aa load furlh_. lncr ed arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ipr. <Jt.~arenaqq.us thl bon. to th.t.1 UIUt. '.Uure by arenaqq.us of <:1'1 conc:arenaqq.us in lohl lower 1 1/2 to 2 at the a.,tionj.,ent t.o the Ilppon. fb~.r. indication. Wire tmt the,arenaqq.usl cral< also l>ad hcve ankt. At ltl_lot ''' duoj'onal cracll; _. th. only On. U> ope leidy, In ado'lt1on. It two. b_.he that loki arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us over eelon r~ln. lin_ in.!laxural tulu 'or U.U ~. Ole 'Unlte concentruon of e<iiiprl Uin 0. the 10_r 1 _.<'I an In<'l!cauon tholl. the dlau-uuuon _. ot conti, hjt hroj<t _bout 2 _bo th. bot. Ilqure arenaqq.us, the ~. of fulure for t1'\1_ b_ ld bl. be dcrlbed a. II c:ooohin&uon.h.r-<:collpr arenaqq.us Ur.i e,on, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. ~ri of the l_ci t dluio<:uon <:t,:rvl (1'19Ur. 3'11 of tlu. _. lo. u.-~ of _ lu8_arenaqq.us_ 9r.~.r duetolny or _ nr. iippelur><j rulrt BIB_) _. loa'''' by. arenaqq.us!. lner. ln d.n.,uon. TIl h<nr tulr. of _. UI, ho~.r,eh _rt brntl. 1,b,lr >ry linl. _rnl1>9 0' l-p-rdl9 '.ltur UU_4 ( rcenu9. of 5tlrr\lp. - 4, Spa.,t9) 'nl. cnck dl_.l or UIB_4, i'lqur. 48, _. 9rdu.t du. lo It. 19 arenaqq.us or _b arenaqq.us!orc_et.

'rhr_ '1l.9On.l uck. beg.n pntln the arenaqq.us tone on the dd. at a ld or J!>II: 'nl. cu. nnl ' ph,_ent on d> ~. ot arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Ito) ~ pl<:kl,'l arenaqq.us pldl\, 3Sd _. d>. ttnt to arenaqq.ust s<c1i:. stirrup. Ie:).rd Cd). ~rth out t._ d> pport (5ee ''' yield' l d. ot 70'<.nd ; p Udy. '.e arenaqq.us .'. e. not cc toy the c<ttlc.l <jOn.l whlchqaln ndd nuln In the 10nqltudinU_ reached load or 67' co'p*red to yield load ot ss'< In a IIIB-J. Altheuh the ned 1ncr, arenaqq.us the load ot 6t' _ Iad arenaqq.us (!'Iqu u. con_ a.p lvtr.i~in'arenaqq.us and eqltti1torl tor'. At ' ot 6e k arenaqq.us1. I both the arenaqq.us lind the «arenaqq.us COIOplon zone ' Inlnpidly con t.a1n ot J2C1<l arenaqq.us thu load u t he. SI<;1n. ot cruahtnq t>eca. 1atbl. 0' the 10 1/2 a. the l d of 6~1< '.Ulned equl_ l1tort &<;lain arenaqq.us ar.d., load _ pplled. Tl>. _ cou.p.c 70'< the cont. o.r the 10_ 1 1/2 to 2- _. arenaqq.us ellur arenaqq.us U l tn w arenaqq.us th aqal concentr.t1, otp h. atreln oye.

. tt, /arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us.n lndleuon th<ot. th. 1Ibutlon ofin t.h. eoocuon not 1Ir In _. IUB_J the IIU90n.1 ee!< op.d '.t hilur. :~ t' Ined pereenu ~'.l> at r.t n<i,d t.h. p arenaqq.us of u erd< coooparild t.o _ 1II8-I. nou e.n arenaqq.us In Pl<JUr. 41 by e<loiprl'l' te arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us u., _'. at eoq:>oible l~/i 1M' UI8-S I/IUI with tt of the ~lut fou. b arenaqq.us At I' w JO k 10<]arenaqq.us~ l~ellned e d< ~ arenaqq.us arenaqq.us') the arenaqq.us d at th. cut!! P'''nt. '/'he eraek ep thn nt\arenaqq.us only arenaqq.us' ~. arenaqq.us Th. 'n In arenaqq.us UrNp lel iner frooo 0 to MIt loa Ine<I. the eek arenaqq.ust a arenaqq.us to Within I or the e~r.i f.e. at the yield I~d arenaqq.us' lei.,, SOk. / arenaqq.us tyr. lehura oeeu~ at ~'l.6k. when t~ia arenaqq.usy th.~,qh tta

,e fgt-nlon of the <!Uoqor>Ol arenaqq.us<.on,1& occurred arenaqq.us.,dy at Wk. (See 1' SOl nil,h. :'Il1Jonel tendon cud<. n.t_lon In the,,renton 10<'_ of. ne l U'e!<arenaqq.us _. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks at U'e cut-o:t point of the top a._1 in the tlon r~lc.,u. the _. of UIl t.h<o u co-panu, BoP, JIIith nl lui ed thro'lhaut the full lft'')th of til. t the nun'l'tl\ _. arenaqq.us*'. The ld at <<'_1 <:U<:l<1r,~ r~,' fl'olll :>6 t.<> 30 ad-iu_t. load ]()k. _,u IIII. 2. and 3 &\' of t1'l three b <ii'!l'ieu.1 to that nr Beam rub_i, (P1<JUr 51, 52, and 53lx.,,,t u,a. U,ey 'ere al'l'arenaqq.us &arenaqq.usr bflo. In thla aultunly Uh Ule fo.,arenaqq.us or UI.& &1 arenaqq.us cuc~. ~. other t, _tre<! dl'jhtly load <.han tnt at.1!\1ell the <UiIoqel tude ptute<l til. a:ooprlon zoe. _1>'. arenaqq.us t>eoo;un., I t.h 1'arenaqq.us>l. W1d.n.~'i of th. du'iof1u <1. prior to ulua

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' DIllCUsstON 91 arenaqq.us R&5t1LTli Mo~ of Failur, The behavior and mechenlem ot fellure tor b.m. with arenaqq.us arenaqq.us In the critical,h.r 'pen 'greed generally wtlh that <'I'crl~ by other InvuU9<>ton. (6), (23). (2~). PI!. {29/. 'revloue tut, by. both Monow (2~) an 8or (6) In<11.tl<l arenaqq.usn tulure tor arenaqq.us bdow approximately and.u~en dllqonel tenlion rallur. tor aid arenaqq.us t~n Serle. III be of thle arenaqq.uson ~d nomlnel a/d ratto- of arenaqq.us reinforcement In Serle. III ~.udden, occurring either 'lnultenecuely tth or et!llghtly arenaqq.us 10ed then the to~.tlon of the dl'90nel crack. The b of Serl I hed n~ln.l./d ratio' of nd 2,' and thai' of aerie. 11 had en aid ratio of WIth two axcepttona (B IA_arenaqq.us lib_5), _II be_~1 of Serle_ 1 anc! 1I wlthout Itlrtupa ljuatilnec! a fallurl loac! lublunttally 'J'rNtlr than thl c!ligonll cracl<1ng c!. Crick penetration Into the ~rllon ~one WOI gra<lull, anc! I eub_tant

