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Use the Object Tracker to add dynamic text or color correction to moving footage. Drag a title, graphic, or effect directly into the viewer to detect faces and other objects using powerful machine learning. Analyze the motion of your target — accelerated by the Apple Neural Engine — in a single click and instantly match its movement. Apply tracking data to other text and graphics to enhance your work even more.

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With optimizations for Apple silicon and its modern Metal engine, Final Cut Pro allows you to edit more complex projects and work with larger frame sizes, higher frame rates, and more effects — all at incredible speeds. And it’s built to harness the extreme power of the new MacBook Pro for next-level performance.

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Final Cut Pro features breathtaking performance and efficiency on Mac computers with Apple silicon. Tap into superfast unified memory shared Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection the CPU, the GPU, and the Apple Neural Engine to play back more high-resolution video streams and render your movie in record time.

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Taking full advantage of M1 Pro and M1 Max on the new MacBook Pro, Final Cut Pro delivers workstation-class performance on a notebook you can take anywhere. Complex tasks, like video analysis for object tracking or automatic cropping, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, are lightning fast on the Apple Neural Engine. And with hardware acceleration of encode and decode, ProRes performance is staggering — in some cases, delivering playback capabilities that are a first for any Mac. Creators can now do advanced editing, color grading, and delivery in HDR on 8K ProRes video — even when they’re miles away from the edit bay.

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With great new features and an intuitive design, Final Cut Pro accelerates post-production. So editors can create and deliver at the speed of thought.

The Magnetic Timeline allows you to easily experiment with story ideas by moving and trimming clips without collisions or sync problems, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. Use Compound Clips to bundle separate video and audio clips into a single movable package, create Auditions to try out multiple takes in the timeline, and use Synchronized Clips to align video with second-source audio automatically. Color coding makes it easy to identify different types of content, with the ability to customize the look of your timeline while you edit.

Final Cut Pro offers the most advanced organizing tools of any professional video editing application. Easily tag entire clips or clip ranges with metadata for searching, and create Smart Collections that automatically collect content according to a set of custom criteria. In the browser you can now create and save custom column views and search for media using clip names, markers and notes, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. Also quickly sort clips by proxy, optimized or missing media types.

Create 2D and 3D titles right in Final Cut Pro, apply and modify filters, and use the built-in chroma key for high-quality green- and blue-screen effects. Expand on the built-in effects with thousands of third-party tools and templates. And for even more control, use Motion to create stunning titles, transitions, generators, and effects you can access from Final Cut Pro.

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Final Cut Pro lets you edit multichannel audio using built-in tools for removing background noise and optimizing SketchBook Pro 2021 For Windows Key Features. Adjust multichannel audio files in the timeline or open the inspector for more information and options. Choose from dozens of bundled plug-ins for audio compression, EQ, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, and more — or send to a professional audio application like Logic Pro for advanced audio mixing.

Learn more about Logic Pro

Quickly encode video using the power of multicore CPUs and high-performance GPUs. Take advantage of presets to deliver ultra-high-quality masters or files optimized for iPhone, iPad, Apple TV, and websites like YouTube and Vimeo. And batch exporting makes it fast to deliver multiple AVG Internet Security 2014 build 4016 x64 or x86[ThumperDC.COM] keygen or projects in multiple formats. You can also use Compressor to create custom export settings that appear right in Final Cut Pro.

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The industry’s most advanced multicam editing lets you automatically sync up to 64 angles Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection video with different formats, frame sizes, and frame rates. View up to 16 angles at once in the Angle Viewer. And open the Angle Editor timeline to move, sync, trim, add effects, or color grade individual clips.

Motion and Compressor

Create stunning effects and sweeping graphics with Motion, including studio-quality 2D and 3D titles you can open and adjust in Final Cut Pro. Use Compressor to create custom export settings and streamline delivery of your movie to the iTunes Store. And because Final Cut Pro, Motion, and Compressor all share the same Metal architecture, you’ll experience blazing performance and consistent rendering across applications.

Advanced color grading.
Every pixel closer to perfection.

Professional color grading tools are built into Final Cut Pro, including a dedicated color inspector with color wheels, color curves, and hue/saturation curves. Use keyframes to adjust corrections over time, and apply camera and creative Look Up Tables (LUTs) for the perfect look. All color grading tools and scopes support High Dynamic Range (HDR) video.

