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For other uses, see Hoover Dam (disambiguation).
"Boulder Dam" redirects here. For other uses, see Boulder Dam (disambiguation).
Dam in Clark County, Nevada, and Mohave County, Arizona, US
Dam in Clark County, Nevada/Mohave County, Arizona, U.S.
Hoover Dam by Ansel Adams,
|Official name||Hoover Dam|
|Location||Clark County, Nevada/Mohave County, Arizona, U.S.|
|Purpose||Power, flood control, water storage, regulation, recreation|
|Constructioncost||$49 million ( budget)|
($million in dollars)
|Owner(s)||United States government|
|Operator(s)||U.S. Bureau of Reclamation|
|Spillwaytype||2 controlled Drum-Gate, Side channel|
|Operator(s)||U.S. Bureau of Reclamation|
|Hydraulic head||ft (m) (Max)|
1× MW Francis-type
2× MW Pelton-type
|Annualgeneration||TWh (12PJ) () |
Bureau of Reclamation: Lower Colorado Region- Hoover Dam
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen. National Historic Landmark
|Nearest city||Boulder City, Nevada|
|Coordinates||36°0′56″N°44′16″W / °N °W / ; Coordinates: 36°0′56″N°44′16″W / °N °W / ;|
|Architect||Six Companies, Inc. (structural), Gordon Kaufmann (exteriors)|
|MPS||Vehicular Bridges in Arizona MPS (AD)|
|Added to NRHP||April 8, |
|DesignatedNHL||August 20, |
Hoover Dam is a concretearch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed between and during the Great Depression and was dedicated on September 30,by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Its construction was the result of a massive effort involving thousands of workers, and cost over one hundred lives. It was referred to as Hoover Dam after President Herbert Hoover in bills passed by Congress during its construction, but was named Boulder Dam by the Roosevelt administration. The Hoover Dam name was restored by Congress in
Since aboutthe Black Canyon and nearby Boulder Canyon had been investigated for their potential to support a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power. InCongress authorized the project. The winning bid to build the dam was submitted by a consortium called Six Companies, Inc., which began construction of the dam in early Such a live home 3d pro crack windows Archives concrete structure had never been built before, and some of the techniques were unproven. The torrid summer weather and lack of facilities near the site also presented difficulties. Nevertheless, Six Companies turned the dam over to the federal government on March 1,more than two years ahead of schedule.
Hoover Dam impounds Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States by volume when full. The dam is located near Boulder City, Nevada, a municipality originally constructed for workers on the construction project, about 30mi (48km) southeast Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen Las Vegas, Nevada. The dam's generators provide power for public and private utilities in Nevada, Arizona, and California. Hoover Dam is a major tourist attraction; nearly a million people tour the dam each year. The heavily traveled U.S. Route 93 (US93) ran along the dam's crest until Octoberwhen the Hoover Dam Bypass opened.
Search for resources
As the United States developed the Southwest, the Colorado River was seen as a potential source of irrigation water. An initial attempt at diverting the river for irrigation purposes occurred in the late s, when land speculator William Beatty built the Alamo Canal just north of the Mexican border; the canal dipped into Mexico before running to a desolate area Beatty named the Imperial Valley. Though water from the Imperial Canal allowed for the widespread settlement of the valley, the canal Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen expensive to operate. After a catastrophic breach that caused the Colorado River to fill the Salton Sea, the Southern Pacific Railroad spent $3million in –07 to stabilize the waterway, an amount it hoped in vain would be reimbursed by the federal government. Even after the waterway was stabilized, it Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen unsatisfactory because of constant disputes with landowners on the Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen side of the border.
As the technology of electric power transmission improved, the Lower Colorado was considered for its hydroelectric-power potential. Inthe Edison Electric Company of Los Angeles surveyed the river in the Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen of building a foot (12m) rock dam which could generate 10, horsepower (7,kW). However, at the time, the limit of transmission of electric power was 80 miles (km), and there were few customers (mostly mines) within that limit. Edison allowed land options it held on the river to lapse—including an option for what became the site of Hoover Dam.
In the following years, the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), known as the Reclamation Service at the time, also considered the Lower Colorado as the site for a dam. Service chief Arthur Powell Davis proposed using dynamite to collapse the walls of Boulder Canyon, 20 miles (32km) north of the eventual dam site, into the river. The river would carry off the smaller pieces of debris, and a dam would be built incorporating the remaining rubble. Inafter considering it for several years, the Reclamation Service finally rejected the proposal, citing doubts about the unproven technique and questions as to whether it would, in fact, save money.