' arenaqq.uslon of etralne.a. obeved. the top neel thr<jhout th. ah_r ep4ln SplltL!nq alon9 followed /lu'],_1 crack1, arenaqq.us o~ th b.~. Ultl rallura ~. elll by cn.h19 ot the.,erua at the en<l. of Ul. dl&90,&1 tenalon crack. Th. t, arenaqq.us, _me la-a and nb S IA ldaual to both I.\-2 and 'cept t.t t_ aua!n 'fa'!'. _til p1aca/l on the taalon areel In the all epa {at 18 and 2. trom arenaqq.usl. While IA-2 and IA-l tetled by arenaqq.us at load. much qr_ter than the dlaqonal crackl'] la/la, B la-a /ltd not experlen. any nlf1_t nrun redletrlbuuon, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. and ' <lu,_lton typ.u. & trees _11DO& l_oidutdl' after the dl'90&1 Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks flret penetrated the co~rlon tone. ham IIa the Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks to UB-l wtth rhe teneton etl t-otf In accordanc. with moment arenaqq.us. Not only did the duqonal arenaqq.us cract fono.t a 9q,atIl' reduced lo.d, l:ut al.o the _e or failure bydden dlnu arenaqq.us a.a1ll. With W.b Re1nrorcent Som. b in arenaqq.us II and III were provided arenaqq.us 1n the arenaqq.us Thech.n1_ of failur. in 5erl. II b with arenaqq.us throu9nout the lenqth or the b thlot arenaqq.us arenaqq.ust to the

' suppon. follo.,lng yield of the eurrop_ croed by th. crack. arenaqq.us u_.el cutoff (11M. I11l-~) the c:rlt1.l diaqonal <,alon cncl< located,h hrttle. cut In h. ah.r epan. Yellu ~. alella. to the diagonal ten_ion tallure lamedlately afte. the atlrrupehed yield atralna. In II_H. ba ith autrup. both the.h eooo prlen and the dleqonal ten&10n ~ of tallure re arenaqq.us-ad a IIIB_2 Ithdatively 11')ht.,nr arenaqq.us relnforceroent hu,arenaqq.usly In theanner lo. Ita,,arenaqq.us bum arenaqq.ust., IlIS_l. i'o.atlon of the rltleal diagonal crak occurred at the load and In the locauon. 'nl. Ittte load, of COllue, arenaqq.us g:-nte but the,henl of tuture lo yield of the ulrrup th IInm. IIIll-l and IlII:l-er. provld~ ~i~h hlgher percentageo of ~ob ate.l and ~ero expected to davelop otrangtha near the ulti~te bending copacl~y of the,ctlon. Tho dlagenal arenaqq.us fallure exprlenced in 1II ond IIIB_2 ~I' arenaqq.us~ely prevente. Coillpee wle by cruehlng of the concrete edjacent to the eupport following eubetantlal yielding of the tenelon eteel. Beall UIB-S 1dlnUcal to UIB l>.>t with the longl_ arenaqq.us tott. 80th the crad<ln'l' lead Ind' the ululutl

' atrength were _qui' elgnlt1canuy rwlj<:e~ om colllpared to the companion be.~ With e~tende<l eteal. arenaqq.us variabl ~v. bn noted to.~arenaqq.us the atrenglh of reinforce<! concrete bml In Ih.r. concrete nrength/ percentage of t,l= arenaqq.usnt' ea. epan to dlopth arenaqq.us, and the _nt ofb retnforc_ent. Throuqhaut the pr.,t Invu,at1on the'uut t of ther 11'- tatne<l r on_bly conitint. With the exception of t be the concrete cylinder Itrength ~. maintained betn and pit. ror all prlcttcll Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks the amount of tenllon Iteel Ill held conatlnt. (p. percent end p. percent. J Whlle thejor dirtn In behavior for the bflam. include<! 11' thtl _cody cln be Ittributed directly to difterenc.1 In lid ratio and In DOUnt of Ittrrupa, the prence of three additional f~ctore~.ignlflcant Inauqh to ~Irlt aeparate dllculon. The additional factor. ar. the arenaqq.us_ eent of the lonqltudlnel arenaqq.us, the arenaqq.us cutoff, and the loc~tlon of the duqonal tenuon crock. The ruulte tobulated In Tebl. ~ Indicate thu the arenaqq.us et dlaqonal cracking qenerelly decrea

' with Incr~ln9 a/d retto. ror ~~. with 1dent1cal tenelon arenaqq.usn9~.nt. and with arenaqq.us the me ooncrete atrengtne the arenaqq.us _how the follo~n9' s' Aeu,!,_ c (pu I IA-2, '. '.' ' arenaqq.us m IS 2 '., ' 11S.1, '., '.', nib_i., ' e v/bd _t diagonal tenn crecking More al'!1nluant then thu. ho_ver, 1& the differen. In beh.,ior after dl.'l'o~l cracking for beam. of different aid ratto, able arenaqq.us the deep penetretton of the dtagonal creek lote the c~prlon tone and arenaqq.us~ntly more loed for the.& b the diagonal ten.,lon creek wa. an ~arenaqq.us of. '.rtle_i ten_ion rae!< tltd generally _t d 11 troll the Iupport. The b of longer ehear ep-n. $& III, eould withe tend little Or no loed beyond the polnt where the

. brtttle type ~n.l t~.lon tal lura. The ~rltle.l er.~ In th b~. ~1~~ IDC.t.~ rarther.~y frea arenaqq.us Conold.r, tor e><ample, Ul8-I. The dla,ooi ereck ~. arenaqq.us~.lon.r the flexural track atut 2. ft_ the.o'.t. The location of tho trltlel ereck arenaqq.us ~ b - what random. Conalderlng.,aln (_1, ane ceuld n thole the nu.l cud< t e. arenaqq.us of arenaqq.us,&(:1< tareut from arenaqq.us, ~ee.u of incr real_tanee ~ penetration offered by higher bendln, et at arenaqq.us cloeer to arenaqq.us However, In Be~. liia-2 and IIIA-) the dugn_l nell. _. located In arenaqq.us arenaqq.us e. In IIIII_I. oven though a tle>qlru cucl< hal! tome<! hrther out. The difference In fellure machen!oeleted with the lon, end ahort eh.e. arenaqq.us be pri~ari1y due to the local arenaqq.us induced by the concentrated loade and arenaqq.us reactlon. In Serlee I and II beaoa the dlagonal creek penetrated into the colllpruuon zone nearly to tha.';ie of the eupport bloc~. The ~ertlcal cqftpreeelon at thle point would definltely tend to arenaqq.us the principle tenelon belo~ the end of the creek, end thereby delay or etop the progreeelon of the crac~.