Unique color wheels improve on traditional controls by combining hue, saturation, and brightness into a single, simple interface.

Color and luminance curves allow ultrafine level adjustments with multiple control points to target specific color and brightness ranges.

Sample a color with an eyedropper and change just the hue, saturation, or luminance of a specific color within the image.

High Dynamic Range

Work closer to reality than ever before with HDR video. Import, edit, grade, and deliver incredibly lifelike images with Final Cut Pro. Shoot on industry-standard cinema cameras, or in stunning Dolby Vision with the latest iPhone models. High-resolution scopes reflect HDR brightness levels as you edit, and tone mapping lets you easily convert HDR to Standard Dynamic Range output for broadcast. You can view beautiful HDR content on a variety of Mac computers that use the reserve brightness of the display to show an extended range of light levels.

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Import, edit, and grade original, untouched footage with RAW data straight from your camera sensor — without sacrificing any speed or smoothness, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. Create native ProRes RAW files using Atomos recorders and the DJI Inspire 2 drone and experience all the creative advantages of RAW with the real-time performance of ProRes.

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Remarkably smooth playback and real-time, multistream editing are part of the ProRes RAW package, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. The format is optimized for macOS and the latest Mac computers, allowing you to render and export faster than with other RAW formats. And if you’re working on the new MacBook Pro, the M1 Pro and M1 Max chips further accelerate ProRes RAW performance. Since ProRes RAW files are smaller than standard formats, you can fit more footage on every card.

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RAW flexibility

Work with untouched image data directly from your camera sensor. RAW files provide maximum flexibility for adjusting the look of your video while extending brightness and shadows — an ideal combination for HDR workflows. And new ProRes RAW tools in Final Cut Pro provide enhanced settings for ISO, color temperature, and exposure offset from supported devices for an even deeper level of control.

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Final Cut Pro includes a complete toolset for importing, editing, and delivering both monoscopic and stereoscopic 360° video.

360° editing

Import and edit 360° equirectangular footage in Final Cut Pro. Open the 360° viewer to visualize a headset view of your footage, and take advantage of simple tools for changing orientation, straightening the horizon, removing camera rigs, and more.

360° graphics and effects

Easily add 2D and 3D titles to your 360° video and apply blurs, glows, and other 360° effects. Or create more advanced 360° motion graphics in Motion, then add them directly to your Final Cut Pro project. You can even add 360° video to standard projects, using the Tiny Planet effect to create all-new spherical looks and animations.

Closed captions. Open to all.

Final Cut Pro includes an intuitive, comprehensive set of tools for closed captioning in a variety of formats, without the need for expensive third-party software or services. You can create, view, and edit captions within Final Cut Pro, and deliver them as part of your video or as a separate file.

Add an existing caption file to your project and Final Cut Pro automatically connects each caption to the corresponding video or audio clip in your timeline.

Type captions from scratch — in multiple languages and formats — and watch the text play back in real time right in the viewer. Or use third party services in a workflow extension to automatically transcribe clips and convert them into captions.

Attach captions to connected audio or video clips in the timeline so they move in sync with your edit. It’s easy to adjust text, color, location, and timing in the captions inspector. And the enhanced Timeline Index lets you quickly search and select captions, or use captions roles to instantly switch between different versions.

Export captions in the industry-standard CEA-608, iTT, or SRT formats. Or burn them directly into your video. When delivering, you can choose to embed caption metadata in your video file or create a separate sidecar file. Captioned videos can be exported for YouTube and Vimeo. And you can send your project to Compressor to include captions in a batch or an iTunes Store package.

Step up from iMovie to Final Cut Pro.

iMovie is the easiest way to start making movies. And when you’re ready to ramp up production, it’s effortless to send your project to Final Cut Pro from iMovie for iOS and macOS. You’ll cut faster and more precisely with advanced editing tools, improve the look of your projects with third-party plug-ins, and easily integrate video recorded with professional cameras from RED, Sony, Canon, and more. You can even shoot and edit beautiful Dolby Vision High Dynamic Range video on your iPhone and send your iMovie project to Final Cut Pro for professional-quality HDR finishing.5

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Extend your workflow with powerful third-party applications right inside Final Cut Pro. Browse and select stock photos, video, and music for your edit with services like Shutterstock and APM Music, or use Frame.io to simplify review and approval. You can even browse and preview hundreds of text styles at once with Font Audition, all without leaving your edit.