Planning and agreements
Inthe Reclamation Service presented a report calling for the development of a dam on the Colorado River for flood control and electric power generation. The report was principally authored by Davis, and was called the Fall-Davis report after Interior Secretary Albert Fall. The Fall-Davis report cited use of the Colorado River as a federal concern because the river's basin covered several states, and the river eventually entered Mexico. Though the Fall-Davis report called for a dam "at or near Boulder Canyon", the Reclamation Service (which was renamed the Bureau of Reclamation the following year) found that canyon unsuitable. One potential site at Boulder Canyon was bisected by a geologic fault; two others were so narrow there was no space for a construction camp at the bottom of the canyon or for a spillway. The Service investigated Black Canyon and found it ideal; a railway could be laid from the railhead in Las Vegas to the top of the dam site. Despite the site change, the dam project was referred to as the "Boulder Canyon Project".
With little guidance on water allocation from the Supreme Court, proponents of the dam feared endless litigation. Delph Carpenter, a Colorado attorney, proposed that the seven states which fell within the river's basin (California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming) form an interstate compact, with the approval of Congress. Such compacts were authorized by Article I of the United States Constitution but had never been concluded among more than two states. Inrepresentatives of seven states met with then-Secretary of CommerceHerbert Hoover. Initial talks produced no result, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, but when the Supreme Court handed down the Wyoming v. Colorado decision undermining the claims of the upstream states, they became anxious to reach an agreement. The resulting Colorado River Compact was signed on November 24,
Legislation to authorize the dam was introduced repeatedly by two California Republicans, Representative Phil Swing and Senator Hiram Johnson, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen representatives from other parts of the country considered the project as hugely expensive and one that would mostly benefit California. The Mississippi flood made Midwestern and Southern congressmen and senators more sympathetic toward the dam project. On March 12,the failure of the St. Francis Dam, constructed by the city of Los Angeles, caused a disastrous flood that killed up to people. As that dam was a curved-gravity type, similar in design to the arch-gravity as was proposed for the Black Canyon dam, opponents claimed that the Black Canyon dam's safety could not be guaranteed. Congress authorized a board of Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen to review plans for the proposed dam. The Colorado River Board found the project feasible, but warned that should the dam fail, every downstream Colorado River community would be destroyed, and that the river might change course and empty into the Salton Sea. The Board cautioned: "To avoid such possibilities, the proposed dam should be constructed on conservative if not ultra-conservative lines."
On December 21,President Coolidge signed the bill authorizing the dam. The Boulder Canyon Project Act appropriated $million for the project along with the downstream Imperial Dam and All-American Canal, a replacement for Beatty's canal entirely on the U.S. side of the border. It also permitted the compact to go into effect when at least six of the seven states approved it. This occurred on March 6,with Utah's ratification; Arizona did not approve it until
Design, preparation and contracting
Even before Congress approved the Boulder Canyon Project, the Bureau of Reclamation was considering what kind of dam should be used. Officials eventually decided on a massive concrete arch-gravity dam, the design of which was overseen by the Bureau's chief design engineer John L. Savage. The monolithic dam would be thick at the bottom and thin near the top, and would present a convex face towards the water above the dam. The curving arch of the dam would transmit the water's force into the abutments, in this case the rock walls of the canyon. The wedge-shaped dam would be ft (m) thick at the bottom, narrowing to 45ft (14m) at the top, leaving room for a highway connecting Nevada and Arizona.
On January 10,the Bureau made the bid documents available to interested parties, at five dollars a copy. The government was to provide the materials, and the contractor was to prepare the site and build the dam. The dam was described in minute detail, covering pages of text and 76drawings. A $2million bid bond was to accompany each bid; the winner would have to post a $5million performance bond. The contractor had seven years to build the dam, or penalties would ensue.
The Wattis Brothers, heads of the Utah Construction Company, were interested in bidding on the project, but lacked the money for the performance bond. They lacked sufficient resources even in combination with their longtime partners, Morrison-Knudsen, which employed the nation's leading dam builder, Frank Crowe. They formed a joint venture to bid for the project with Pacific Bridge Company of Portland, Oregon; Henry J. Kaiser & W. A. Bechtel Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen of San Francisco; MacDonald & Kahn Ltd. of Los Angeles; and the J.F. Shea Company of Portland, Oregon. The joint venture was called Six Companies, Inc. as Bechtel and Kaiser were considered one company for purposes of Six in the name. The name was descriptive and was an inside joke among the San Franciscans in the bid, where "Six Companies" was also a Chinese benevolent association in the city. There were three valid bids, and Six Companies' bid of $48, was the lowest, within $24, of the confidential government estimate of what the dam would cost to build, and five million dollars less than the next-lowest bid.