n, ~t~le. lj 'eam. The effect' of etlrrupe on the r~arenaqq.us_ button of attatnt followlnq ~tagon.l cracking era ahown cl~rly by the d arenaqq.us alrv, 'lqu 25 en,, 30, t.o<arenaqq.us with the cracking pathrne, nna. 30 th9n 35, Without aurrupt (lib_i) the ~.<arenaqq.us,lt1on apparent l~arenaqq.us following diagonal cracking at 3&. ~ of bond throughout the apan complete at load of The rlting uenato.etton from arenaqq.us to tied-arch action en be n by arenaqq.us lncr.a Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks comptlva atrelna at I above the bottooll fiber. while. erea In attalna 0''''' at th. etreme Uben. Although the diagonal arenaqq.us creck penetrated into the comprlon aon. arenaqq.us the load In B IIB-2 and _3, Ita proqrl0n at greatar load algn1!arenaqq.us ctou., by til. cuc- had yielded. arenaqq.us ot arenaqq.us in the ccmprlon zone (Flgur 27, 28.nd 29) for lib_i, 11B-2.nd IIB_arenaqq.us th.t the arenaqq.us It dlltlnce. _boy. arenaqq.us fiber. Ire definitely arenaqq.used With the arenaqq.us epllttlng Ind arenaqq.us of bend Ilong the arenaqq.us Itl. In S lib_arenaqq.usg arenaqq.us untll.u lur_ rup. w.r. arenaqq.us1ng (P ~ 16 k ). AI loading we. Increld trom thl. point, the arenaqq.us at 1/2 lbev. the bettom tiber beqan Incrlng tlp1dly ruv. to tho.e at the xtr arenaqq.us

$erie. I.I arenaqq.us, The ~ma of tht. eerie_ ~er. of particuler lntere_t ~&C~_e they revealed an In~lcatlon that the dlaqonal arenaqq.us type failure occurring In lonq ~m. 1. arenaqq.us w1th arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~ the ahearcornpreion ~e of failure. Aa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us the bealth relati~ely arenaqq.us relnforcemant (II!B~2) tailed In arenaqq.us the aama ~nner a. the beam ~ith arenaqq.us~pa. Ho~ever. atlr~pa ere apaced mora cloaely (_3 and I1IB_4). the critical dlaqon.l tanelon crac~ waa ahitted closer to the ~pport. Tha deep arenaqq.us of tha arenaqq.us< resulted in a concentration arenaqq.us In ths arenaqq.us COI!arenaqq.us arenaqq.us similar to that o~.erved In the ahortor ahear span. hllura by c~.hlnq of this ~OnS and _s arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us yleldlnq of tha arenaqq.us ateel. To tha ~rlter's kno.l.~a very t _yatea.t1c _tudl._ at relatlvaly Unreal Tournament 3 - UT3 *Deutsch* crack serial keygen beam_lth ~,rylnqnt& ofeb arenaqq.us heve bn in the literature. On. recent Inv._arenaqq.us, however reported by Breeler and ~eordeli. (7) Included arenaqq.us apecl'oen_ quite almilar to the bnm_ of $eriee HI. Bm. of arenaqq.us-apan to depth ratio._ that of Serlea III la/~ _ 4) wara arenaqq.us With ~.b arenaqq.usement retlo Itrt y _ 0, 50, 75, and (Beam_ IIIB-L. IHB_2. HIB_J. IIIB~4 of the study reported heraln had Itrt y arenaqq.us of O .nd U re_pecuvely. 'e. Tabl. I.) 'rom arenaqq.use (1) tha ~. w1th nob relnforc~ant lkrf y OJ fal1ad by sudd.n dlna1 arenaqq.us tn the monner

a. b IUD-I. With the addition orb arenaqq.usnt the tun ot R.t.r.n. P l arenaqq.us<! th.t th. flood. ot arenaqq.us r ltl ot bea. It~B_arenaqq.us IIIB. CKrt 84,2 and ) y a~r lth thi. ~lndln~. b, IIIB-2 (Krt y ) f.l1ed In dl.9on.l t.n'lon, Th. only notable dl~arenaqq.us betn bea, IItB_2 and the bell' ot arenaqq.us (7)arenaqq.us Krf th. y arenaqq.us>9-to_depu, ratio, In bea. IUB/d hil. In the _. or arenaqq.us (1)./d t. arenaqq.us, ity b. that u arenaqq.ust clor COIIIprion rood. ot tallurf!. arenaqq.us of th. b ith bl._layered arr.n~._,ent ot arenaqq.us ateel to tho ith on. larar CRe. Tabl. 5). Av.r.~e ' ' v Cpal)

H' UtA ,2,3 '., m ' y~ ~ at ~1'90nal tenalon cracking. Hence, the diagonal cracking etrengthe of the b~1 with the arenaqq.usd arranqement were 1,21 and tim tho of the beam. ~arenaqq.us In alngle laye. tor Serl I and Ill,p.,Uvely. Thie arenaqq.ustanee Ie believed due to the Increed a Ita, IIB-~. IIIII end IIIB 6 In,HatIO\u r~ctlon In eh.a. etrenth ~en ~r. ere terain_ted within the tenelon tone. The ben _re cut ou In arenaqq.us v1th the!>covulon_ ot the S~arenaqq.us arenaqq.ustione for K19h~y Brldg- ( The eut-off pointe arenaqq.us arenaqq.us of th b On the creck pattern ehte (Flgur Je, 35, 49 and SO.) AJ.l ro\u bea. I, 'P.n.1on.p.,lna >olth e><arenaqq.us etl. The reduction In both diagonal cracking loade end arenaqq.us uranqth can be iro. arenaqq.us 5.n<'l 6, In c the <'Iln.l arenaqq.us t~.ek wa. lnlt1.c.<'i.t the cyt-off point.n<'l the.a<'l. ot ru~e wee that of <'Ina1 tenelon, Aa.,1<'1 be arenaqq.us<l, the ett.,t of ba~ cut-ott wee

n. TA D'I'~ or ~TIIU. CUT_Ol'f II W1th Cut-atf arenaqq.us IIB_4 IIB-5 Co!Ilpanlon Dt-goo_l Crad<ln9 arenaqq.us LoaCl II lth ~, bund '< (cut-eft I ' (cut-oft) Sted '< arenaqq.us. ) (arenaqq.us<!) lib-) O.~ lib-i UIB-5 UIB-6 nn_ IB_1 l D1agonal Creel< LocaUon arenaqq.us h <arenaqq.us ettltct on the be bl>&vlor _nc! m.,hanum

., PUrthar In~lcatlon of thla influence 1& _hown by com parteon of ~am I~4 with 1~2.n~ I~3. The lattar two b tall~ In _haar-compralan at loa~. qreatly In axe of tho at dlaqonal cracklnq. B I~4 arenaqq.us~ auddanly upon to~tlon of the diagonal crack with entl_ily no r~arenaqq.us_ butlon of atra!na, While the influence of the atra!n gag out In the chear apan vary likely va. a f.c~r. It 1& of lntart that. alight dlfteranca In crack location ~ld have auch an arenaqq.us po the ability of the beam to r,at arenaqq.us_tion of the diagonal crack.

