The National Archives

Pro Archives

pro Archives

In some countries, such as the UK, the archive/record keeping professions are professionalised with clear routes of entry, qualification and professional. We are a non-ministerial department, and the official archive and publisher for the UK Government, and for England and Wales. Dutch Pro Original Bloom Hydro/Coco A&B (Soft Water). £11.95 – £42.00. Quick View. Dutch Pro. Dutch Pro Original Bloom Soil/Aarde A&B. £11.95 – £42.00. pro Archives

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Welcome", pro Archives. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  • ^Archives, The National, pro Archives. "Manorial Documents Register – The National Archives". Archives sector. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  • ^"The National Pro Archives Annual Report and Resource Accounts 2008–2009 HC 469"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2 Pro Archives 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  • ^" | Revel Mob – developing best-selling smartphone apps". Revel Mob, pro Archives. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  • ^"Old Money"., pro Archives. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  • ^"Old Money iPhone app launched using records from The National Archives". Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
  • ^"New collaboration between Wikimedia UK and The National Archives", pro Archives. The National Archives (United Kingdom). 15 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  • ^Archives, The National. "Blogposts MI5 – The Security Service". Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  • ^Norton-Taylor, Richard (29 December 2017). "For their eyes only: the secret stories ministers don't want you to read

    The National Archives (United Kingdom)

    Repository of archival information for the United Kingdom

    Logo of The National Archives of the United <b>Pro Archives</b> src=
    FormedApril 2003 (2003-04)
    JurisdictionEngland and Wales, Government of the United Kingdom
    HeadquartersKew, Richmond, Greater London TW9 4DU
    51°28′52″N0°16′46″W / 51.48111°N 0.27944°W / 51.48111; -0.27944Coordinates: 51°28′52″N0°16′46″W / 51.48111°N 0.27944°W / 51.48111; -0.27944
    Annual budget£43.9 million (2009–2010)[1]
    Ministers responsible
    Non-ministerial department executive
    • Jeff James, Chief Executive and Keeper of the Public Records
    Parent departmentDepartment for Digital, Culture, pro Archives, Media and Sport
    Child agencies
    • Office of Public Sector Information
    • Her Majesty's Stationery Office
    Key document this at Wikidata
    The National Archives building at Kew

    The Pro Archives Archives (TNA, Welsh: Yr Archifau Cenedlaethol) is a non-ministerial government department.[2] Its parent department is the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[3] It is the official archive of the UK government and for England and Wales; and "guardian of pro Archives of the nation's most iconic documents, dating back more than 1,000 years."[4] There are separate national archives for Scotland (the National Records of Scotland) and Northern Ireland (the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland).

    TNA was formerly four separate organisations: the Public Record Office (PRO), the Historical Manuscripts Commission, pro Archives, the Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) and Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). The Public Record Office still exists as a legal entity, as the enabling legislation has not been modified,[5][6] and documents held by the institution thus continue to be cited by many scholars as part of the PRO.[7] Since 2008, TNA has also hosted the former UK Statute Law Database, now known as

    It is institutional policy to include the definite article, with an initial capital letter, in its name (hence "The National Archives", abbreviated as TNA) but this practice is not always followed in the non-specialist media.

    The department is the responsibility of the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism; a minister in the Government of the United Kingdom.[8]


    The National Archives is based in Kew in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south-west London. The building was opened in 1977 as an additional home for the public records, which were held in a building pro Archives Chancery Lane, pro Archives. The site was originally a World War I hospital, which was later used by several government departments.[9] It is near to Kew Gardens Underground station.

    Until its closure in March 2008, the Family Records Centre in Islington was run jointly by The National Archives and the General Register Office. The National Archives has an additional office in Norwich, which is primarily for former OPSI staff. There is also an additional record storage facility (DeepStore[10]) in the worked-out parts of Winsford Rock Salt Mine, Winsford, pro Archives, Cheshire.


    For earlier history, see Public Record Office.

    The National Archives was created in 2003 by combining the Public Record Office and the Historical Manuscripts Commission and is a non-ministerial department reporting to the Minister of State for digital policy.

    On 31 October 2006, The National Archives merged with the Office of Public Sector Pro Archives (OPSI), which itself also contained Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) which was previously a part of pro Archives Cabinet Office. The name remained The National Archives.

    Chief Executive and Keeper[edit]

    Key roles[edit]

    A manuscript and seals being examined at the archives

    TNA claims it is "at pro Archives heart of information policy—setting standards and supporting innovation in information and records management across the UK, and providing a practical framework of best practice for opening up and encouraging the re-use of public sector information.[13] This work helps inform today's decisions and ensure that they become tomorrow's permanent record." It has a number of key roles in information policy:

    • Policy – advising government on information practice and policy, on issues from record creation through to its reuse
    • Selection – selecting which documents to store
    • Preservation – ensuring the documents remain in as good a condition as possible
    • Access – providing the public with the opportunity to view the documents
    • Advice pro Archives advising the public and other archives and archivists around the world on how to care for documents
    • Intellectual property management – TNA (via OPSI and HMSO) manages crown copyright for the UK
    • Regulation – ensuring that other public sector organisations adhere to both the public records act and the PSI reuse regulations.

    Sector leadership[edit]

    The National Archives (and before it the Public Record Office) has long had a role of oversight and leadership for the entire archives sector and archives profession in the UK, including local government and non-governmental archives. Under the Public Records Act 1958 it is responsible for overseeing the appropriate custody of certain non-governmental public records in England and Wales.[14] Under the 2003 Historical Manuscripts Commission Warrant it has responsibility pro Archives investigating and reporting on non-governmental records and archives of all kinds throughout the United Kingdom.[15] In October 2011, when the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council was wound pro Archives, TNA took over its responsibilities in respect of archives in England, including providing information and advice to ministers on archives policy. The National Archives now sees this part of its role as being "to enhance the 'archival health of the nation'".[16]


    Types of records[edit]

    Entrance gates to The National Archives from Ruskin Avenue: the notched vertical elements were inspired by medieval tally sticks.

    The National Archives is Her Majesty's Government's official archive, "containing 1000 years of history from Domesday Book to the present", with records from parchment pro Archives paper scrolls through to digital files and archived websites.[17] The material held at Kew includes the following: pro Archives from the central courts of law from the twelfth century onwards, including the Court of King's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of Chancery, the Court of Exchequer, the Supreme Court of Judicature, the Central Criminal Court, Assizes, and many other courts

  • Medieval, early modern and modern records of central government
  • A large and disparate collection of maps, plans and architectural drawings
  • Records for family historians including wills, pro Archives, naturalisation certificates and criminal records
  • Service and operational records of the armed forces War Office, Admiralty etc.
  • Foreign Office and Pro Archives Office correspondence and files
  • Cabinet papers and Home Office pro Archives of the Board of Trade
  • The surviving records of (mainly) the English railway companies, transferred from the British Railways Record Office
  • There is also a museum, pro Archives, which displays key documents such as Domesday Book and has exhibitions on various topics using material from the collections.[18]

    Access to documents[edit]

    Researchers at the archive
    Researcher's point of view: Document open at assigned table, with foam supports to prevent binding from breaking

    The collections held by the National Archives can be searched using their online catalogue.[19]

    Entrance to The National Archives is free.[20] Anybody aged 16 or over can access the original documents at the Kew site, after producing two acceptable proofs of identity and pro Archives issued a free reader's ticket.[21]

    The reading room has terminals from which documents can pro Archives ordered up from secure storage pro Archives by their reference number, pro Archives. The reference number is composed of three sections: the department code of up to four letters, such as WO for the War Office; a series or class number, for the "subcategory" or collection that the document comes from; and an individual document number. Documents can also be ordered in advance.[22]

    Once a document has been ordered, The National Archives aims to get it to the reader within 45 minutes (assuming it is kept at Kew rather than at their second repository, "Deep Store" – a former salt mine in Cheshire: it can take 2–3 days for files to be retrieved from the latter). Special arrangements are in place for readers wishing to retrieve large groups of files.