The city of Las Vegas BBS Drag Racing v2.39 5 crack serial keygen lobbied hard to be the headquarters for the dam construction, closing its many speakeasies when the decision maker, Secretary of the Interior Ray Wilbur, came to town. Instead, Wilbur announced in early that a model city was to be built in the desert near the dam site. This town became known as Boulder City, Nevada. Construction of a rail line joining Las Vegas and the dam site began in September
Soon after the dam was authorized, increasing numbers of unemployed people converged on southern Nevada. Las Vegas, then a small city of some 5, saw between 10, and 20, unemployed descend on it. A government camp was established for surveyors and other personnel near the dam site; this soon became surrounded by a squatters' camp. Known as McKeeversville, the camp was home to men hoping for work on the project, together with their families. Another camp, on the flats along the Colorado River, was officially called Williamsville, but was known to its inhabitants as "Ragtown". When construction began, Six Companies hired large numbers of workers, with more than 3, on the payroll by and with employment peaking at 5, in July "Mongolian" (Chinese) labor was prevented by the construction contract, while the number of black people employed by Six Companies never exceeded thirty, mostly lowest-pay-scale laborers in a segregated crew, who were issued separate water buckets.
As part of the contract, Six Companies, Inc. was to build Boulder City to house the workers. The original timetable called for Boulder City to be built before the dam project began, but President Hoover ordered work on the dam to begin in March rather than in October. The company built bunkhouses, attached to the canyon wall, to house single men at what became known as River Camp. Workers with families were left to provide their own accommodations until Boulder City could be completed, and many lived in Ragtown. The site of Hoover Dam endures extremely hot weather, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, and the summer of was especially torrid, with the daytime high averaging °F (°C). Sixteen workers and other riverbank residents died of heat prostration between June 25 and July 26,
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or "Wobblies"), though much-reduced from their heyday as militant labor organizers in the early years of the century, hoped to unionize the Six Companies workers by capitalizing on their discontent. They sent eleven organizers, several of whom were arrested by Las Vegas police. On August 7,the company cut wages for all tunnel workers. Although the workers sent the organizers away, not wanting to be associated with the "Wobblies", they formed a committee to represent them with the company. The committee drew up a list of demands that evening and presented them to Crowe the following morning. He was noncommittal. The workers hoped that Crowe, the general superintendent of the job, would be sympathetic; instead, he gave a scathing interview to a newspaper, describing the workers as "malcontents".
On Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen morning of the 9th, Crowe met with the committee and told them that management refused their demands, was stopping all work, and was laying Drivers Archives - Page 2 of 2 - MASTERkreatif the entire work force, except for a few office workers and carpenters. The workers were given until 5p.m. to vacate the premises. Concerned that a violent confrontation was imminent, most workers took their paychecks and left for Las Vegas to await developments. Two days later, the remainder were talked into leaving by law enforcement. On August 13, the company began hiring workers again, and two days later, the strike was called off, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen. While the workers received none of their demands, the company guaranteed there would be no further reductions in wages. Living conditions began to improve as the first residents moved into Boulder City in late
A second labor action took place in Julyas construction on the dam wound down. When a Six Companies manager altered working times to force workers to take lunch on their own time, workers responded with a strike. Emboldened by Crowe's reversal of the lunch decree, workers raised their demands to include a $1-per-day raise. The company agreed to ask the Federal government to supplement the pay, but no money was forthcoming Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen Washington. The strike ended.
Before the dam could be built, the Colorado River needed to be diverted away from the construction site. To accomplish this, four diversion tunnels were driven through the canyon walls, two on the Nevada side and two on the Arizona side. These tunnels were 56ft (17m) in diameter. Their combined length was nearly 16,ft, or more than 3 miles (5km). The contract required these tunnels to be completed by October 1,with a $3,per-day fine to be assessed for any delay. To meet the deadline, Six Companies had to complete work by earlysince only in late fall and winter was the water level in the river low enough to safely divert.
Tunneling began at the lower portals of the Nevada tunnels in May Shortly afterward, work began on two similar tunnels in the Arizona canyon wall. In Marchwork began on lining the tunnels with concrete. First the base, or invert, was poured. Gantry cranes, running on rails through the entire length of each tunnel were used to place the concrete. The sidewalls were poured next. Movable sections of steel forms were used for the sidewalls. Finally, using pneumatic guns, the overheads were filled in. The concrete lining is 3 feet (1m) thick, reducing the finished tunnel diameter to 50ft (15m). The river was diverted into the two Arizona tunnels on November 13, ; the Nevada tunnels were kept in reserve for high water. This was done by exploding a temporary cofferdam protecting the Arizona tunnels while at the same time dumping rubble into the river until its natural course was blocked.
Following the completion of the dam, the entrances to the two AutoCAD 2020 activation code Archives diversion tunnels were sealed at the opening and Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen through the tunnels with large concrete plugs. The downstream halves of the tunnels Any Video Converter Ultimate 7.1.3 Crack With Full License Key [Latest] the inner plugs are now Movavi Video Converter Premium 21.4.0 With Crack main bodies of the spillway tunnels. The inner diversion tunnels were plugged at approximately one-third of their length, beyond which they now carry steel pipes connecting the intake towers to heat up 2 vst free download Archives power plant and outlet works. The inner tunnels' outlets are equipped with gates that can be closed to drain the tunnels for maintenance.