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Malware

Portmanteau for malicious software

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network.[1][2] By contrast, software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency is typically described as a software bug.[3] A wide variety of malware types exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, rogue software, wiper and scareware.

Programs are also considered malware if they secretly act against the interests of the computer user. For example, at one point, Sony BMG compact discs silently installed a rootkit on purchasers' computers with the intention of preventing illicit copying, but which also reported on users' listening habits, and unintentionally created extra security vulnerabilities.[4]

A range of antivirus software, firewalls and other strategies are used to help protect against the introduction of malware, to help detect it if it is already present, and to recover from malware-associated malicious activity and attacks.[5]

Purposes[edit]

This pie chart shows that in 2011, 70% of malware infections were by Trojan horses, 17% were from viruses, 8% from worms, with the remaining percentages divided among adware, backdoor, spyware, and other exploits.

Many early infectious programs, including the first Internet Worm, were written as experiments or pranks.[6] Today, malware is used by both black hat hackers and governments to steal personal, financial, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, or business information.[7][8]

Malware is sometimes used broadly against government or corporate websites to gather guarded information,[9] or to disrupt their operation in general. However, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection can be used against individuals to gain information such as personal identification numbers or details, bank or credit card numbers, and passwords.

Since the rise of widespread broadbandInternet access, malicious software has more frequently been designed for profit. Since 2003, the majority of widespread viruses and worms have been designed to take control of users' computers for illicit purposes.[10] Infected "zombie computers" can be used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography,[11] or to engage in distributed denial-of-serviceattacks as a form of extortion.[12]

Programs designed to monitor users' web browsing, display unsolicited advertisements, or redirect affiliate marketing revenues are called spyware. Spyware programs do not spread like viruses; instead they are generally installed by exploiting security holes. They can also be hidden and packaged together with unrelated user-installed software.[13] The Sony BMG rootkit was intended to prevent illicit copying; but also reported on users' listening habits, and unintentionally created extra security vulnerabilities.[4]

Ransomware affects an infected computer system in some way, and demands payment to bring it back to its normal state. There are two variations of ransomware, being crypto ransomware and locker ransomware.[14] Locker ransomware just locks down a computer system without encrypting its contents, whereas the traditional ransomware is one that locks down a system and encrypts its contents. For example, programs such as CryptoLockerencrypt files securely, and only decrypt them on payment of a substantial sum of money.[15]

Some malware is used to generate money by click fraud, making it appear that the computer user has clicked an advertising link on a site, generating a payment from the advertiser. It was estimated in 2012 that about 60 to 70% of all active malware used some kind of click fraud, and 22% of all ad-clicks were fraudulent.[16]

In addition to criminal money-making, malware can be used for sabotage, often for political motives. Stuxnet, for example, was designed to disrupt very specific industrial equipment. There have been politically motivated attacks which spread over and shut down large computer networks, including massive deletion of files and corruption of master boot records, described as "computer killing." Such attacks were made on Sony Pictures Entertainment (25 November 2014, using malware known as Shamoon or W32.Disttrack) and Saudi Aramco (August 2012).[17][18]

Infectious malware[edit]

Main articles: Computer virus and Computer worm

The best-known types of malware, viruses and worms, are known for the manner in which they spread, rather than any specific types of behavior. A computer virus is software that embeds itself in some other executable software (including the operating system itself) on the target system without the user's knowledge and consent and when it is run, the virus is spread to other executables. On the other hand, a worm is a stand-alone malware software that actively transmits itself over a network to infect other computers and can copy itself without infecting files. These definitions lead to the observation that Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection virus requires the user to run an infected software or operating system for the virus to spread, whereas a worm spreads itself.[19]

Concealment[edit]

These categories are not mutually exclusive, so malware may use multiple techniques.[20] This section only applies to malware designed to operate undetected, not sabotage and ransomware.