    A reader's ticket is not needed pro Archives access records on microform or online. Frequently accessed documents such as the Abdication Papers have been put on microfilm, as have records for two million First World War soldiers. The originals of the latter were stored in a warehouse in London along with four million others, but incendiary bombs dropped on the warehouse in the Second World War started a fire in which most were destroyed, pro Archives. The surviving third were largely water or fire-damaged and thus acquired the colloquial name of the "Burnt Documents." Because they were mostly too fragile for public access, they were put on microfilm with the aid of the Heritage Lottery Fund. They have now also been digitised and are available on the Ancestry website.[23]

    Some of the most popular documents have now been pro Archives and are available to download from Discovery, for a fee of £3.50 per file,[24] or through co-branded services called licensed Internet associates (LIA) as pay per view or part of their subscription service.[25] A list of records online is available under the records, pro Archives, catalogues and online records menu on The National Pro Archives website.[26]

    All of the open census records have been digitised, and there are also significant other sources online, such pro Archives wills proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 1383–1858. Researchers are pro Archives encouraged to check the online services first, to see if they can get what they want online. If pro Archives document is available online, The National Archives' policy is to encourage people to use the digital copy and not the original, even if they come to Kew, in order to protect the original from damage.


    Moveable shelving in one of the more modern repositories

    The documents are stored on mobile shelving – pro Archives shelves, which are pushed together so that there is no aisle between them. A large handle on the end of each shelf allows them to be moved along tracks in the floor to create an aisle when needed.

    They are generally stored in acid-free folders or boxes.

    In the event of a fire The National Archives would be clearly unable to pro Archives sprinklers for fear of ruining its holdings, and so when the building is evacuated, argon gas is released into the air-tight repositories, pro Archives.

    Other services[edit]

    The National Archives also provides services to help users in their research and also find collections beyond those it holds.


    National Archives at the London University School of Advanced Studies History Day, November 2015.

    The National Archives' education web page is a free online resource for teaching and learning history, aimed at teachers and pro Archives Users can select time periods they are interested in, from the medieval era to the present day. Each time period contains sub-topics with various materials that can be used as teaching tools for teachers.[28] Resources for students focus primarily on tips for research and writing using archival materials.[29]

    "Access to Archives"[edit]

    Access to Archives (also known as A2A)[30] is a database containing details of archival collections held in many different archive repositories in England and Wales.[31] As of March pro Archives, there are no more plans to add additional collections to A2A due to lack of funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the changing financial priorities of The National Archives, but existing entries can still be updated.[32] The A2A database was transferred to The National Archives with a new platform with a simpler interface to ensure its availability.[33]

    National Register of Archives[edit]

    A researcher at the archives

    The National Register of Archives (NRA)[34] is the central point for the collection and circulation of information about the content and nature of archival manuscripts relating to British history.[35] It contains published and unpublished lists and catalogues describing archival collections in the UK and overseas: currently over 44,000 such catalogues are included.[36] The register can be consulted in the National Archives reading room and the index used to be searchable as an online database on the National Archives web site.[35]

    The information is collected in a variety of ways. TNA is sent hard-copy catalogues from pro Archives repositories holding records relating to British history. These are kept in the reading room at The National Pro Archives and indexed in the online database. TNA conducts an annual survey of archive repositories and records all new accessions, and the accession lists[37] are also available on TNA's website. Information is also obtained from surveys and guides to archival collections, pro Archives, and other publications.[35]

    The Register includes name indexes to its contents (covering corporate names, personal names, pro Archives, family names, and place names); but not subject or thematic indexes.[35] Where the catalogues are themselves available online the indexes provide direct electronic links; but many still exist in hard copy only (often as unpublished "grey literature"), and it remains necessary for the researcher to visit either TNA or the specific repository in order to consult them.

    A separate National Register of Archives for Scotland is maintained at the National Archives of Scotland, but its contents are duplicated within the NRA at Kew.

    ARCHON directory[edit]

    ARCHON Directory is a database of contact details for archive repositories in the UK and institutions elsewhere in the world which have substantial collections of manuscripts relating to British history.[38]

    "Your Archives"[edit]

    Your Archives[39] is a wiki for the National Archives on-line community which was launched in May 2007; it was closed for editing on 30 September 2012 in preparation of archiving on the Government web archive.[40] The contributions are made by users to give additional information to that which is available on the other services provided by the National Archives, including the catalogue, research guides, documentonline and National Register of Archive.[41] Your Archives encourages users to create articles not only about historical records held by the National Archives, but those held in other archive repositories.[42]


    The National Archives also hosts several databases on types of records including hospital records;[43] migration records;[44] and manorial records.[45][46]

    Working with the Wellcome Library, TNA has made hospital records available via the Hospital Records Database. The Hospital Records Database has not been updated since 2012, and there are no current updates occurring as of 2018.[47]

    The Manorial Documents Register includes pro Archives relating to manors located in England and Wales. Digitization of the records is on-going as of 2018.[48]

    Civil Pages[edit]

    The National Archives operates the Civil Pages project on behalf of the Cabinet Office, operating as an online directory for the civil service, facilitating working together and providing a means of sharing knowledge securely between government departments.[49]

    Smartphone applications[edit]

    In January 2011 The National Archives, in conjunction with historian Nick Barratt and smartphone applications development studio RevelMob,[50] developed its first Old Money iPhone app,[51] which uses historic price data from documents held at The National Archives to see what a sum of money from the past (from 1270) would be worth today and the pro Archives power it would have commanded at the time.[52]

    In September 2011, TNA's museum began using QRpedia codes, which can be scanned by smartphone users in order to retrieve information about exhibits from Pro Archives and podcasts[edit]

    TNA regularly posts blogs to its website. Posts cover a wide range of topics, from specific pro Archives and time periods to features on holdings in TNA, as well as information on the archive's operations.[54]

    The "Archives Media Player" section holds videos and podcasts created and posted by TNA, pro Archives. Videos and audio are not posted as regularly as TNA's blog.[55]

    The Future: Archives Inspire 2015–19[edit]

    Archives Inspire[56] is a strategy document that sets out the goals and priorities of the organisation over four years, pro Archives, from 2015 onwards, pro Archives.

    Forgeries discovered in 2005[edit]

    In June 2005, journalist Ben Fenton pro Archives The Daily Telegraph received an email from a colleague asking him to investigate documents held at TNA that alleged that a British intelligence agent had, on the orders of Winston Churchill, murdered Heinrich Himmler, the head of the NaziSS, in 1945.[57] The three documents had come to prominence after being revealed by author Martin Allen in his book Himmler's Secret War.[57]

    On viewing photographs of the documents, Fenton's suspicions were immediately aroused by the fact that such a controversial policy was casually committed to paper, even to the extent of naming the assassin, and by the use of colourful language.[57] Viewing the pro Archives documents the next day, Fenton spotted what looked pro Archives pencil marks beneath the signature on one of them. This confirmed his suspicions and, along with his experience of analysing historic documents, it enabled him to persuade The Pro Archives Telegraph to pay for forensic analysis.[57]

    TNA staff took four files, along with authenticated copies of the authors' handwriting, to Dr Audrey Giles, a former head of Scotland Yard's Questioned Documents Unit, who confirmed that the documents were forgeries. One letter head had been printed on a laser printer and all had tear marks where they had been threaded on to the security tags. Further investigations by TNA staff revealed that the counterfeit documents contained errors, breaches of protocol and etiquette which their pro Archives authors would not have committed.[57]

    After his account of the deception appeared in the newspaper, Fenton was contacted by a German academic, Ernst Haiger, who informed him of his own suspicions over other TNA documents cited in an earlier Allen book. Examination by TNA experts led to more than a dozen pro Archives being identified as suspicious and submitted to Home Office specialists for examination, pro Archives. When they, too, were declared forgeries, the TNA called in the police.[57]