Groundworks, rock clearance and grout curtain
To protect the construction site from the Colorado River and to facilitate the river's diversion, two cofferdams were constructed. Work on the upper cofferdam began in Septembereven though the river had not yet been diverted. The cofferdams were designed to protect against the possibility of the river's flooding a site at which two thousand men might be at work, and their specifications were covered in the bid documents in nearly as much detail as the dam itself. The upper cofferdam was 96ft (29m) high, and feet (m) thick at its base, thicker than the dam itself. It containedcubic yards (,m3) of material.
When the cofferdams were in place and the construction site was drained of water, excavation for the dam foundation began. For the dam to rest on solid rock, it was necessary to remove accumulated erosion soils and other loose materials in the riverbed until sound bedrock was reached. Work on the foundation excavations was completed in June During this excavation, approximately 1,cuyd (1,m3) of material was removed. Since the dam was an arch-gravity type, the side-walls of the canyon would bear the force of the impounded lake. Therefore, the side-walls were excavated too, to reach virgin rock, as weathered rock might provide pathways for water seepage. Shovels for the excavation came from the Marion Power Shovel Company.
The men who removed this rock were called "high scalers". While suspended from the top of the canyon with ropes, the high-scalers climbed down the canyon walls and removed the loose rock with jackhammers and dynamite. Falling objects were the most common cause of death on the dam site; the high scalers' work thus helped ensure worker safety. One high scaler was able to save a life in a more direct manner: when a government inspector lost his grip on a safety line and began tumbling down a slope towards almost certain death, a high scaler was able to intercept him and pull him into the air. The construction site had, even then, become TransMac 12.6 mac Archives magnet for tourists; the high scalers were prime attractions and showed off for the watchers. The high scalers received considerable media attention, with one worker dubbed the "Human Pendulum" for swinging co-workers (and, at other times, cases of dynamite) across the canyon. To protect themselves against falling objects, some high scalers took cloth hats and dipped them in tar, allowing them to harden. When workers wearing such headgear were struck hard enough to inflict broken jaws, they sustained no skull damage. Six Companies ordered thousands of what initially were called "hard boiled hats" (later "hard hats") and strongly encouraged their use.
The cleared, underlying rock foundation of the dam site was reinforced with grout, forming a grout curtain. Holes were driven into the walls and base of the canyon, as deep as feet (46m) into the rock, and any cavities encountered were to be filled with grout. This was done to stabilize the rock, to prevent water from seeping past the dam through the canyon rock, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, and to limit "uplift"—upward pressure from water seeping under the dam. The workers were under severe time constraints due to the beginning of the concrete pour, and when they encountered hot springs or cavities too large to readily fill, they moved on without resolving the problem. A total of 58 of the holes were incompletely filled. After the dam was completed and the lake began to fill, large numbers of significant leaks into the dam caused the Bureau of Reclamation to look into the situation. It found that the work had been incompletely done, and was based on less than a full understanding of the canyon's geology. New holes were drilled from inspection galleries inside the dam into the surrounding bedrock. It took nine years (–47) under relative secrecy to complete the supplemental grout curtain.
The first concrete was poured into the dam on June 6,18months ahead of schedule. Since concrete heats and contracts as it cures, the potential for uneven cooling and contraction of the concrete posed a serious problem. Bureau of Reclamation engineers calculated that if the dam were to be built in a single continuous pour, the concrete would take years to cool, and the resulting stresses would cause the dam to crack and crumble. Instead, the ground where the dam would Miracle Box 3.24 Crack Thunder Edition Keygen 2022! was marked with rectangles, and concrete blocks in columns were poured, some as large as 50ft square (15m) and 5 feet (m) high. Each five-foot form contained a set of 1-inch (25mm) steel pipes; cool river water would be poured through the pipes, followed by ice-cold water from a refrigeration plant. When an individual block had cured and had stopped contracting, the pipes were filled with grout. Grout was also used to fill the hairline spaces between columns, which were grooved to increase the strength of the joints.
The concrete was delivered in huge steel buckets 7 feet high (m) and almost 7feet in diameter; Crowe was awarded two patents for their design. These buckets, which weighed 20 short tons (t; long tons) when Visual Paradigm 16.3 Crack + Keys Free Download , were filled at two massive concrete plants on the Nevada side, and were delivered to the site in special railcars. The buckets were then suspended from aerial cableways which were used to deliver the bucket to a specific column. As the required grade of aggregate in the concrete differed depending on placement in the dam (from pea-sized gravel to 9 inches [mm] stones), it was vital that the bucket be maneuvered to the proper column. When the bottom of the bucket opened up, disgorging 8cuyd (m3) of concrete, a team of men worked it throughout the form. Although there are myths that men were caught in the pour and are entombed in the dam to this day, each bucket deepened the concrete in a form by only 1 inch (25mm), and Six Companies engineers would not have permitted a flaw caused by the presence of a human body.