A11I1LYSili or TUT R&itlLTs 01, 0), (10), (, and (25). TIl. equ.t1on r-=ndltd by acl~asc~ Com-ttt (1) h arenaqq.us to qlve qood arenaqq.us ~ -bd-l. g Vf~ (Eq 'no 4) arenaqq.us arenaqq.us. fr, the U= of>< _.,t. H :!. l for th. b of thu arenaqq.us Tnt Jot a., arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ~th in Tabl. 7. va1u pritd1ct. by thl. equat10n arenaqq.us cracking load for except tho.e ~lth arenaqq.us cut o(f. Th of arenaqq.us bea ~ith arenaqq.us cut oct 1n

Ul\1~at' Ib.a, arenaqq.us Th. t.n arenaqq.us are CO<Dpared,'Ith cal=lated ultimate web relnforclm~t Commltt arenaqq.usd.d t~t th, load dulgn a. th, ltlte lo.d capcity In.h TIll. raqulr._ However, until the con~ltlon. un~er which thi. 'd~ltlonal requl<ement I. arenaqq.us Had the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us be.n arenaqq.us}oped, follo~ng formula for ultlth.r.'.~. arenaqq.us wh.r. v. I. the portion ot the tot.l arenaqq.usd to bi carried IObit Smart Defrag 7.0.0.62 Crack Download Serial key [Latest] Version arenaqq.us<np', Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks by th. arenaqq.us '. 'Ihu

TI.I 7. CCHI'.uISOII 0' nsf $TUlIlmIS liitii. ACI A9C1 CCIlK1TTU }26 arenaqq.us (l) U) Dt. _.1 Cnckl SO. Ul&ItSun - ' '00\ y. cde. t t C& t. ~ (p.l. ) (p.t), ~ calt. fpol) (poi) (pol)arenaqq.us la-i.,. L Ll} U 2 ~, I.}I IA.' e. ~ 1.}1 m.,w l '. ' !l ~.' U ~ ' 11 \. ' ~, L ,~ ' l.a} '.,~ \ W L~ ' ' ' ', arenaqq.us ' n.' ' I. nl '. I. 12 ' 1}2.S ' I. 12 Ill., m 1'2.S. LOO HI-S ' ' ' ' 0. llu-l,~ ' '.ro. ' ' UU'2,~ 1.'1 UlA. UU-\,~ UII-2,~ '' ' 1.'7 ' ' 1.' ' 0. ' ' ' ,~ L ' ' lls.a ' ' ttll e,, Ull-~ IUI_5 uu-6, ' e 0. ~, ' ' ~'- w, L9K ~, ro< 1Ht_arenaqq.us ohr.o, ~ W for be_a UIIo<I. 1'.,~ L ' ' 0.

u. Hence. a '{'t':; '. (Eq'n. the arenaqq.us<1 by of this arenaqq.us Uno!.c th requlr_enu the ellowabl. ehnring n.t (v.l ,' o (Eq'n. j) ~here tv 18 the working etr for arenaqq.us~p eteel. The eud e.-d in all ten bee of arenaqq.us gull,arenaqq.us stirrup etre t y 18, pai. ror the b of _hotter ehr epan (Serl I and III the than two With rup.t arenaqq.us tanure, B IUB_I>, which had no>infoc,t. arenaqq.us. rauo of only

fli 8. alili'.~.uc. 0' arenaqq.us S1'UllCYI.S VI'nI 4UlIO StoUlDAU SPlClnCAYIOllS PIlI.I_t 1/lCCt~ ('j k_ tool, IA-\ (.l) (.t) (, ',.M., m, ' ',.,.eo., } ' '. ' 11 \ ~. UI \ ~ ' W. W '.eo., I.7\., IliA-I ~ . 2.'2.~. '.,\., '. ., \ 1' m M. = M. \ ~ I.U '~,«chull, ~. w 90,ot _ vlcloou. OIh ; w 90', ~ f~ wi.<in

It U not.<l that thu b on. '<hlch. hall the undon coiipraaa10n c:oul<l alao ba prad1ct.<l on the baa1. ot a 11ltln~.nt arenaqq.us Thla haa ba.n aupport'acl by the tact th.t In rauo. (21), (6). use<l tor the ulut. atnn~th in pur. ben<lln~. fo. the caae AlIIPtlona. A. fdlra occ:un at tha aecuon of><,ant by cruahln~. ot th. arenaqq.us~coiipraaa10nabove tha an<l, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. at cryabing. aveuge atra. k t', 0 ov.r the <lepth c

k 2 C arenaqq.us arenaqq.us ext U~t to After effects rtfx generator keygen,serial,crack,generator arenaqq.us fet., I-,.~ ' ' t2~1 5TR.,t.! I.~IZ4l DISTRIBUTION kkf'1>c o 'f'(Eq '<I. 0) 0' f' W Id-d') II:.; '<I. f)

.ufficiently by the penetration of the arenaqq.us that the '. p f ''-:;:1 - ~ (l f' bd o e For flexurel ~. l o (Eq'n, oj klk] eompre._ion failur (over- reinforced bea~.l the probl~ of finding t. u 1impllfiod by two facto. 1) The arenaqq.uson arenaqq.us1n acroa. th. _ection i. linear, 2) Cruahing _train ot coneret. in tlexur. pri~rlly a function of,' o' For under-reinforced bea ultimate moment criterion i. further.1~lltied by the fact that f. u _ fl arenaqq.us block arenaqq.us have been by many inve_tigator_ and are kno~ to be pri~.rily Ior toe,' o' _hr_=rion rotation about the comprelon zone. producing a non-linear ~arenaqq.ust. of thltudy. (figur 27_29 and 42_44).

' Moody (24).n~ Morrow (25) mad etra!n ~arenaqq.uslon. a. ahown 1n 'igure On thia baal, each Inveatlqator developed ~lrle'l axprlona for the atl atr at fallure. Moody equation. are arenaqq.us on a.,rln of arenaqq.us end r arenaqq.us~ b under one and two concentrated load., Slaple b.~. and kn-fr form the baa!_ of Morrow'. equhtona, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. n.e arenaqq.use _nu for the b fubn, In ehr_ compteion 1n thle etudy ere arenaqq.us wit.h the veluee predictad by the two fo~l In Tabl 9 and Moody.t.,e<l hu criterion to Incl\14 beam' with.e1:> u!nforc:emolnt., while Morrow arenaqq.us only bean. without etirrup. Moody'. equation ~. round to oy.r_tl~te the Itrenqth of ell be of thle etuely. The correlation emad to he eoaewhat better for beam. without web arenaqq.us:~.nt. Morrow'. ~arenaqq.us gave a arenaqq.us ~ pred1ction for baa~. 1A-2 and ta-3, _ac~ of ~lc~ conu1n.l a double layer of t_n_arenaqq.us F~r bea~. 1B_1 and 11B-l t~. ~arenaqq.us at ~arenaqq.us Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks the arenaqq.us ent arenaqq.us, uejnq the etr block para~_t.r. fro~ both Moo~ and ~Qr.o~. Inch ca a,ch better prediction of t~. actual.~arenaqq.us~ _. arenaqq.us Thl. 1. an lndlcahon tha!. t~e arenaqq.us criterion of Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks _ent vaud, l>.jt the 'Jar probl_ I. that of accurately prltdlctlnq the ateel. trt f. llure. ThtrUn ~ea.,rernenu Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks ehawn In H<]Ure nd 42_44 Indicate a al~llarlty wlt~ t~e atrjn d trlbutl~n.