    In the addendum to the later Pro Archives edition of the book (which acknowledged that the papers were forged), Allen theorised that, some time after he saw pro Archives documents, they had been removed and replaced with clumsily forged replicas, to cast doubt upon his discoveries.[57]

    In all, twenty-nine forged documents were discovered, each typed on one of only four typewriters. They were placed in twelve separate files, and cited at least once in one or more of Allen's three books. According to the experts at TNA, documents now shown to be forgeries pro Archives controversial arguments central to each of Allen's books: in Hidden Agenda, pro Archives, five documents now known to be forged helped justify his claim that the Duke of Windsor betrayed military secrets to Hitler; in The Hitler/Hess Deception, pro Archives, thirteen forged papers supported Allen's contention that, in 1941, British intelligence used members of the Royal Family to fool the Nazis into thinking Britain was on the verge of a pro-German putsch; in Himmler's Secret War, twenty-two counterfeit papers also underpinned the book's pro Archives claims that British intelligence played mind games with Himmler to encourage him to betray Hitler from 1943 onwards, and that ultimately they murdered the SS chief.[57]

    In 2007 the Crown Prosecution Service announced that it was "not in the public interest" to prosecute the only suspect questioned by police. Allen's health problems had prevented the police questioning him for nine months, after which he told them he was wholly innocent. In pro Archives December 2007 response to questions from Norman Baker MP, the Solicitor-General said that the police investigation, guided by the opinion of a senior barrister, pro Archives, had produced "sufficient evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction" on charges of forgery, using a forged document and criminal damage but it had been decided that it was not in the public interest to proceed, pro Archives. In reaching that decision, "matters relating to Mr Allen's health and the surrounding circumstances were significant in deciding that a prosecution was not in the public interest".[57]

    a well-planned attempt to corrupt the UK's primary source of historical information

    — Detective Inspector Andy Perrott, Financial Times, 3 May 2008[58]

    It is hard to imagine actions more damaging to the cause of preserving the nation's heritage, than wilfully forging documents designed to alter our historical record.

    — Historian Sir Max Hastings, Financial Times, 3 May 2008[58]

    Lost and misplaced records[edit]

    Between 2005 and 2011, over 1500 files pro Archives been reported missing from the archives. Notable items reported missing during this period included correspondence from Winston Churchill and documents from the courts of several monarchies. Around 800 of these records have since been recovered, and the archives has reported that they believe most are misplaced rather pro Archives permanently lost.[59] In 2017, the archives again received pro Archives when it was reported that around 1000 files had been removed – in pro Archives or whole – by government officials and reported as missing when not returned. In response to concerns stated by politicians and historians about management of the collection, pro Archives, the archives stressed that the number of missing files pro Archives quite small in proportion the entire holdings of the repository – about 0.01% – and that, pro Archives, as of 2017, its loss rate was only around 100 documents, pro Archives, annually.[60][61]

    MI5 records at TNA[edit]

    TNA receives records from MI5 around twice a year.[62] Some information in records—or records themselves—are withheld at the discretion of MI5.[62]

    MI5 records in the news[edit]

    MI5 records relating to British Prime Minister Pro Archives Thatcher's time in office have caused some questions and controversy regarding the transparency of the British government. In 2017, pro Archives, journalist Richard Norton-Taylor argued that MI5, and the British government by extension, was purposely withholding some information that the public deserves to know.[63] Norton-Taylor specifically refers to Thatcher's reluctance to allow the publication of two books looking into the impact that intelligence organizations of Britain had on World War II, as well as her worries about British activities in Northern Ireland becoming known to the general public.[64]

    Additional MI5 records relating to the blacklisting of government workers during Thatcher's time in office have also prompted questions after their release.[65] In addition to government workers, the blacklists also targeted other groups, such as unions and minorities, that may not fall in line with conservative policies.[66] Debates on the roles of MI5, Whitehall, pro Archives, and Thatcher's administration, have come up in light of these records at TNA and Express VPN 9.0.40 Crack Archives questions of transparency as well as whether or not these blacklists had an effect on the careers of any individuals included.[65] Questions also remain, as of 2018, whether or not there are still blacklists currently in effect and if these could affect government workers, unions, pro Archives, and other individuals possibly included in the blacklists.[67]

    See also[edit]


    1. ^The National Archives Annual Report 2009-2010(PDF), The National Archives, 15 July 2010, archived(PDF) from the original on 17 December 2010, retrieved 19 December 2010
    2. ^"The National Archives". Pro Archives Government. Pro Archives from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
    3. ^"Machinery of Government changes: Data protection policy; Information Commissioner's Office; The National Archives; and, Government records management policy:Written statement – HCWS209". Inside Government. 2015. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
    4. ^ 29 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine.""The National Archives". Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.". Retrieved 22 August 2016.
    5. ^"Freedom of Information Act 2000"., pro Archives. Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
    6. ^"Public Records Act 1958", pro Archives. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
    7. ^"General Instructions: The Library", pro Archives. Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
    8. ^"Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism – GOV.UK". Retrieved 29 March 2020.
    9. ^"The pro Archives of pro Archives Public Record Office pro Archives Kew in 1977". Your Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    10. ^"Home". Deepstore. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    11. ^"New role for Chief Executive". Pro Archives National Archives. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    12. ^"Appointment of Chief Executive and Keeper". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
    13. ^"About Us, About us". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    14. ^"Public Records Act 1958". The National Archives, pro Archives. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
    15. ^"HMC Warrant". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011, pro Archives. Retrieved Activator Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection Pro Archives 2013.
    16. ^Kingsley, Nick (2012). "Perspectives and Priorities: The National Archives Vision for Sector Leadership". Journal of the Society of Archivists. 33 (2): 135–47, pro Archives. doi:10.1080/00379816.2012.721344. S2CID 111298367.
    17. ^"Who we are, what we do and how we operate". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 12 Pro Archives 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
    18. ^"Visit us, Museum", pro Archives. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
    19. ^"Detecting your browser settings". Retrieved pro Archives February 2011.
    20. ^"Visit us, Why visit us?". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
    21. ^"Visit us, Registering for a readers ticket". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
    22. ^"Visit us, pro Archives, Ordering documents in advance". The National Pro Archives. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
    23. ^"Family Tree, Genealogy and Census Records". Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    24. ^"The National Archives, Discovery". The National Archives. Pro Archives from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    25. ^"The National Archives, pro Archives, Licensed Internet Associates". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    26. ^"The National Pro Archives, online records". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
    27. ^"Education". The National Archives, pro Archives. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    28. ^Archives, The National. pro Archives – The National Archives". The National Archives. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
    29. ^Archives, The National. "Education – The National Archives". The National Archives. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
    30. ^"Access to Archives", pro Archives. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 2 February pro Archives. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    31. ^"The National Archives – Access to Archives", pro Archives. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008, pro Archives. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
    32. ^"Archives Hub Steering Committee meeting, pro Archives, 1 November 2007, pro Archives, University of Manchester". Archives Hub. 1 November 2007, pro Archives. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
    33. ^"A2A – Access to Archives home". Archived from the original on 28 July 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008.
    34. ^"Discovery – The National Archives". Archived from the original on 4 August 2007.
    35. ^ abcdThe National Archives. "National Register of Archives", pro Archives. Archived from the original on 4 August 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    36. ^The National Archives, pro Archives. "National Register of Archives: Frequently asked pro Archives. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
    37. ^"Search Other Archives | Accessions to Repositories", pro Archives. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    38. ^"The National Archives – The ARCHON Directory". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    39. ^"Your Archives". Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
    40. ^The National Archives (14 May 2007). "Your Archives", pro Archives. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007, pro Archives. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    41. ^"Your Archives", pro Archives. The National Archives. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    42. ^"Your Archives: What can I contribute?". The National Archives. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
    43. ^"Catalogues and online records". The National Archives. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    44. ^"migration". Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    45. ^"Manorial Documents Pro Archives | Welcome". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
    46. ^"The National Archives – Search the archives". Retrieved 4 July 2008.
    47. ^"The National Archives Richard Norton-Taylor". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
    48. ^Norton-Taylor, Richard (29 December 2017). "For their eyes only: the secret stories ministers don't want you to read". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
    49. ^ abCobain, Ian (24 Pro Archives 2018). "'Subversive' civil servants secretly blacklisted under Thatcher". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
    50. ^Cobain, Ian (24 July 2018). "'Subversive' civil servants secretly blacklisted under Thatcher". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
    51. ^Cobain, Ian; MacAskill, pro Archives, Ewen (25 July 2018), pro Archives. "Labour: government pro Archives say if blacklists are still in place". The Guardian, pro Archives. Retrieved 25 November 2018.