A total of 3, cubic yards (2, cubic meters) of concrete was used in the dam before concrete pouring ceased on May 29, In addition, 1,cuyd (,m3) were used in the power plant and other works. More than miles (km) of cooling pipes were placed within the concrete. Overall, there is enough concrete in the dam to pave a two-lane highway from San Francisco to New York. Concrete cores were removed from the dam for testing in ; they showed that "Hoover Dam's concrete has continued to slowly gain strength" and the dam is composed of a "durable concrete having a compressive strength exceeding the range typically found in normal mass concrete". Hoover Dam concrete is not subject to alkali–silica reaction (ASR), as the Hoover Dam builders happened to use nonreactive aggregate, unlike that at downstream Parker Dam, where ASR has caused measurable deterioration.
Dedication and completion
With most work finished on the dam itself (the powerhouse remained uncompleted), a formal dedication ceremony was arranged for September 30,to coincide with a western tour being made by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The morning of the dedication, it was moved forward three hours from 2p.m. Pacific time to 11a.m.; this was done because Secretary of the InteriorHarold L. Ickes had edius serial number Archives a radio slot for the President for 2p.m. but officials did not realize until the day of the ceremony that the slot was for 2p.m. Eastern Time. Despite the change in the ceremony time, and temperatures of °F (39°C), 10,people were present for the President's speech, in which he avoided mentioning the name of former President Hoover, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, who was not invited to the ceremony. To mark the occasion, a three-cent stamp was issued by the United States Post Office Department—bearing the name "Boulder Dam", the official name of the dam between and After the ceremony, Roosevelt made the first visit by any American president to Las Vegas.
Most work had been completed by the dedication, and Six Companies negotiated with the government through late and early to settle all claims and arrange for the formal transfer of the dam to the Federal Government. The parties came to an agreement and on March 1,Secretary Ickes formally accepted the dam on behalf of the government. Six Companies was not required to complete work on one item, a concrete plug for one of the bypass tunnels, as the tunnel had to be used to take in irrigation water until the powerhouse went into operation.
There were deaths reported as associated with the construction of the dam. The first was surveyor John Gregory ("J.G.") Tierney who drowned on December 20,in a flash flood, while looking for an ideal spot for the dam. The official list's final death occurred on December 20,when Patrick Tierney, electrician's helper and the son of J.G. Tierney, fell from one of the two Arizona-side intake towers. Included in the fatality list are three workers who took their own lives on site, one in and two in  Of the fatalities, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen were Six Companies employees, three were Bureau of Reclamation employees, and one was a visitor to the site; the remainder were employees of various contractors not part of Six Companies.
Ninety-six of the deaths occurred during construction at the site. Not included in the official number of fatalities were deaths that were recorded as pneumonia. Workers alleged that this diagnosis was a cover for death from carbon monoxide poisoning (brought on by the use of gasoline-fueled vehicles in the diversion tunnels), and a classification used by Six Companies to avoid paying compensation claims. The site's diversion tunnels frequently reached °F (60°C), enveloped in thick plumes of vehicle exhaust gases. A total of 42 workers were recorded as having died from pneumonia and were not included in the above total; none were listed as having died from carbon monoxide poisoning. No deaths of non-workers from pneumonia were recorded in Boulder City during the construction period.
The initial plans for the facade of the dam, the power plant, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, the outlet tunnels and ornaments clashed with the modern look of an arch dam. The Bureau of Reclamation, more concerned with the dam's functionality, adorned it with a Gothic-inspired balustrade and eagle statues. This initial design was criticized by many as being too plain and unremarkable for a project of such immense scale, so Los Angeles-based architect Gordon B. Kaufmann, then the supervising architect to the Bureau of Reclamation, was brought in to redesign the exteriors. Kaufmann greatly streamlined the design and applied an elegant Art Deco style to the entire project. He designed sculpted turrets rising seamlessly from the dam face and clock faces on the intake towers set for the time in Nevada and Arizona—both states are in different time zones, but since Arizona does not observe daylight saving time, the clocks display the same time for more than half the year.