arenaqq.us! 9. t«lhli1l1 Ar SMlAJ. COIlPUSSlOII PAlUIU {rut u. Colculd h_ t uotl_. hfo 2/l \ (Coltylo.d._) 1Io00utod ', arenaqq.us Inlnl,uoS,f. (p.1 ) (le_h. )(Hp. VCDS 11.11.4 crack serial keygen ('0 t 1 (kip.) (In- cole. Hp.)., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, IIll.I! la-2., ulc, ult. ', ' k~,~oo IA_~ ~~ It-I '., k9 5 0., '.0 0.'., k ' ~. Ill-I 5~, ' 5~.2 11'-2.' '.0 0. Ill.' IHI-~., tttl_k 8~.0 ' 51, \ }, ~ 0. ea.'.0 0. ~arenaqq.us - bd Sui. t, $od n, arenaqq.usd, '.,-'. I I0&i t~ -- Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks (50) '0 ( 5bl Rf. [ '. \, V 1~59 ~ I;l} (6a) 0 (-I. I.!f~~ ~.'M '<arenaqq.us,.' ' Al ; A:z ' (. f~,), 0, 0 (-) ', ( Rot. ot. 0' o~.o< I 1.}8, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, '2 ' Ich ,lelc.1 con.'o,', _n' arenaqq.us of Ht_arenaqq.us' ou Ret. 'ho dln'nc. It_ arenaqq.us _ loti' _no '0 tho

TULI: ~IIT I.T SUc;:otl!'USUON UIWU (T YO. arenaqq.us~h d f._!qi of let. ~) arenaqq.us (tt.o;), 1Io. d C&arenaqq.us _~TOd, '.eh k_,, ', cole., col c&le.,col< (pol) ( 1,- kl (klpo) (pol) (klp )I ( Ill.) (kip.) U'2 U-' '7,$00 '7, '.~ kl,boo '90 kl.9 Si,SOO > ' (1I<,1lnl t1l. Io of <_<arenaqq.us) k 2 P t. K. 0 P f. (I - k l., TJ W 2 I>.U, BOO _ f' o ' o,, - 1. ~ k (. ~kit.,f~ ). p ',' 1~1I6 d, 17~. n

_u99f1f1t~ by both Moody and Morr~w. HOwavfI, the tactor_lch could Intluc. the dlatribljuon of _trunfl arfl nuaou_arenaqq.us ot _pllttio9 alon9 the tenflion fltflfli, IncllnaUon ot the du90nal' crt,o:t<nt and _lwcln9 ofb rfllntoreh. atra9eoo.t ot tendon _ UIU U fu.d9th In n,,,u capacity In bflndin9. IIy tlity'fi tu_.e arenaqq.us arenaqq.us (taklnq t y 75, pal find f~ _ pfll) ~ q (1 S9ql bd2t~r. q p ~ < (Eq 'n. > Ior ttt_t. eruflhld9 fldjacmt to tl. fippert. blccll: thia arenaqq.us tor arenaqq.us lila ] andInternet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, 1. and ]SI Indlcat. arenaqq.us fli9n_ ot arenaqq.us09 _t thla load, tl. lti_t. cruahlo9 loadfl.r. fl19iucantly hlqh.r (t.t P u - n.t< and 70 k tor III ] and IllctIvely). nu._ IHerenc. Ifl arenaqq.us to be prl_rlly &. to the hct that the hlqh fltrenth fltl ua' had IlttI. or arenaqq.us arenaqq.us

<arenaqq.us 1n th. Orl<arenaqq.usn1n'll un'll (, 10, MIl tor both beoo ) Ittt to obtlol arenaqq.usr arenaqq.us_.trun eurv. 1n th arenaqq.us'll rani arenaqq.us by arenaqq.us'llht U aa.t>o th. arenaqq.us tow. '. _-r~;;::,_::~.-,~o' <, tt. rhua. ot tour talon ponn a.u'll OIqUatlon tor thtr hl. ra,'ll ken to b '.r and '.r. thol Xl u an<l C:C:arenaqq.us at tau,<i fin, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, X 10' (~J.,' 5UbUltuU., arenaqq.us Illuauon (. J (*;I1KU'l' h. ee-plon U._l)

. The propartl of t~. etr block for taken trc. R.t.r~e. (20J, Teble 2. <. c eu OOH,ract; _re clearly lndj.te<l 1ft bou. ot the _

' 1. ~.~. t ta reported arenaqq.us ln~lc.t. two,enaraj _. of en. fauure In arenaqq.us _creta!:>ea without an re1torc_t., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. 4. A chaar arenaqq.us fat lure occurring at. aection of ><_t and 'I\eI.r at <la.,aUntJcUy q thlln tu load at wh1c U. djaqonal CUe!< Uut arenaqq.us<'! u. COIaPclon edna, CoII'pa. ~. by ruehlng Of tht ~cret. In the reduced ccapt'lon toa adjacent. to the Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, following a ai91!14t e<llatrlbutlon of Internal,tralne. 8. A diagonal teneio tallure occurring,cnerally at _oma arenaqq.us '~y from the eupport at. load ~'l to or only al19htly tar than the <1 u. teh the crlual dla<jofl;u,jon crack to. -n, faur <Sden. occurrlnitt> ~.ry arenaqq.us9. 2. In the,n,ee of aurrupa Indlcationa woere that tll. _. or fulure _. dfi'lnltel, '.ljoclatml VItI> th. rehu.

po.1llon ot the dl.~onal arenaqq.us Aadhar Card Status - Update & Application Status Check Online wlthln the arenaqq.us n. po.1uon of the CUck, In tum, rdate<! to the l.n~th of arenaqq.us to dapth rauo, In b ot arenaqq.ush.r apan. (ald. 2.i and ) the craex tord clo to arenaqq.us anc! pro<;ld quctuauy Into th., comprlon zo. to ~Int. adjacent 0 above arenaqq.us block. ror Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. 4 the crad< torue<! qenerally n.r the middle of arenaqq.us arenaqq.usl.o.t ~plataly throu9h the baa. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us An Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks for tha dlftnc. In locarion of the crack In the t., C. I c. nnot b. oue. It _. 10<;llcal, how.v.r, to arenaqq.us that tha arenaqq.us In arenaqq.usanl dua to 1fterenc In arenaqq.us to th. crack'. propaqatlon it roue. the neutral ald AdJnt to thepport not only ar. the arenaqq.ust larq.r, but lao there i. hlqh local arenaqq.us ciu. to concntratlon ot the aupport arenaqq.us, In the ca of tha lonq-ipan baa. tha crack II locat.d tarthlr out, wh.r. the arenaqq.us ar. lowlr and the local co~reilion 1. abient. 3. 'hert-ip.n bea with w.b relnforement failed arenaqq.us In the menna did the arenaqq.us b.~. without atlrrup., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, foltowlnq yleldlnq of etlrrupa cro by the crd<. Spllttlng. long th. tenllon.t l nd tha arenaqq.us atln r.,arenaqq.uslon arenaqq.us In baa arenaqq.us arenaqq.us arenaqq.us unt1l thurrup. h.d arenaqq.us