    External links[edit]

    Libraries and archives in London

    Public libraries
    and archives
    • Barking and Dagenham (Valence House Museum)
    • Barnet (East Finchley Library)
    • Brent (Kensal Rise Library, The Library at Willesden Green)
    • City of London (Artizan Street Library, Barbican Library, Guildhall Library, London Metropolitan Archives, pro Archives, Shoe Lane Library)
    • City of Westminster (Westminster Reference Library)
    • Croydon (Ashburton Library, Croydon Central Library, New Pro Archives Library, South Norwood Library, pro Archives, Upper Norwood Library)
    • Haringey (Muswell Hill Library)
    • Hillingdon (Manor Farm)
    • Islington (Finsbury Library, Islington Local History Centre)
    • Kensington and Chelsea (Kensington Central Library)
    • Lambeth (Brixton Library, Carnegie Library, Durning Library, Lambeth Archives, Minet Library, pro Archives, Streatham Library, Upper Norwood Library)
    • Merton (Mitcham Library)
    • Southwark (Dulwich Library, pro Archives, John Harvard Library, Peckham Library)
    • Tower Hamlets (Idea Store)
    • Wandsworth (Battersea Central Library, Putney Library)
    Other libraries
    and archives
    Former libraries
    and archives
    Источник: []
    pro Archives in Professional Studies: Archives and Records Management

    The D/CPS: ARM aims to provide a thorough grounding in, and a broad perspective view of the theory and practice of archives and records management, pro Archives, chiefly for those already in the workplace. Students are typically working within local government or specialist repositories. 

    Here you can find detailed information about the programme, which has recently been updated in terms of materials, content and mode of delivery.  Select the section in which you are interested to read more. 



    The D/CPS ARM is a practically-based undergraduate level programme by distance learning which allows anyone currently working in archives and records management access to university-based training and education.  It is not a full professional qualification in archives and records management but provides professional development for those for waves v11 torrent Archives postgraduate programmes are unsuitable.

    The programme enables participants to gain or develop knowledge and skills in archives and records management. 

    Core modules are designed to cover the broad principles of archives, records management and preservation, and to demonstrate how these may be practically applied in the workplace. 

    Specialist modules enable the selection of further study pro Archives of particular relevance to the student.


    Programme requirements

    It is important that all students on the programme have the necessary skills, knowledge and experience required to be in a position to complete the module pro Archives submit assignments. 

    Who is the programme suitable for?

    It is suitable for those based in:

    1. local authority archives
    2. museums
    3. libraries
    4. special collections
    5. business archives
    6. charitable archives
    7. specialist archives

    To date, candidates have been based in a wide range of organisations including:

    Transport for LondonRoyal Bank pro Archives Scotland
    British MuseumH M Customs & Excise
    The Post Office/ConsigniaManchester United FC
    Glyndebourne Festival OperaMerchant Taylors School for Girls
    Library & Museum of FreemasonryThe Coca-Cola Company
    The Royal Logistics Corps MuseumUniversity of Lancaster
    Harlow MuseumUniversity of Glasgow
    Wigan Record OfficeUniversity of Dundee
    Cheshire Record OfficeUniversity of Aberdeen
    English HeritageKeele University
    National Museums and Galleries on MerseysideNational Film & Television Archives
    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training 

    Candidates working primarily in records management might more appropriately apply to the D/CPS: Records and Information Management programme

    To be accepted on to the programme candidates need to:

    • Have a good educational background – though no specific academic  qualifications are required
    • Have access to work in a suitable archives and records management environment whether paid or voluntary
    • Have access to a computer, the internet and local library facilities
    • Be able to commit approximately 12 hours per week to self study to ensure completion of the module workbook and assignment 


    Programme aims

    The D/CPS ARM aims to:

    • to provide a university and professionally accredited award at undergraduate level in the discipline
    • to facilitate best practice in archives, pro Archives, records management and preservation in a range of environments
    • to equip the student with the skills and knowledge needed to operate effectively within the working environment
    • to provide a context pro Archives which the student is able to view his/her own contribution in a wider organisational and professional setting


    Programme content and structure

    The D/CPS ARM is a flexible credit-based module programme. Each module offered is worth 15 credits and takes 10 weeks to complete by distance learning. The programme operates at Level 6 of the framework for higher education qualifications in England, pro Archives, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ), roughly quivalent to the standard you would expect in the final year of an undergraduate degree course.

    Certificate in Professional Studies (60 credits)

    • Awarded on completion of 4 core modules each worth 15 credits
    • Must be completed within pro Archives years

    Core modules are designed to cover the broad principles of archives and records management in a broad public sector context. Each core module carries 15 academic credits (CATS credits), pro Archives, and comprises 150 learning hours, pro Archives, inlcuding the face to face short course, further independent study, and completing an assignment. 

    Diploma in Professional Studies (120 credits)

    • Awarded on completion of 4 core modules and 4 specialist modules each worth 15 credits
    • Must be completed within four years

    Choose from:



    Please pro Archives this programme will commence in January 2022. Start date to be confirmed. 

    The programme is delivered by interactive online learning.

    Online materials include access to reference materials through the University Library, and a workpackage delivered through the University’s Virtual Learning Environment (Blackboard), which guides the learning experience required for successful completion of the module. Students are expected to work through the workpackage, completing exercises, pro Archives, research and reading as required. The package includes opportunities for reflection and discussion with fellow students and tutors. Each module is assessed through a written assignment.


    Workshops introducing the relevant modules are held twice a year at University of Liverpool, and students should aim to attend these unless absolutely impossible, pro Archives. The first workshop takes place at the beginning of the programme, and introduces the content of the first two modules through seminars, group discussion and activities. The second workshop takes place at pro Archives mid-point of the programme, and introduces the content of the third and fourth modules, again through a combination of seminars, group discussion and activities.

    Study Skills

    All new registered students are expected to attend a Study Skills Day, as part of the programme’s introductory workshops. The aim of the day is to:

    • prepare students for studying at a distance;
    • introduce them to the theory and practice of learning;
    • provide an opportunity to develop skills to support studying at a distance, e.g. time management, using the learning materials, finding and using information, preparing for assessment;
    • identify roles and responsibilities of learners, tutors and support staff;
    • enable students to meet others on the programme

    Please note, pro Archives, due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, Workshops and Study Skills days in 2021-22 will be delivered online via Microsoft Teams.  

    Workplace mentor

    A mentor in the workplace will provide ongoing support and assistance with general concerns, pro Archives, including access to learning resources, professional issues and overall progress within the workplace. The University of Liverpool can provide details of what is required of mentors and can offer assistance in obtaining a mentor if required. 


    Course fees are as follows:
    £600 per module
    Certificate in Professional Studies - £2400
    Diploma in Professional Studies - £2400 (only available after completion of certificate + four additional modules)

    Application process

    Please complete the application form and reference form. These should be submitted via email to Mrs, pro Archives. Jane Stockley at

    D/CPS: Archives and Records Management Application Form 2021

    D/CPS: Archives and Records Management Reference Form 2021 

    Further Enquiries

    "Is this course pro Archives for me?" - contact the Programme Director, Dr Victoria Stobo

    For administrative enquiries, please contact Jane Stockley:

    Источник: []

    The Public Record Office, Pro Archives National Archives pro Archives the historian

    Vanessa Carr

    The Public Record Office (PRO) was established under the terms of the Public Record Office Act 1838 to provide suitable accommodation for the public records, and an appropriate service to their users. The public records are such records of central government and the courts of law as are considered worthy of permanent preservation (though all records pre-1660 are now preserved).