See also: Polymorphic packer

Viruses[edit]

Main article: Computer virus

A computer virus is software usually hidden within another seemingly innocuous program that can produce copies of itself and insert them into other programs or files, and that usually performs a harmful action (such as destroying data).[21] An example of this is a PE infection, a technique, usually used to spread malware, that inserts extra data or executable code into PE files.[22]

Screen-locking ransomware[edit]

Main article: Ransomware

Lock-screens, or screen lockers is a type of “cyber police” ransomware that blocks screens on Windows or Android devices with a false accusation in harvesting illegal content, trying to scare the victims into paying up a fee.[23] Jisut and SLocker impact Android devices more than other lock-screens, with Jisut making up nearly 60 percent of all Android ransomware detections.[24]

Encryption-based ransomware[edit]

Main article: Ransomware

Encryption-based ransomware, like the name suggests, is a type of ransomware that encrypts all files on an infected machine. These types of malware then display a pop-up informing the user that their files have been encrypted and that they must pay (usually in Bitcoin) to recover them. Some examples of encryption-based ransomware are CryptoLocker and WannaCry. [25]

Trojan horses[edit]

Main article: Trojan horse (computing)

A Trojan horse is a harmful program that misrepresents itself to masquerade as a regular, benign program or utility in order to persuade a victim to install it. A Trojan horse usually carries a hidden destructive function that is activated when the application is started. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek story of the Trojan horse used to invade the city of Troy by stealth.[26][27][28][29][30]

Trojan horses are generally spread by some form of social engineering, for example, where a user is duped into executing an email attachment disguised to be unsuspicious, (e.g., a routine form to be filled in), or by drive-by download. Although their payload can be anything, many modern forms act as a backdoor, contacting a controller (phoning home) which can then have unauthorized access to the affected computer, potentially installing additional software such as a keylogger to steal confidential information, cryptomining software or adware to generate revenue to the operator of the trojan.[31] While Trojan horses and backdoors Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection not easily detectable by themselves, computers may appear to run slower, emit more heat or fan noise due to heavy processor or network usage, as may occur when cryptomining software is installed. Cryptominers may limit resource usage and/or only run during idle times in an attempt to evade detection.

Unlike computer viruses and worms, Trojan horses generally do not attempt to inject themselves into other files or otherwise propagate themselves.[32]

In spring 2017 Mac users were hit by the new version of Proton Remote Access Trojan (RAT)[33] trained to extract password data from various sources, such as browser auto-fill data, the Mac-OS keychain, and password vaults.[34]

Rootkits[edit]

Main article: Rootkit

Once malicious software is installed on a system, it is essential that it stays concealed, to avoid detection. Software packages known as rootkits allow this concealment, by modifying the host's operating system so that the malware is hidden from the user. Rootkits can prevent a harmful process from being visible in the system's list of processes, or keep its files from being read.[35]

Some types of harmful software contain routines to evade identification and/or removal attempts, not merely to hide themselves. An early example of this behavior is recorded in the Jargon File tale of a pair of programs infesting a Xerox CP-V time sharing system:

Each ghost-job would detect the fact that the other had been killed, and would start a new copy of the recently stopped program within a few milliseconds. The only way to kill both ghosts was to kill them simultaneously (very difficult) or to deliberately crash the system.[36]

Backdoors[edit]

Main article: Backdoor (computing)

A backdoor is a method of bypassing normal authentication procedures, usually over a connection to a network such as the Internet. Once a system has been compromised, one or more backdoors may be installed in order to allow access in the future,[37] invisibly to the user.

The idea has often been suggested that computer manufacturers preinstall backdoors on their systems to provide technical support for customers, but this has never been reliably verified. It was reported in 2014 that US government agencies had been diverting computers purchased by those considered "targets" to secret workshops where software or hardware permitting remote access by the agency was installed, considered to be among the most productive operations to obtain access to networks around the world.[38] Backdoors may be installed by Trojan horses, worms, implants, or other methods.[39][40]

Evasion[edit]

Since the beginning of 2015, a sizable portion of malware has been utilizing a combination of many techniques designed to avoid detection and analysis.[41] From the more common, to the least common:

  1. evasion of analysis and detection by fingerprinting the environment when executed.[42]
  2. confusing automated tools' detection methods. This allows malware to avoid detection by technologies such as signature-based antivirus software by changing the server used by the malware.[43]
  3. timing-based evasion. This is when malware runs at certain times or following certain actions taken by the user, so it executes during certain vulnerable periods, such as during the boot process, while remaining dormant the rest of the time.
  4. obfuscating internal data so that automated tools do not detect the malware.[44]

An increasingly common technique (2015) is adware that uses stolen certificates to disable anti-malware and virus protection; technical remedies are available to deal with the adware.[45]

Nowadays, one of the most sophisticated and stealthy ways of evasion is to use information hiding techniques, namely stegomalware. A survey on stegomalware was published by Cabaj et al. in 2018.[46]

Another Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection of evasion technique is Fileless malware or Advanced Avira Antivirus Pro 2021 Crack 15 & Activation Code Full [Latest] Threats (AVTs). Fileless malware does not require a file to operate. It runs within memory and utilizes existing system tools to carry out malicious acts. Because there are no files on the system, there are no executable files for antivirus and forensic tools to analyze, making such malware nearly impossible to detect. The only way to detect fileless malware is to catch it operating in real time. Recently these types of attacks have become more frequent with a 432% increase in 2017 and makeup 35% of the attacks in 2018. Such attacks are not easy to perform but are becoming more prevalent with the help of exploit-kits. [47][48]

Vulnerability[edit]

Main article: Vulnerability (computing)

  • In this context, and throughout, what is called the "system" under attack may be anything from a single application, through a complete computer and operating system, to a large network.
  • Various factors make a system more vulnerable to malware:

Security defects in software[edit]

Malware exploits security defects (security bugs or vulnerabilities) in the design of the operating system, in applications (such as browsers, e.g. older versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer supported by Windows XP[49]), or in vulnerable versions of browser plugins such as Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Acrobat or Reader, or Java SE.[50][51] Sometimes even installing new versions of such plugins does not automatically uninstall old versions. Security advisories from plug-in providers announce security-related updates.[52] Common vulnerabilities are assigned CVE IDs and listed in the US National Vulnerability Database. Secunia PSI[53] is an example of software, free for personal use, that will check a PC for vulnerable out-of-date software, and attempt to update it.

Malware authors target bugs, or loopholes, to exploit. A common method is exploitation of a buffer overrun vulnerability, where software designed to store data in a specified region of memory does not prevent more data than the buffer can accommodate being supplied. Malware may provide data that overflows the buffer, with malicious executable code or data after the end; when this payload is accessed it does what the attacker, not the legitimate software, determines.

Anti-malware is a continuously growing threat to malware detection.[54] According to Symantec’s 2018 Internet Security Threat Report (ISTR), malware variants number has got up to 669,947,865 in 2017, which is the double of malware variants in 2016.[54]

Insecure design or user error[edit]

Early PCs had to be booted from floppy disks. When built-in hard drives became common, the operating system was normally started from them, but it was possible to boot from another boot device if available, such as a floppy disk, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, USB flash drive or network. It was common to configure the computer to boot from one of these devices when available. Normally none would be available; the user would intentionally insert, say, a CD into the optical drive to boot the computer in some special way, for example, to install an operating system. Even without booting, computers can be configured to execute software on some media as soon as they become available, e.g. to autorun a CD or USB device when inserted.

Malware distributors would trick the user into booting or running from an infected device or medium. For example, a virus could make an infected computer add autorunnable code to any USB stick plugged into it. Anyone who then attached the stick to another computer set to autorun from USB would in turn become infected, and also pass on the infection in the same way.[55] More generally, any device that plugs into a USB port – even lights, fans, speakers, toys, or peripherals such as a digital microscope – can be used to spread malware. Devices can be infected during manufacturing or supply if quality control is inadequate.[55]

This form of infection can largely be avoided by setting up computers by default to boot from the internal hard drive, if available, and not to autorun from devices.[55] Intentional booting from another device is always possible by pressing certain keys during boot.