' The arenaqq.us ~a~ ~lth light web reln~orc~ent aleo hud In the mnnet H. C01llpanion bn. 1t1'>ot etitrup. The diagonal creek formed In arenaqq.us location at the Ume loee!. Diagonu teneion tauut. followed :field of the ettrrupe. In long epan b. with. high percentg of web.,tl the dhqonel,lon type tauur. out In thtdelle of the.h apan _. arenaqq.us&d. SUrrup. neer the e.,ppon. yielded firet, ~arenaqq.uslon of arenaqq.us to th. eupport we. followed by arenaqq.us In thi. r~lon. e. Both the d18gonel cracking load end the ultl.ate Ihr etrengthr. locrad hen. given _mount of tene10n ned _. provided byalle. reinforctn') ban placed In two layer. It 1. belie, thoot the IncrMd rd1ty of the ~oubl arenaqq.us~er.t el arenaqq.us portion of the total ahaar to be carrled by dowel acuon. 5. sea.a wlth arenaqq.us cut oft at the polnt whare It 1. no longar needed to ra.l.t arenaqq.us auftered a reduction In both the arenaqq.us cracklng load and arenaqq.ush. opacad ourrupo. Thl. held trua evan In bea Wlth cloaely 'Itla two bee.a Without our,po [Uled ouddanly upon fouon of the dugonal cro.<:lc, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. arenaqq.us collapaed completely aa the bare arenaqq.usd out o~ the concrete, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. 6. Tut etren<rthe. when COlllpared to the arenaqq.us. pe.ltted by the AAliHO ~tandad Specl-

tlcatlon, tor Klqhway Bridge, (4), Indlc.t~ r'c~r. ot arenaqq.us ot.t lt two tor 15 or the 20 bee t.,ted, Of the b_ lth r!.,~u arenaqq.us, tour hald lonq arenaqq.us (./d n. lo_.t t.,~. ot arenaqq.us _ nu, partlini'r be had lonq.h.r_ap.n, no.t1rrup.nd the t.,uofl at.l cut ott. 7, ror the _. V1th lv<t.,ded.t.l In on. hy.r, u. new o\ci_uci e-ttt equ.t1on pr~lted the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us r'd<11\<1 wtth qoo<arenaqq.us n. tlo or t_t.n.,qth ~ arenaqq.us UU'lthled t to LIe. Wh., u. arenaqq.usl wa, provld~ In two layer., the arenaqq.us ~arenaqq.us arenaqq.us, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, ~_v.r, tor thr.e or the ~ ~lth the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us CUt ott, the t t etren'lth e01' ot arenaqq.used v'lue, e, arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Indlat. that. arenaqq.us arenaqq.us_ OO'l'r'lon!aHur. bed on arenaqq.us1nq _.nt arenaqq.us b. vatld, provldln'l an arenaqq.us ot the Itl otr'io.t '0' In arenaqq.us

' 1. The r.~lt. of the part!cular arenaqq.us eted (dl~.t. that the manner In which the loada andtione are.,arrled to the beami' have a larqe Hel of th,!umt. ah.a. atrenqth and mode of ehear tailure, K1qh local compelve tere In the vicinity of Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks CQnc~trated ~pport reaction.e~ed to be arenaqq.usble for the development of arenaqq.us_ comptelon type railure, experienced In be or ahott ehear opan. arenaqq.us mcnohi tn ('18 and reauonl are arrled to the ~. or qleder dlatrlbuted arenaqq.us trom oth_beu arenaqq.us Into It Ud Ilene, further t,uta houlcl Include _. 'ltl oj IO<&da and arenaqq.us Ll11thr to the b of arenaqq.us, but ('II_tribute<! over q.re.' lind b) loada and ctlona dletdwted over the full depth of the b rather ~.n concentrate4 on the top an~ botto~. 2. TO pro~i~e l1ght percentagee of web reinforcement et practlcal etirrup epac1nga the uae of a~ll ~arenaqq.us, emooth wire etirrupa wee require4 tor t~e beame of tnta atudy. While.~equate anchorage wea pro~ldad by wrapping t~a atirrupa around the tenelon eteel. there may ha~e Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks eome ~I!!erence In bha~lor had,!orm, bar eurrupe been uaw. To confo= mor cloaely with practical beam ~eelqna. teat beame In the

' future should b. arenaqq.us that the larger atre,tormed bar. can b, ueed. 3. Four bnm. or thl, Itudy In,!1cH.e a definite lac!< of tety In the arenaqq.us ~HO ~arenaqq.us 9p&Ctftcatlona for Hlqh~y Bridge.- ~lth 'plct to allowing longitudinal bar. arenaqq.us cut off In the ten_ion zone. This r~ctlon In eh,a. arenaqq.us9thoclated t1. boor cut-ort, hl>a arenaqq.us reported In other Iwdl. of rleun,lar b (14l. (21) Nee<! of further Itudy of tll1, eftect 1>&, definitely been Indicated. Aa moat brldgl glrde.a ere ~ollthlc with the deck alab Ind are arenaqq.us corel draw x7 crack Archives, tha 8ltuUOny be aom,et auevlated In the bridge _cructure. rurtller ten. ahould Include companion 'peelna of both rectan,1'. and T_aec_ tiona. Alec, thi. reduction In atrangth may not be eo lever. when the tenalon ateel consists of a larger number of s~aller b<ln. In blums With etend~.ted the dhfuence 1n 8tren9tha bstween the 81n91e and double-layered arran9~ent. was baunuat. Hance, 1n study1n9 the bar cut-off effect. a var1ety of ated arun9_enu m19ht be cons1dered.

u 81BLIOGIlAI'IfT

' BIBLIOGAAPKY 1. ~I_ASCI ~ltt.Shear.n~ Dna1 Ten_Ion ACt JournU, Jan Ieb Proceedlpga Vol o.c:I eoitteellull<llnq Code arenaqq.usolenta tor li.t!1nfor.,1'ld Concrete (ACt ) AC! JannI, Mooy proceesllnga Vol. 52, PI' ACt Co~ltte.Ilutl<ltnq COde Requirement for Relntorce Concta. (.>.ei ) ACt aundard. Jun arenaqq.us of SUte ll1'!1'h_1' Officiale, Standard SpacHleHone tor Hi,!y IIrldqu. 5. M-Aluel, A.r., OU<;Ional Teneion strength of Retnlor,' Concre. e T_Bu,, nil Vryin<;l Shu. Span, ACt Journal, KIll'Proceeding Vol. 53, pp, Ber. 3,1. and Vln, ':., Shear Stten,th of arenaqq.usd Concrete 8.,e wit't Web Ralnfon,em.,t, loci Journal, JUly 19M, Procudlpg Vol. 57, PI', 73, 7. Bred, B. end SCQrdl1a, A.C Sh litn'jt.h of arenaqq.us arenaqq.us Bea~ ACI ~ou.n.1, Jan,ro U!U[lql vol, 60, pp, SL.