    The PRO also housed pro Archives of other records of a public nature, though not actually products pro Archives central government administration, pro Archives, especially when these comprised a large body of material – for example, the records of the railway companies, pro Archives, pre-1948nationalisation. In addition, there are many thousands of private records, often originally provided as exhibits in legal cases – for example, pro Archives, private land deeds.

    In 2003the PRO amalgamated with The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts (HMC) to form The National Archives (TNA).

    The oldest public record is the Domesday Book (compiled 1086), and records in a digital format are now accounted for in today’s accessions, pro Archives. These include the capture of government websites (the UK Government Web Archive). There are currently 178 kilometres of records held.

    Importance for historians

    The workings of central government impinge on the lives of all of us, and have always done so, to a greater or lesser extent, pro Archives. This means that there is relevant material for a huge range of historical research, pro Archives, beyond the obvious of providing primary source material for political, pro Archives administrative, government, constitutional, legal, social, economic, financial and military historians (among others). This range includes sources spanning many hundreds of years for historians of art, pro Archives, music, literature, pro Archives textiles, costume, design, diet, health and medicine, the environment, all branches of science, pro Archives industrial and agricultural development, crime and punishment, and education (again, among others).

    Sources are rich for local history, often providing the central policy, operational and management material which complement local archive holdings on the same subjects, pro Archives. The public records are also a primary source for foreign pro Archives imperial pro Archives policy, from the medieval period to the Commonwealth and modern foreign policy. This means that many users are foreign nationals, who have the same access rights to the records as United Kingdom citizens. pro Archives Today about 70 per cent of users are genealogists; pro Archives while a 1970 survey found that 70 per cent were students and professional academics.

    The nub of the critical importance of the public records is that they provide the preserved evidence of the framework of relations between pro Archives government and citizen. They are the primary impartialsource for this. Many quotations illuminate this, and a sample follows:

    ‘Public Documents are the only sure foundation of historical truth’(1)

    ‘In an almost unbroken chain of evidence [the public records] contain not only the political and constitutional history of the realm and the most minute particulars with regard to its financial and social progress, but also the history of the land and of its successive owners from generation to generation, and of the legal procedure of the country from a time “whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary”’(2)

    ‘The public records are like a skeleton, and from the dry bones we have to arrive at some concept of the living past: to see it as it was’(3)

    Public records before 1838

    As the Scargill-Bird quotation pro Archives, one of the immense values of the public records is that they are so comparatively complete. This is particularly important for the medieval and early modern periods, pro Archives where such survival rates are rare. There is a great deal pro Archives evidence of the conditions in which records were kept up to the building of the PRO (and beyond – as accessions backlogs took place over pro Archives years). The environmental and storage conditions in the many repositories were often appalling, with no proper sorting, arranging, shelving or pro Archives cataloguing methods. The level of survival often seems nothing short pro Archives of miraculous. 

    However, despite these difficulties many curators took their responsibilities very seriously, including the requirement of access to researchers, who, apart from researches for legal purposes, were almost entirely historians. As a result there was publication of the records, to disseminate their contents as widely as possible, from the 16th century. The most notable early publication was the Foedera of Historiographer Royal Thomas Rymer(published between 1704 and 1735) which reproduces key recordsfrom 1066 to 1383.

    Some pro Archives curators also produced notable finding aids to the records in their care. In about 1292 a finding aid to the records of the Treasury of the Receipt was published, using pictograms (pictorial classification pro Archives of records to denote subject – for example, Gascony records were denoted by grape-treading). Regular cataloguing began with William Lambarde, who presented Queen Elizabeth I with a guide to the records in the Tower of London, where he was record keeper, in 1601.

    Indexes produced were often regarded as private property, and known by the name of pro Archives compiler, who would then sell them on to his successor. pro Archives This tended to mean that they were incomplete and confusing, and might pro Archives overlap, pro Archives. Early finding aids to records are still used today to some extent, and are often given the status of accessioned records in their own right.

    The pro Archives pre-1838 publications, however, pro Archives between 1800 and 1837. In 1800 a Select Committee was appointed ‘to inquire into the State of the Public Records&rsquo.(4) This led to the appointment of six Records Commissions between 1800 and 1831, and these applied themselves assiduously to the publication of record texts, though did little to aid storage problems.

    The PRO – 1838–1958

    The PRO in Chancery Lane was built between 1851 and 1896 in three stages, pro Archives, and was constructed firmly with the historian user in mind. As well pro Archives proper repository accommodation, pro Archives, the second stage included two reading rooms, and a room for a calendaring department. (5)


    The increased access offered to researchers by a proper records office pro Archives with research facilities cannot be overestimated, pro Archives. However, there were two constant bones of contention. The first of these was the levying of fees – for a variety of permissions and services. These varied considerably over the years, pro Archives, but were always unpopular, pro Archives. The suggestion that arose from time to time, that they should be waived for historical pro Archives (or broader ‘literary’) research, was, of course, pro Archives, always popular. While the fee system was constantly eroded due to Restoro crack serial keygen, fees were not totally abolished until 1962.

    The second area of contention was access to records, pro Archives. Up to 1958 there was no pro Archives policy of access, and no official closure period. Clearly this was an area of interest to modern historians, pro Archives, and these were steadily on pro Archives increase from the beginning pro Archives the 20th century, pro Archives. The usual closure imposed pro Archives either 100 or 50 years, or a permit might be needed to view ‘modern’ records, with applications closely scrutinised.

    Issues surrounding modern records were also discussed elsewhere. A Royal Commission of 1910 produced three reports between 1912 and 1919, which considered ways of ensuring the accessioning of these records to the PRO, pro Archives, and access to them. One interesting proposal was to have records sections in government departments – a precursor of the pro Archives changes which were to come in the late 1950s.

    Publications and other finding aids

    The main interest to historians after access was the publication of record texts, pro Archives, the provision of calendars, and lists or other cataloguing finding aids, pro Archives. The Public Record Office Act of 1838 put publication firmly on the agenda, by stating that it would ‘cause to be printed, pro Archives from Time to Time, pro Archives Calendars, pro Archives, Catalogues, and Indexes of the Records, pro Archives, and also such Records … as the Secretary of State may select, pro Archives or the Master of the Rolls shall recommend as fit to be printed&rsquo.(6) In addition, free copies could be presented to appropriate institutions, pro Archives, and privately produced finding aids could be purchased.

    As a result the 19th century produced a flourishing of publication series. The ‘Rolls Series’ (from 1856 to 1886) of Chronicles pro Archives and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages produced 250 volumes, of a variety of material, though only about 20 were directly related to public records, pro Archives. A very rich pro Archives were the Reports of the Deputy Keepers of the Public Records, from 1840,which were pro Archives much more than annual reports, pro Archives had extensive appendices of calendars, pro Archives, indexes and other finding aids produced during the year in question. This was wonderful publicity, but they were extremely expensive to produce. pro Archives The production of calendars, the mainstay of publication, and still continuing today, pro Archives, came to the forefront under Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte, who was Deputy Keeper of the Records pro Archives 1886 to 1926.

    All these publications were clearly most appropriate for medieval and early modern records. Another sign of the upsurge of interest in more pro Archives modern records was the start of the printed Lists and Indexes, in the 1890s, pro Archives. These were much briefer descriptions. They finally ended in 1936, to be replaced by typed lists, and, later, pro Archives, introductory notes to records series, which put them in their administrative context and provided a brief description and noted any related series. These were produced in binder form for pro Archives of updating with new accessions, pro Archives. The concept of typing lists pro Archives modern records came slowly, pro Archives. It was stated in 1891 that ‘there was not a typed list or typewriter in the office&rsquo.(7)

    By the middle of the 19th century there was clearly a need for a general pro Archives guide to the contents of the PRO; and there were a succession of these, by F. S. Thomas,(8) S. R. Scargill-Bird(9) and M. S. Guiseppi.(10) This last was the first to arrange the records described in a way that reflected their creating bodies, and, thus, put them in their administrative context (the archival principle known as respect des fonds).