At Kaufmann's request, Denver artist Allen Tupper True was hired to handle the design and decoration of the walls and floors of the new dam. True's design scheme incorporated motifs of the Navajo and Pueblo tribes of the region. Although some were initially opposed to these designs, True was given the go-ahead and was officially appointed consulting artist. With the assistance of the National Laboratory of Anthropology, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, True researched authentic decorative motifs from Indian sand paintings, textiles, baskets and ceramics. The images and colors are based on Native American visions of rain, lightning, water, clouds, and local animals—lizards, serpents, birds—and on the Southwestern landscape Legacy Family Tree v4.0 Deluxe Edition crack serial keygen stepped mesas. In these works, which are integrated into the walkways and interior halls of the dam, True also reflected on the machinery of the operation, making the symbolic patterns appear both ancient and modern.
With the agreement of Kaufmann and the engineers, True also devised for the pipes and machinery an innovative color-coding which was implemented throughout all BOR projects. True's consulting artist job lasted through ; it was extended so he could complete design work for the Parker, Shasta and Grand Coulee dams and power plants. True's work on the Hoover Dam was humorously referred to in a poem published in The New Yorker, part of which read, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, "lose the spark, and justify the dream; but also worthy of remark will be the color scheme".
Complementing Kaufmann and True's work, sculptor Oskar J.W. Hansen designed many of the sculptures on and around the dam. His works include the monument of dedication plaza, a plaque to memorialize the workers killed and the bas-reliefs on the elevator towers. In his words, Hansen wanted his work to express "the immutable calm of intellectual resolution, and the enormous power of trained physical strength, equally enthroned in placid triumph Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen scientific accomplishment", because "[t]he building of Hoover Dam belongs to the sagas of the daring." Hansen's dedication plaza, on the Nevada abutment, contains a sculpture of two winged figures flanking a flagpole.
Surrounding the base of the monument is a terrazzo floor embedded with a "star map". The map depicts the Northern Hemisphere sky at the moment of President Roosevelt's dedication of the dam. This is intended to help future astronomers, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, if necessary, calculate the exact date of dedication. The foot-high (m) bronze figures, dubbed "Winged Figures of the Republic", were both formed in a continuous pour. To put such large bronzes into place without marring the highly polished bronze surface, they were placed on ice and guided into position as the ice melted. Hansen's bas-relief on the Nevada elevator tower depicts the benefits of the dam: flood control, navigation, irrigation, water storage, and power. The bas-relief on the Arizona elevator depicts, in his words, "the visages of those Indian tribes who have inhabited mountains and plains from ages distant."
Power plant and water demands
Excavation for the powerhouse was carried out simultaneously with the excavation for the dam foundation and abutments. The excavation of this U-shaped structure located at the downstream toe of the dam was completed in late with the first concrete placed in November Filling of Lake Mead began February 1,even before the last of the concrete was poured that May. The powerhouse was one of the projects uncompleted at the time of the formal dedication on September 30, ; a crew of men remained to finish it and other structures. To make the powerhouse roof bombproof, it was constructed of layers of concrete, rock, and steel with a total thickness of about feet (m), topped with layers of sand and tar.
In the latter half ofwater levels in Lake Mead were high enough to permit power generation, and the first three Allis Chalmers built Francis turbine-generators, all on the Nevada side, began operating. In Marchone more Nevada generator went online and the first Arizona generator by August. By Septemberfour more generators were operating, and the dam's power windows 8.1 loader Archives - Windows Activator became the largest hydroelectricity facility in the world. The final generator was not placed in service untilbringing the maximum generating capacity to 1, megawatts at the time. Original plans called for 16large generators, eight on each side of the river, but two smaller generators were installed instead of one large one on the Arizona side for a total of The smaller generators were used to serve smaller communities at a time when the output of each generator was dedicated to a single municipality, before the dam's total power output was placed on the grid and made arbitrarily distributable.
Before water from Lake Mead reaches the turbines, it enters the intake towers and then four gradually narrowing penstocks which funnel the water down towards the powerhouse. The intakes provide a maximum hydraulic head (water pressure) of ft (m) as the water reaches a speed of about 85mph (km/h). The entire flow of the Colorado River usually passes through the turbines. The spillways and outlet works (jet-flow gates) are rarely used. The jet-flow gates, located in concrete structures feet (55m) above the river and also at the outlets of the inner diversion tunnels at river level, may be used to divert water around the dam in emergency or flood conditions, but have never done so, and in practice are used only to drain water from the penstocks for maintenance. Following an uprating project from tothe total gross power rating for the plant, including two megawattPelton turbine-generators that power Hoover Dam's own operations is a maximum capacity of megawatts. The annual generation of Hoover Dam varies. The maximum net generation was TWh inand the minimum since was TWh in  The average power generated was TWh/year for – Inthe dam generated TWh.