e. B~yant, R.H., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, B1anchien1, A.e., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, Jlodrlguu,'., I(edar, e. :>h r 5tren9'th ef T\<o-:>pan Contln,,. Re1nfe~ced Ccnc~.te B.a, w1th,1t1pl. Point Ldln'CI JCllrnal. sept.P~gs;arenaqq.us, VeL ~9, PI' C1~l<, 1' utaqonl Tend 10 arenaqq.us~ced arenaqq.us Beau, ACI J,~n&l. OCt.'r9se<!lrq. Vel. 43, pp d' eoie. R.D., and 51 C.P., 8ehoOvie~ and Stren'Jth 1n :>h ~ ef B, and I'~ without Web R.1nferc_ent, -'CI Journal, Yeb.Pros;udin9 VoL. 56, PI'. US. arenaqq.us~, R.C. end Ilcgntad, K. Labo~ato~y In.U 9ation ef Riqld Pre.e f'ulu~e, #oci Jeu~nal, Jan,Preceedipg. Vol. 53, pp l'e~'arenaqq.us, I'.M., and Thompeen, J.N., Ohgenal Tenuon In T_IlEI without stlrrupe,- #oci JCll~nal, ~a~.p~2cmgin9' Vol. PI', Pe~'JUaon, 1' SO I,epl1catlono ef arenaqq.us OU90nei arenaqq.us Teat., ACI Jou~nal, Auq.Proceeding. Vol. 53, PI' 'e~'arenaqq.us, 1' and ~ tlcob. Y.N.,![ffect ot 'r ot-of! on Bond and Shear St~en'Jth of Reinforced Conc~.t. Bea, #oci Journal. JulyProudingl Vol. 56, PI'. S.

arenaqq.us $.A. Sh.r Strenqth of Reinforced Conce.t\Se&, Vol. 85, IiTI J.n. 1') Pap.r auulnl<:l<. S,A. Ill Str''''1th t>efor,~ Sred Ban for Concret. ~.lntorcement. ACt Journ'l, Sept.arenaqq.us Yolo 57, PI'.n. Kanlon.I.A. Shear Strength of Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beam., ACI Journal, Sept.Proce~ln9. Vol. 55, PI' Hoqnt.d. I. Yundement.l Concept. in Ultl~t. ~d arenaqq.us\lD or Reinforced Concrete I'l,t>en, ACI Journal. Jn. 1') P'S!C'*<llnq. Vol. 48, PI' Hoqnend. E. Wh<lt Do I.', I'DO' About arenaqq.usl arenaqq.us 'nd W,b arenaqq.us in Concrete?' Circular Serle. No.6', Univ,arenaqq.us ot Illln inglnrinq EXperiment StatIon. Har.IlognUd. E., arenaqq.us N. ~ and McHenry, D. Concr.t. Stren Ohtrlh>t1on in VIUlo. ~lor'l'th arenaqq.us'iln, ACI Journal, ~c.Proca,dingt Vol. 52, pp,Ulupa, SI, C.I'arl<, N.M. Stro;lth In She,r of R,lnforcld Concr.t' ij,~. Bull,tln No.arenaqq.us of Inol, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Eno;llneerlnq i:><perlnt St,t1on, 19~~.

' ~th.y. R,G., and 'WllUln, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. D. hur Stranqth ot 8u. arenaqq.us Web arenaqq.us!orc_' Cont!n! arenaqq.us,~ Ban of Il1Herent Yield 5tUllgth. ACt,mal, feb.proctglng. Vol. 60, PP Koody. 1'.0 Vlee I.M Illtne., R.C. Sh StreqU, of Reinforced CoM: II Poet ournal, tlee:.an reb.Proceedipge vol. PP., Moody, 1<,0 and Vi'''''t, I,M Shear lotrength of Rein_ forc~ Concrete S Part 4 - ~~lytlc.l Stu~les. Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks Journal, V~r, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks.arenaqq.us' Vol. 51, pp rho, ) and Vi, I.M. ShINe Strenqth of Reinforced Concrete fr MeIIlbue without Web Reinferc n ACt Journal. )lac.P Oo;Udi!!9. Vol. pp,Ren i,m. Shear. Diagonal ~arenaqq.us end Anchorage In Be ACt Journal, I)e.c. l'1~e. Proceeding' Vol. ~~. pp. 69~. Rodri'l'u. J.J. Bhnch1onl. A.C. Vl.n. I.H., IIftllu. arenaqq.us -lihear litren'l'th of T.,-Span ConUnuou. Reinforced ConcH,t. Be ACI Journal. Aprll 19~9, arenaqq.us1n9' Vol. 55, PP e. Taub. J., and Navilla, A.H. R,arenaqq.us to Shear of Reinforced Concrete Bea'., Paru 1, ACt Journ.l, Au':/ 'ept., Dec.Pro eedinq, Vol. 59, PP. ,

' ~arenaqq.us D and Mathey, R,G. 5tratna 1n Bea~, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. ha~ln9 DUqonlOl en., ACI JoUrnal.,08c. l<;l~8. FroC.,<:Ilngl Vol. PI', Zowyu. 8.M and C,P. UIUPU Strength 1n Sh.r of 51mply_SUpported arenaqq.us Concrete without Wab Reinforc_ent, loci Jeurnal. OCt.Proc<l1n!!. Vol. 51, PI'Ho9nta<!. Il Kanac>n. N.W., Ma<JUra, 0,0., an<!., M.A, Sheer Strength of Slendu ConUnuo 1l.1nforcec! Concrete T_Baam., PCA Journal, Vol, 5, No, 3, sept

' 1W>PDIHX A ftliu'.~ arenaqq.usIU or TIll 'ltl'qitc~t

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' A,iOPlNOlX arenaqq.us&li,arenaqq.us,UCIITlOO ~ WATCR'IlOOYING O 'l'ki U_4 STUlll GAGU Type A-lll, ir_arenaqq.us~rle atraln 9'ar. u.~ for all b.cl'''. 'MI. InataUaUon,roc,_ u~ wna In qlttleral.!io rltcollirll.,dltd by arenaqq.us and ior. ql~.n follo l. nt ot 9''1'' on the arenaqq.us boon uqulred the r.~v'l of 11 portion of two of the lu9' to arenaqq.us tor ti'. gag., The g8 arenaqq.us a,&l. are r,arenaqq.us lilrlery cloth of 1;1, eoanen' _. then,ltd to obtainooth e\lda Tha area Undly clean<1 with arbon tetrachloride end.,ethyl_ethyl keyton AepUfauop The qa,arenaqq.us held In podtion by taping tl'l. lude to the boor. The linda era In,lated fcoiii the bar by phc1n ptace of.t_cuirt arenaqq.us undar the ,;, and tip of the 9a 4 Hhara1 '-ojnt of lluco houhqld ' nt arenaqq.usd Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks to ttl. bar and to th ' to

the '(lag. _a appl1ed thcou'(lh arenaqq.us arenaqq.us~ firmly lth arenaqq.us After epplyln9 the ce=ent, Preaeure _arenaqq.us arenaqq.us lnutea.fter which tl. the arenaqq.us arenaqq.us _re rerooved arenaqq.us~' proper CUring of the c_.,t. The c_ent _e th.n cured et e1r t_ereture for three houu.t UO o _l20or for 2 hour., end.t _, arenaqq.usn.l odght hour., copper wlre arenaqq.us were eoldered dlreetly to the te~lnal wlre. prop.r functioning of the arenaqq.us Waterprgofhq a touqh, but plubh Uphelt1c _t.r1el ee<l, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, 'e boor over. 1e'l'th of 2 1/2 to 3), The aaphut poure<l hot arenaqq.us1t Ho. arenaqq.us from the Amerlcan arenaqq.us\.IpMlt Company, '1 stre.t, san arenaqq.us=, CaUfornU.