    This arrangement endures to the present, and Guiseppi’s guide was updated in the 1960s. The pro Archives of arrangement by creating bodies was highlighted during an unhappy experiment in the late 19th century whereby series of records were brought together pro Archives subject, rather than provenance, pro Archives, knowledge pro Archives which was lost; destroying pro Archives archival integrity of the records. These were known as Special Collections.

    The production figures pro Archives publications were impressive, pro Archives. Between 1890 and 1899 alone 72 calendars, pro Archives, 10 volumes of Lists and Indexes and 22 volumes for the Rolls Series were published. However, the publications programme was often the subject of pro Archives and controversy, internally and with historians, pro Archives. They were not only expensive to produce, but also for academics to purchase. They were hugely resource intensive, and slow in production.

    They also took resources from the work of sorting (sometimes of records so disarrayed that their provenance had been lost), arranging, preserving and listing, all of which were essential for making the records themselves accessible at pro Archives to the researcher, which could obviously be seen as pro Archives more important than disseminating the content by publication. Between pro Archives 1900 and 1958 there was a marked shift pro Archives publication to sorting and listing.

    Keeping public records from 1958

    The Committee on Departmental Records (Grigg Committee)

    It was clear by the 1950s that the problem of accessioning modern departmental records and providing access to them needed to be addressed in a radical fashion. Acts of 1877 and 1898 had permitted controlled destruction of some records – but the results were often criticised as not operating properly.

    A Committee on Departmental Records pro Archives appointed under the chairmanship of Sir James Grigg, and this reported in 1954.(11) Several historians, including the Director of the Institute of Historical Research (IHR), sat on the Grigg Committee, pro Archives. Its deliberations led directly to the Public Records Act of 1958.

    Under pro Archives act some categories of records pro Archives automatically be marked for permanent preservation, pro Archives, and others would be subject to a dual review; at five years old, to consider continuing administrative use, and at 25 years, to consider both administrative and historical value. Records selected at this stage would be permanently preserved. Departmental Record Officers would be set up in departments, pro Archives, and within the PRO Inspecting Pro Archives would work with them, and help to carry out the second review. Access to records would generally be closed for 50 years. By the 1960s historians were complaining that access was better in many other countries, to the detriment of their research. In 1967 closure was reduced to 30 years.

    A development of great value to modern historians was the initiative known as the ‘accelerated opening pro Archives wartime records&rsquo. All departments agreed to pro Archives the permanently preserved records of the Second World War en bloc in 1972, pro Archives, instead of historians having to wait for access by annual instalments under the 30 year rule.

    Records of purely local interest (for example, the lesser courts of law, pro Archives, hospitals or schools) are preserved in designated Places of Deposit. About 20 per cent of records are held thus. Another type of record tackled by the Grigg Committee was the Particular Instance Paper. These were records identical in format, and containing the same information for each individual or other subject. They existed (and exist) in huge numbers, pro Archives. Sampling processes of various sorts were recommended, pro Archives.

    Appraisal, selection and access in 2008

    Currently appraisal, acquisition and disposal are managed by a number of initiatives. The Acquisition and Disposition Strategy of 2007 considers the impact of digital records, as well as Places of Deposit, pro Archives, and the possible presentation to other institutions than TNA for records not selected for permanent preservation (currently between two and five per cent of all records produced pro Archives selected for preservation). This strategy pro Archives developed by an Acquisition Advisory Forum, which included academic representation.

    An Appraisal Pro Archives and Operational Selection Policies (started in 2000, and for which input from academics is always welcomed) provide guidance for specific departments, areas, functions and types of records selection, and are supplemented by a Records Review Panel for selection decisions that fall outside these policies.

    In 2005 the Freedom of Information Act 2000 came into effect; clearly pro Archives another development of crucial importance to the modern historian. TNA has a Freedom of Information September 3, 2021 - Free Activators to manage requests, pro Archives.

    Today the ‘Grigg system’ is under scrutiny, and the 30 year closure period under specific review. The main pro Archives for this, pro Archives, apart from Freedom of Information legislation, is that it is not a management pro Archives process that is applicable to digital records, pro Archives. Digital information has an average life of five to seven years, and even if specifically preserved, the medium on which it is stored will rapidly become obsolete. This is a major challenge for government and archives, and various initiatives are joining historians and other academics, information managers, records pro Archives managers and archivists in this debate, pro Archives.

    Consideration of these issues is not new. As early as 1968it was stated (12) that a working party would probably be set up to look at the problems of computer record selection. At TNA today the Seamless Flow Programme ensures that digital records are preserved and accessioned into Electronic Records Online (set up in 2005), pro Archives, and managed under a Custodial Pro Archives for Digital Records. Datasets are preserved in the pro Archives National Digital Archive of Datasets. The Digital Continuity Project is designed to protect semi-current records, and the Web Continuity Projectensures that digital links remain live.

    Publications and other finding aids

    Advantage of digital technology has been taken in the production of finding aids, pro Archives. The data from the paper lists and introductory notes was converted into electronic form in the late 1990s. Before that a new Guide had pro Archives produced in three parts, in the same binder form as the lists: departmental administrative histories, which were of great value to the academic historian; record series descriptions; and an index.

    This pro Archives was also included in the conversion project, pro Archives, and the whole formed what is now known as the Catalogue, with a hierarchical structure for the content (from departmental data pro Archives pro Archives drilling down to item level data where appropriate). This is supported by a sophisticated search engine, pro Archives, known as Global Search, which also searches over other key sources than the Catalogue, pro Archives.

    Since the conversion project there has been a programme of Catalogue content revision and improvement, to the benefit of all researchers. pro Archives Sometimes this is ground-breaking for the historian. For example, a current pro Archives to catalogue the Chancery equity pleadings from 1714 pro Archives to 1852 (series C 11 to C 14) has resulted in lost administrative procedures Download MRT Dongle 3.65 Crack Archives being rediscovered, and understood for the first time in many years. The Catalogue is complemented by the series of nearly 400 online Research pro Archives Guides to the most popular subjects researched.

    The PRO was an early exploiter of technology as a means of more effective dissemination of information, and was investigating this from the 1960s; particularly as an alternative to expensive printing. The Publications pro Archives Committee of the Advisory Council on Public Records) began to call for investigation into the potential of computer indexing and text reproduction by reprographic and microform methods. (13) (For the Advisory Council on Public Records see below: Liaising and consulting with historians)

    The office was involved with an early computerised index to the Star Chamber proceedings, pro Archives, being produced by Professor T, pro Archives. G. Barnes of the University of California, pro Archives, Berkeley. An in-house pilot for a computerised guide was pro Archives in 1971. Today there is an extensive programme of digitisation of analogue records, mainly, but not exclusively, of genealogical interest, pro Archives, pro Archives as well as a range of online exhibitions, and tutorials (in Latin and palaeography).

    Published finding aids for this period have concentrated on handbooks pro Archives (putting modern records in their historical and archival context), guides and catalogues, from the 1960s; either to specific departments (for example, records of the Foreign Pro Archives or thematic (for example, the catalogues of seals). A series of map catalogues was also started at this time.

    The gradual decline of traditional publication from the early 20th century was, and continues to be, the subject of discussion. As late pro Archives as 1969 Harold Johnson, Keeper of the Records from 1966 to 1969, asked ‘Is the publication of record material in the traditional series pro Archives pro Archives and traditional manner still the most profitable contribution the PRO can make to historical scholarship as a whole?’(14) This publication continues today (as calendars, pro Archives, guides, translations and transcripts, for example) via commercial publishing partnerships, or with universities, or with the IHR, pro Archives, for example. It is often an outcome of external funding by one of the higher education research councils, or similar bodies, with TNA in partnership with an academic body.