The amount of electricity generated by Hoover Dam has been decreasing along with the falling water level in Lake Mead due to the prolonged drought since year and high demand for the Colorado River's water. By its generating capacity was downrated by 23% to MW and was providing power only during periods of peak demand. Lake Mead fell to a new record low elevation of 1, feet (m) on July 1,before beginning to rebound slowly. Under its original design, the dam would no longer be able to generate power once the water level fell below 1, feet (m), which might have occurred in had water restrictions not been enforced. To lower the minimum power pool elevation from 1, to feet ( to m), five wide-head turbines, designed to work efficiently with less flow, were installed. Water levels were maintained at over 1, feet (m) in and , but fell to a new record low of 1, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, feet (m) on June 10,  and were projected to fall below 1, feet (m) by the end of 
Control of water was the primary concern in the building of the dam. Power generation has allowed the dam project to be self-sustaining: proceeds from the sale of power repaid the year construction loan, and those revenues also finance the multimillion-dollar Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen maintenance budget. Power is generated in step with and only with the release of water in response to downstream water demands.
Lake Mead and downstream releases from the dam also Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen water for both municipal and irrigation uses. Water released from the Hoover Dam eventually reaches several canals. The Colorado River Aqueduct and Central Arizona Project branch off Lake Havasu while the All-American Canal is supplied by the Imperial Dam. In total, water from Lake Mead serves 18 million people in Arizona, Nevada, and California and supplies the irrigation of over 1, acres (,ha) of land.
Inthe Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) proposed a $3 billion pumped hydro storage project—a "battery" of sorts—that would use wind and solar power to recirculate water back up to Lake Mead from a pumping station 20 miles (32km) downriver.
Electricity from the dam's powerhouse was originally sold pursuant to a fifty-year contract, authorized by Congress inwhich ran from to InCongress passed a new statute which set power allocations Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen southern California, Arizona, and Nevada from the dam from to  The powerhouse was run under the original authorization by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Southern California Edison; inthe Bureau of Reclamation assumed control. InCongress enacted legislation extending the current contracts untilafter setting aside 5% of Hoover Dam's power for sale to Native American tribes, electric cooperatives, and other entities. The new arrangement began on October 1, 
The Bureau of Reclamation reports that the energy generated under Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen contracts ending in was allocated as follows:
The dam is protected against over-topping by two spillways. The spillway entrances are located behind each dam abutment, running roughly parallel to the canyon walls. The spillway entrance arrangement forms a classic side-flow weir with each spillway containing four foot-long (30m) and foot-wide (m) steel-drum gates. Each gate weighs 5, pounds (2, metric tons) and can be operated manually or automatically. Gates are raised and lowered depending on water levels in the reservoir and flood conditions. The gates cannot entirely prevent water from entering the spillways but can maintain an extra 16ft (m) of lake level.
Water flowing over the spillways falls dramatically into foot-long (m), foot-wide (15m) spillway tunnels before connecting to the outer diversion tunnels, and reentering the main river channel below the dam. This complex spillway entrance arrangement combined with the approximate foot (m) elevation drop from the top of the reservoir to the river below was a difficult engineering problem and posed numerous design challenges. Each spillway's capacity of ,cuft/s (5,m3/s) was empirically verified in post-construction tests in 
The large spillway tunnels Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen only been used twice, for testing in and because of flooding in Both times, when inspecting the tunnels after the spillways were used, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, engineers found major damage to the Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen linings and underlying rock. The damage was attributed to a slight misalignment of the tunnel invert (or base), which caused cavitation, a phenomenon in fast-flowing liquids in which vapor bubbles collapse with explosive force. In response to this finding, the tunnels were patched with special heavy-duty concrete and the surface of the concrete was polished mirror-smooth. The spillways were modified in by adding flip buckets, which both slow the water and decrease the spillway's effective capacity, in an attempt to eliminate conditions thought to have contributed to the damage. The damage, also due to cavitation, led to the installation of aerators in the spillways. Tests at Grand Coulee Dam showed that the technique worked, in principle.
Roadway and tourism
See also: Hoover Dam in popular culture
There are two lanes for automobile traffic across the top of the dam, which formerly served as the Colorado River crossing for U.S. Route  In the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks, authorities expressed security concerns and the Hoover Dam Bypass project was expedited. Pending the completion of the bypass, restricted traffic was permitted over Hoover Dam. Some types of vehicles were inspected prior to crossing the dam while semi-trailer trucks, buses carrying luggage, and enclosed-box trucks over 40ft (12m) long were not allowed on the dam at all, and were diverted to U.S. Route 95 or Nevada State Routes / The four-lane Hoover Dam Bypass opened on October 19,  It includes a composite steel and concrete arch bridge, the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, 1,ft (m) downstream from the dam. With the opening of the bypass, through traffic is no longer allowed across Hoover Dam; dam visitors are allowed to use the existing roadway to approach from the Nevada side and cross to parking lots and other facilities on the Arizona side.