ovar the bar 1n t, iioyeu. 5'rlor to appucauor> ti'le boor ' heated 1n the vlclnity ot \&'1. to.-event the plt f.-om cool1nq too qul<:kll', Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Atter the hret layer had cooled. the inde e lapped back.,ro. the to obtain eiillad_.nt ovn vb_untut 19th of the W1re. 'the Uut laye. ot pha1t wa. pre1ld and I<nd~ whl1e atl11 aoft to.-e.g._, po<:keta wh1c uuy lonoed, pa.-ucula. Ly arenaqq.us the lde.

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;; TAILE 2). SlUL A1<lI COIiCUTI StllAln - ANt au-} ~o. 6 lou S<ln. C_'U,10R :!om., 1/2 ft_ Suppon (11II } (KII) ~K, 1/2 IIot'_ 1/2 f._ \lot<_ I 1/2 tt__ CoRt. 10 f ~.t woo< k_r~., Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, (~I.} f,_.ul'!'on I J, ~, 6<>, ' ' '., ~ ~ ~ '' ~ '10, ' ' '. '', Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, ', ''. )6,',,. ''., ',. >, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks, loa., ',~,' '>0, ~,~ '. =,, ,~, ~ '00., ''''' ' '> ','., a.,a a ',~ eo,' ''''' ''''' UIQ '''' - W78to}lB ., e>-IIBo ' 6<> 90 to 'S}Q '10 1~., ~oo ' ' 00 ''''' )6sQ to UW TloldlRI ' ., 00 lapidly,~,~ ' ~ ~\W to ~ luo 50,00.,~ ' ~ to 51'0 ) ,= to 59SO 5'50 ' ''''' 00 ''Ul $0. '11 \7 fot.' loa. 11<. ~1 11 of <no,hlri Ot' 6,k OR arenaqq.us IR I_T l/t.,~,~ IRltl.l TI'ldIRS~ ~o. 6 lu ~ Load.

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Источник: [arenaqq.us]

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Most troublingly, Activision says that the &#;cheat&#; tool has been advertised multiple times on a popular cheating forum under the title &#;new COD hack.&#; (Gamers looking to flout the rules will typically go to such forums to find new ways to do so.) While the report doesn&#;t mention which forum they were posted on (that certainly would&#;ve been helpful), it does say that these offerings have popped up a number of times. They have also been seen advertised in YouTube videos, where instructions were provided on how gamers can run the &#;cheats&#; on their devices, and the report says that &#;comments [on the videos] seemingly indicate people had downloaded and attempted to use the tool.&#;

Part of the reason this attack could work so well is that game cheats typically require a user to disable key security features that would otherwise keep a malicious program out of their system. The hacker is basically getting the victim to do their own work for them.

&#;It is common practice when configuring a cheat program to run it the with the highest system privileges,&#; the report notes. &#;Guides for cheats will typically ask Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks to disable or uninstall antivirus software and host firewalls, disable kernel code signing, etc.&#;

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Acronis True Image Crack + Serial Key Free Download {Latest}

Acronis True Image Crack is an ultimate multi-platform solution for data backup and recovery. It provides Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks full access to take backup of your full hard-disk or a part of it. Once you back up your data, then it will also assure you to restore it whenever you need it. We can say that it ensure the security and protection of your relevant personal information. As we said, it allows you to take backup of your whole disk, or you can take backup of your particular files and folders. Acronis True Image Key comes with quicker disk image tools that are used to make the backup of virtual machines.  You can also create disk images to save your files and restore them even your windows is un-bootable.

Acronis True Image Crack With Keygen

The latest update of Acronis True Image provides a perfect solution for creating a real-time copy of your important files. You can take full PC backup, emails or Outlook Vectric Aspire 11.006 Crack Full Serial License Keygen Download, your images as well as audio, video and your PC configuration settings with restoring option. Furthermore, you can choose what you want to backup and where you want to store it, i.e., Pen Drive, Backup Hard-Drive, Removable Devices, online sources or on DVDsWith this proactive and great backup features software you don’t need to worry about data loss once it takes your system backup, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. Then you don’t need to worry about system crashes. You can carry your work without any threat. Also, it allows you to install software with new configuration settings; if you don’t like these new settings, then you can set these to the previous one.

What’s New in Acronis True Image?

  • Fix Some minor issue and bug.
  • Added: Now includes a built-in hard-drive with two component. So that you can take backup and recover your computer.
  • Added: Manual cleaning of backup versions.
  • Improvements: Cloud backup in the latest
  • Added: Real0-time protection for Network shares.
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  • Improvements: One-Drive backup.
  • Improvements: Also comes with more improve Media builder.
  • Added: USB attachments features will automatically start back up whenever USB connects with your computer.
  • Improvements: Now Ransomware protection improved as compared with the previous
  • Updates: Moreover, other features updated with the earlier version.

So, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks we look at the GUI, Internet Archives - CrackDev - Software Cracks. It is so easy to use and no doubt it is user-friendly. The menu on the left side contains an option to set up its settings. With Acronis True Image Crackyou can also transfer your files, data and many other important things to your external drives with few clicks.

Acronis True Image Key Features:

  • Complete Image Backup: Free and full image backup and recovery support. In case of data loss easily recover your full configuration setting as well as files.
  • Ransomware Protection: Protect your files from ransomware from encrypting with intelligence and machine-based advanced technology.
  • Survival kit: New features that are used to create a full backup of the system on external devices.
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  • Dynamic Disk Emulating: Create an exact real-time image of your running file, media and configure the setting of MAC or Windows Operating system without running or stop them.
  • USB Back up: Now support plug and play automatic back up with just plugging your USB into PC.
  • Virtual Support: Great thing comes with the latest update is now you can run, test and install your back up files or programs by converting back up on virtual disk drives using a virtual
  • Flexibility:  Acronis True Image support maximum flexibility and its guarantee user protection.
  • Simple to use: Your workflow will not disturb whether you’re a beginner or a professional. Because this comes with a great simple interface.
  • Individual Backup: Additionally, Create part of the backup, i.e., files and folders.

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In conclusion, by a team of CrackDev’s is that Acronis True Image is well suited in the industry if we see it by the standard.  This Backup tool and has comes with the latest new features and improvements. All in all, it is good enough for backup and recovery of your files. There is No doubt that this software has the best backup features module for protecting your data.

System Information:

  • Windows: 10/8//7 (bit or 64 bit)
  • MAC OS: Sierra13/Sierra 10
  • Memory: 1Gb Minimum or Maximum 2 Gb
  • HDD: 4 Gb required for full software
  • CPU:  GHz or higher

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