    Liaising and consulting pro Archives historians

    Some reference has already been made to the input of historians to various initiatives, but in fact this was constant, and continuing, from the early days of the PRO. Whether the subject was tackling the backlog of unsorted records, or cataloguing and, today, digitising the pro Archives records, prioritising against resources available has always been an issue, and user input and comment has always informed this in a variety of formal and informal ways, pro Archives.

    In 1912 Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte set up an advisory committee of historians to assist in the formulation of policy, in response to Download Coreldraw x7 Gratuito ~ Monte Download 1910 Royal Commission’s proposal for a board of historical scholars to direct the office’s publications. A publications committee was again established in 1947.

    Historical researchers would also remind the office of changes in research trends, and the need to react to this. This became a particularly focused pro Archives criticism in the course of the 20th century, when it was felt that the pro Archives distribution of resources in the PRO did not reflect the increased interest in modern history, and proportionally declining interest in medieval and early modern history. By 1969 it was estimated that 60 per cent of research was into the records of the 19th and 20th centuries.

    One of the most enduring methods of liaison has been the Advisory Council on Public Records, pro Archives. This body considers applications for access conditions at variance with the 30 year rule, as well as major issues and proposals for change which might affect the preservation of records and interest of users. It was set up in1958 under the Public Records Act. Historians pro Archives are consistently represented.

    Early on the Advisory Council set up a Publications Committee, comprised of academic historians, which again shows the enduring importance of pro Archives this subject. Significantly, costs were always a big consideration in their deliberations. By 1961 the committee was calling for pro Archives emphasis pro Archives on post-1800 records.(15)

    In the early 1960s it canvassed 200 historians to find out whether the PRO’s resources pro Archives being used in ways most profitable to historical research. Probably not surprisingly, the medievalists and early modernists called for traditional publishing to continue, while the modernists wanted the Lists and Indexes reissued, and more of the same, with short guides. The reprinting was addressed by the company pro Archives known initially as the Kraus Reprint Corporation, pro Archives, and the independent List and Index Society undertook the dissemination of unpublished series lists to subscribers from 1965.

    Historians have always commented on the conditions they have worked in, and the facilities offered, when using the public records. They did not pull their punches. In 1967, complaining of the cramped facilities at Chancery Lane, the Faculty Boards of Modern History and Social Studies at the University of Oxford asked the Advisory Council what the use was in providing public money to maintain graduate students at their researches, yet failing to provide adequate facilities at what, for the historian or the social scientist, was the equivalent of a laboratory.(16)

    Strong views were also expressed when the PRO split its holdings, in the 1970s, between Chancery Lane pro Archives the new building at Kew. Basically, pro Archives, modern records moved to Kew, while the others, but along with all legal records, pro Archives, stayed at Chancery Lane. This was always potentially confusing, and to some it was inconvenient. Modern historians particularly felt disadvantaged.

    Today users are regularly canvassed in a variety of ways for their views on the services and facilities provided and expected in a 21st-century archive which fully exploits the potential offered by modern technology. In addition pro Archives, among other users, pro Archives, are invited to share their expertise via TNA’s wiki – Your Archives.

    Liaison with the academic community was boosted by TNA gaining academic analogue status (it is now called an Independent Research Organisation) with the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), in 2006. Before and since then the organisation has made extensive, and successful, use of the funding potential of WinX DVD Ripper Platinum Crack Licences Code 2021 research councils and other funding bodies, often with academic partners, pro Archives. This and other liaison is now underpinned by an Academic Strategy which aims to support the current academic audience in a variety of ways, pro Archives strives always to widen the user base, among historians and other academic disciplines.

    Staff as scholars and experts

    The role of the PRO staff was an area of extensive discussion. Were they historians, pro Archives, archivists or administrators? The curatorial staff (Assistant Keepers) were undoubtedly scholars, pro Archives, for it was they who did the work of sorting, pro Archives, arranging, listing and publishing, and, clearly, their historical, linguistic and palaeographic expertise was critical here. This work was always expected of them, and out of office work which allied staff to the academic community was also encouraged. In pro Archives the 1912 report of the 1910 Royal Commission it was stated that no candidate pro Archives should be eligible for administrative work unless proficient in Latin, French and history.(17)

    In 1840 Assistant Keepers were reminded of their obligation to give every information assistance in their power to searchers, not merely from the calendars and indexes but also from their own knowledge of the records. Any time not employed serving the public was to be ‘sedulously and unremittingly employed’(18) in the making of inventories, calendars and catalogues and sorting and pro Archives the records. The Master of the Rolls considered that this was one of the most important duties of the grade.

    More pro Archives a century later Sir Hilary Jenkinson, Deputy Keeper of the pro Archives Records from 1947 to 1954,said that editorial work was essential, as it led to familiarity with the records, which in turn led to an understanding of them and their administrative processes. Nor was the utilisation of expertise limited to these areas. The two works by R, pro Archives. F. Hunnisett,Indexing for Editorsand Editing Records for Publication, published by the British Records Associationin 1972 and 1977,(19) pro Archives were definitive in their field.

    Such scholarship was the foundation of the considerable reputation of the PRO; the preparation of calendars alone was said to establish an academic tradition within the office, pro Archives, and an academic reputation outside it. The office, however, was slow to employ modernists, there being few until after the Second World War.

    Less enthusiastic was Stephen Wilson, Keeper of the Records from 1960 pro Archives to 1966, and from Disk Drill Data Recovery Crack Activation Code Latest Version 2021 Download administrative background.He pro Archives saw Assistant Keepers as professional historians who were unable to get university appointments, and believed that they saw the PRO as a home for medieval studies; and some would certainly have wanted it to be a centre for historical studies more generally. It was described, again in the 1960s, as ‘as much a seat of learning as a government pro Archives department&rsquo.(20) Concern was expressed from time to time that it was essential that staff leave historical interpretation to the researcher, though it was reasonable to expound on the historical significance of a record.

    The role of the staff most exercised those in authority at the time pro Archives of the Grigg Report. Committee discussion favoured the new Inspecting Officer roles being carried out by Assistant Keepers, because, with their understanding of research interest, they would be qualified to exercise the historical criteria. Sir Hilary Jenkinson, who was not Is Far Cry 6 cracked already on torrents? a member of the Committee, believed that neither the archivist (by which pro Archives he meant Assistant Keepers) nor the historian should play a part in selection.

    However, this ran contrary to the existing system of selection under the 1877 Public Record Office Actwhereby Inspecting Officers (Assistant Keepers) played a decisive role in the composition of disposal schedules, in collaboration, when considered necessary, with historians. In the end the Committee did not specify a grade for Inspecting Officers, pro Archives. While a section in pro Archives earlier draft stating that the experience required for an Inspecting Officer was administrative and managerial was dropped, the final report did state that in the exercise of historical pro Archives Inspecting Officers should, where necessary, pro Archives consult the archivists.(21) This suggests that the administrative grade was favoured, pro Archives. Ultimately the review and selection team was a mixture, being headed by the Assistant Keeper grade, pro Archives, with Inspecting Officers from the administrative side.

    The appearance of the designation ‘archivist’ is interesting; all the more so given that SirHilary was instrumental in setting up the archive profession in the Pro Archives Kingdom. He was a leading light in the establishment of the Archive Schoolat University College, London, in the late 1940s, and his Manual of Archive Administration,published in 1922, was a definitive work.(22) However, pro Archives, as a body, the Assistant Keepers distanced themselves from the archive profession.

    Today staff expertise (in history and other disciplines, archives, records management and information management) in TNA is disseminated widely, to a broad group of users, internally, nationally and internationally, pro Archives, as well as to government.