Hoover Dam opened for tours in after its completion, but following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen,it was closed to the public when the United States entered World War II, during which only authorized traffic, in convoys, was permitted. After the war, it reopened September 2,and byannual attendance had risen toThe dam closed on November 25,Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, and March 31,days of mourning in remembrance of Presidents Kennedy and Eisenhower. Ina new visitors' center was built, and the following year, visits exceeded one million for the first time. The dam closed again to the public on September 11, ; modified tours were resumed in December and a new "Discovery Tour" was added the following year. Today, nearly a million people per year take the tours of the dam offered by the Bureau of Reclamation. Increased security concerns by the government have led to most of the interior structure's being inaccessible to tourists. As a result, few of True's decorations can now be seen by visitors, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen. Visitors can only purchase tickets on-site and have the options of a guided tour of the whole facility or only the power plant area. The only self-guided tour option is for the visitor center itself, where visitors can view various exhibits and enjoy a degree view of the dam.
The changes in water flow and use caused by Hoover Dam's construction and operation have had a large impact on the Colorado River Delta. The construction of the dam has been implicated in causing the decline of this estuarineecosystem. For six years after the construction of the dam, while Lake Mead filled, virtually no water reached the mouth of the river. The delta's estuary, which once had a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone stretching 40 miles (64km) south of the river's mouth, was turned into an inverse estuary where the level of salinity was higher close to the river's mouth.
The Colorado River had experienced natural flooding before the construction of the Hoover Dam. The dam eliminated the natural flooding, threatening many species adapted to the flooding, including both plants and animals. The construction of the dam devastated the populations of native fish in the river downstream from the dam. Four species of fish native to the Colorado River, the Bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, Humpback chub, and Razorback sucker, are listed as endangered.
During the years of lobbying leading up to the passage of Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen authorizing the dam inthe press generally referred to the dam as "Boulder Dam" or as "Boulder Canyon Dam", even though the proposed site had shifted to Black Canyon. The Boulder Canyon Project Act of (BCPA) never mentioned a proposed name or title for the Virtual dj pro 7 crack serial keygen. The BCPA merely allows the government to "construct, operate, and maintain a dam and incidental works in the main stream of the Colorado River at Black Canyon or Boulder Canyon".
When Secretary of the InteriorRay Wilbur spoke at the ceremony starting the building of the railway between Las Vegas and the dam site on September 17,Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen, he named the dam "Hoover Dam", citing a tradition of naming dams after Presidents, though none had been so honored during their terms of office. Wilbur justified his choice on the ground that Hoover was "the great engineer whose vision and persistence has done so much to make [the dam] possible". One writer complained in response that "the Great Engineer NCH WavePad Sound Editor Masters Edition v5.15 crack serial keygen quickly drained, ditched, and dammed the country."
After Hoover's election defeat in and the accession of the Roosevelt administration, Secretary Ickes ordered on May 13, that the dam be referred to as Boulder Dam. Ickes stated that Wilbur had been imprudent in naming the dam after a sitting president, that Congress had never ratified his choice, and that it had long been referred to as Boulder Dam, Ytunnel pro 372 crack serial keygen. Unknown to the general public, Attorney General Homer Cummings informed Ickes that Congress had indeed used the name "Hoover Dam" in five different bills appropriating money for construction of the dam. The official status this conferred to the name "Hoover Dam" had been noted on the floor of the House of Representatives by Congressman Edward T. Taylor of Colorado on December 12, , but was likewise ignored by Ickes.
When Ickes spoke at the dedication ceremony on September 30,he was determined, as he recorded in his diary, "to try to nail down for good and all the name Boulder Dam." At one point in the speech, he spoke the words "Boulder Dam" five times within thirty seconds. Further, he suggested that if the dam were to be named after any one person, it should be for California Senator Hiram Johnson, a lead sponsor of the authorizing legislation. Roosevelt also referred to the Adobe acrobat x pro the original xcc crack serial keygen as Boulder Dam, and the Republican-leaning Los Angeles Times, which at the time of Ickes' name change had run an editorial cartoon showing Ickes ineffectively chipping away at an enormous sign "HOOVER DAM," reran it showing Roosevelt reinforcing Ickes, but having no greater success.
In the following years, the name "Boulder Dam" failed to fully take hold, with many Americans using both names interchangeably and mapmakers divided as to which name should be printed. Memories of the Great Depression faded, and Hoover to some extent rehabilitated himself through good works during and after World War II. Ina bill passed both Houses of Congress unanimously restoring the name "Hoover Dam." Ickes, who was by then a private citizen, opposed the change, stating, "I didn't know Hoover was that small a man to take credit for something he had nothing to do with."
Hoover Dam was recognized as a National Civil Engineering Landmark in It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places inand was designated a National Historic Landmark incited for its engineering innovations.
Hoover Dam panoramic view from the Arizona side showing the penstock towers, the Nevada-side spillway entrance and the Mike O'Callaghan – Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, also known as the Hoover Dam Bypass
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