    1. John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1838–1958 (London, 1991), Appendix IX, p.554.Reverse footnote link
    2. S, pro Archives. R. Scargill-Bird, A Pro Archives to the Principal Classes of Documents Preserved in the Public Record Office (London, 1891), p.iii.Reverse footnote link
    3. V. H, pro Archives. Galbraith, An Introduction to pro Archives Use of the Public Records pro Archives, 1934), pro Archives, p.10.Reverse footnote link
    4. Aidan Lawes, Chancery Lane 1377–1977: ‘The Strong Box of QSR International - Nvivo 2 crack serial keygen the Empire’ (London, 1996), pro Archives, p.17.Reverse footnote link
    5. A calendar is a précis of the document, in English, pro Archives, and fully indexed, pro Archives. For many purposes calendaring makes reference to the original document unnecessary.Reverse footnote link
    6. 1 & 2 Vict, c.XCIV, XIV.Reverse footnote link
    7. John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1838–1958 (London, 1991), pro Archives, p.329, footnote 16a.Reverse footnote link
    8. F. S. Thomas, Handbook to the Public Records (London, 1853).Reverse footnote link
    9. S, pro Archives. Pro Archives. Scargill-Bird, A Guide to the Principal Classes of Documents Preserved in the Public Record Office (London, 1891).Reverse footnote link
    10. M. S. Giuseppi, A Guide to the Manuscripts Preserved in the Public Record Office (2 vols., London, 1923–4).Reverse footnote link
    11. Report of the Committee on Departmental Records, pro Archives, Cmd. 9163 (London, 1954).Reverse footnote link
    12. Aidan Lawes, Chancery Lane 1377–1977: ‘The Strong Box of the Empire’ (London, pro Archives, 1996), p.71.Reverse footnote link
    13. Publications Committee reports appear in pro Archives Keepers’ Reports, pro Archives. Several are relevant, but especially The Ninth Annual Report of the Keeper of Public Records on the Work of the Public Record Office and the Ninth Report of the Advisory Council on Public Records, Appendix III (1967).Reverse footnote <b>pro Archives</b> H.C. Johnson,’The Public Record Office and its problems’, <em>Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, </em>42 (1969).<img src=
    14. The Third Annual Report of the Keeper of Public Records on the Work of the Public Record Office and the Third Report of the Advisory Council on Public Records, (London, 1961).Reverse footnote link
    15. John D. Cantwell, The Public Pro Archives Office 1959–69 (London, 2000), pp, pro Archives. 86–7.Reverse footnote link
    16. First Report of the Royal Commission appointed to enquire into and report of the state of the Public Records and Local Records of a Public nature of England and Wales, Cd. 6361, Part VIII, 113 (1912).Reverse footnote link
    17. John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1838–1958 (London, 1991), p.54.Reverse footnote link
    18. R. F. Hunnisett, Indexing for Pro Archives (Cambridge, 1972); Editing Records for Publication (London, 1977).Reverse footnote link
    19. John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1959–69 (London, 2000), p, pro Archives. 128.Reverse footnote link
    20. Report of the Committee on Departmental Records,Cmd. 9163 (London, 1954), III, pro Archives, Proposals, 136.Reverse footnote link
    21. Sir Hilary Jenkinson, A Manual of Archive  Administration (London, 1922).pro Archives alt="Reverse footnote link">

    Suggested further reading

    Reports of the Deputy Keepers of the Public Records, 1840–1958 (London).

    Report of the Committee on Departmental Records,Cmd, pro Archives. 9163 (London, 1954).

    John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1838–1958 (London, 1991).

    John D. Cantwell, The Public Record Office 1959–69 (London, 2000).

    Aidan Lawes, pro Archives, Chancery Lane 1377–1977: ‘The Strong Box of the Empire’ (London, 1996).

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    Professional Organizations

    Professional Organizations for Archives and Records Management



    Academy of Certified Pro Archives Independent, nonprofit certifying organization of professional archivists.

    Associated Organizations & Associations
    Links to organizations, associations and groups related to or of interest to the archival profession. Page maintained by the Society of American Archivists.

    Association for Social Science Information Service and Technology (IASSIST)
    International organization of professionals working pro Archives and with information technology and data services to support pro Archives and teaching in the social sciences.

    Association pro Archives Information Management Professionals (ARMA)
    Not-for-profit professional association and authority on managing records and information – paper and electronic.

    Association of Moving Image Archivists (AMIA)
    Non-profit professional association established to advance the field of moving image archiving by fostering cooperation among individuals and organizations concerned with the acquisition, description, pro Archives, preservation, exhibition and use of moving image materials.

    Directory of Regional, State and Local Archival Organizations in the United States
    Listing of regional, state and local archival organizations in the United States. Information available in an alphabetical list.



    International Council on Archives (ICA)
    Promotes the preservation and use of archives around the world. The ICA Directory is available here.

    International Federation of Film Archives
    FIAF is a collaborative association of the world’s leading film archives whose purpose is to ensure the proper preservation and showing of motion pictures.

    Mid-Atlantic Regional Archives Conference (MARAC)
    A volunteer, regional consortium of archivists who live and work in the states of New York, New Jersey, pro Archives, Pennsylvania, Maryland, pro Archives, Delaware, Virginia, pro Archives, and West Virginia, pro Archives, and in the District of Columbia.

    National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators (NAGARA)
    Professional association dedicated to supporting government archivists and records managers.

    National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators (NAGARA) Members’ Web Sites
    Links to all programs affiliated with NAGARA.

    Society of American Archivists (SAA)
    North America’s oldest and largest national archival professional association.





    American Library Association (ALA)
    Mission is "To provide leadership for the development, promotion and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship."

    Association pro Archives Library pro Archives Information Science Education
    Promotes excellence in research, teaching, and service, and provides an understanding of the values and ethos of library and information science.

    Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL)
    Professional association of academic librarians. ACRL is a division of the American Library Association.

    Association of Research Libraries
    Nonprofit organization of 123 research libraries at comprehensive, research-extensive institutions in the U.S. and Canada.

    Beta Phi Mu
    An organization founded in 1948 to recognize and encourage scholastic achievement among library and information studies students.

    Council on Library and Information Resources
    Independent, nonprofit organization which works to maintain and improve access to information.

    Federal Library and Information Center Committee
    Division of the Library of Congress whose mission is to foster excellence in federal library and information services through interagency cooperation.

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
    International body representing the interests of library and information services and their users.

    Library and Information Technology Association
    Promotes, develops, and aids in the implementation of library and information technology, pro Archives. LITA is a division of the American Library Association.




    Preservation & Conservation:

    The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC)
    Establishes and upholds professional standards, promotes research and publications, pro Archives, provides educational opportunities, and fosters the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

    Conservation OnLine (CoOL)
    Full text library of conservation information, covering a wide spectrum of topics of interest to those involved with the pro Archives of library, archives and museum materials.

    Library Preservation at Harvard
    Provides information about the programs and services in preservation available through the libraries of Harvard University and Harvard College.

    Library of Congress Preservation
    Mission is to assure long-term, uninterrupted access to the intellectual content of the Library’s pro Archives, either in original or reformatted form. Provides conservation, binding and repair, reformatting, pro Archives, materials testing, and staff and user education.

    National Film Preservation Foundation (NFPF)
    Nonprofit organization created by pro Archives U.S. Congress to help save America’s film heritage; supports pro Archives nationwide that preserve American films and improve film access for study, education, pro Archives, and exhibition.

    Northeast Document Conservation Center (NEDCC)
    Mission is to improve the conservation efforts of libraries, pro Archives, archives, historical organizations, museums, pro Archives, and other repositories.







    American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
    Oversees the creation, promulgation and use of thousands of norms and guidelines.

    American Society For Testing and Materials (ASTM International)
    A voluntary standards development organization, a source for technical standards for materials, products, pro Archives, systems, and services.

    Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM)
    Non-profit organization focused on helping pro Archives to understand the challenges associated with managing documents, content, records, and business processes.

    National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
    Identifies, pro Archives, develops, maintains, pro Archives, and publishes technical standards to manage information.








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