Older email software would automatically open HTML email containing potentially malicious JavaScript code. Users may also execute disguised malicious email attachments. The 2018 Data Breach Investigations Report by Verizon, cited by CSO Online, states that emails are the primary method of malware delivery, accounting for 92% of malware delivery around the world.[56][57]

Over-privileged users and over-privileged code[edit]

Main article: principle of least privilege

In computing, privilege refers to how much a user or program is allowed to modify a system. In poorly designed computer systems, both users and programs can be assigned more privileges than they should have, and malware can take advantage of this. The two ways that malware does this is through overprivileged users and overprivileged code.[citation needed]

Some systems allow all users to modify their internal structures, and such users today would be considered over-privileged users. This Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection the standard operating procedure for early microcomputer and home computer systems, where there was no distinction between an administrator or root, and a regular user of the system. In some systems, non-administrator users are over-privileged by design, in the sense that they are allowed to modify internal structures of the system. In some environments, users are over-privileged because they have been inappropriately granted administrator or equivalent status.[58]

Some systems allow code executed by a user to access all rights of that user, which is known as over-privileged code, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. This was also standard operating procedure for early microcomputer and home computer systems. Malware, running as over-privileged code, can use this privilege to subvert the system. Almost all currently popular operating systems, and also many scripting applications allow code too many privileges, usually in the sense that when a user executes code, the system allows that code all rights of that user. This makes users vulnerable to malware in the form of email attachments, which may or may not be disguised.[citation needed]

Use of the same operating system[edit]

Homogeneity can be a vulnerability. For example, when all computers in a network run the same operating system, upon exploiting one, one worm can exploit them all:[59] In particular, Microsoft Windows or Mac OS X have such a large share of the market that an exploited vulnerability concentrating on either operating system could subvert a large number of systems. Introducing diversity purely for the sake of robustness, such as adding Linux computers, could increase short-term costs for training and maintenance. However, as long as all the nodes are not part of the same directory service for authentication, having a few diverse nodes could deter total shutdown of the network and allow those nodes to help with recovery of the infected nodes. Such separate, functional redundancy could avoid the cost of a total shutdown, at the cost of increased complexity and reduced usability in terms of single sign-on authentication.[citation needed]

Anti-malware strategies[edit]

Main article: Antivirus software

As malware attacks become more frequent, attention has begun to shift from viruses and spyware protection, to malware protection, and programs that have been specifically developed to combat malware. (Other preventive and recovery measures, such as backup and recovery methods, are mentioned in the computer virus article). Reboot to restore software is also useful for mitigating malware by rolling back malicious alterations.

Antivirus and anti-malware software[edit]

A specific component of antivirus and anti-malware software, commonly referred to as an on-access or real-time scanner, hooks deep into the operating system's core or kernel and functions in a manner similar to how certain malware itself would attempt to operate, though with the user's informed permission for protecting the system. Any time the operating system accesses a file, the on-access scanner checks if the file is a 'legitimate' file or not. If the file is identified as malware by the scanner, the access operation will be stopped, the file will be dealt with by the scanner in a pre-defined way (how the antivirus program was configured during/post installation), and the user will be notified.[citation needed] This may have a considerable performance impact on the operating system, though the degree of impact is dependent on how well the scanner was programmed. The goal is to stop any operations the malware may attempt on the system before they occur, including activities which might exploit bugs or trigger unexpected operating system behavior.

Anti-malware programs can combat malware in two ways:

  1. They can provide real time protection against the installation of malware software on a computer. This type of malware protection works the same way as that of antivirus protection in that the anti-malware software scans all incoming network data for malware and blocks any threats it comes across.
  2. Anti-malware software programs can be used solely for detection and removal of malware software that has already been installed onto a computer. Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection type of anti-malware software scans the contents of the Windows registry, operating system files, and installed programs on a computer and will provide a list of any threats found, allowing the user to choose which files to delete or keep, or to compare this list to a list of known malware components, removing files that match.[60]

Real-time protection from malware works identically to real-time antivirus protection: the software scans disk files at download time, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, and blocks the activity of components known to represent malware. In some cases, it may also intercept attempts to install start-up items or to modify browser settings. Because many malware components are installed as Serial number office 2010 crack result of browser exploits or user error, using security software (some of which are anti-malware, though many are not) to "sandbox" browsers (essentially isolate the browser from the computer and hence any malware induced change) can also be effective in helping to restrict any damage done.[61]

Examples of Microsoft Windows antivirus and anti-malware software include the optional Microsoft Security Essentials[62] (for Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7) for real-time protection, the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool[63] (now included with Windows (Security) Updates on "Patch Tuesday", the second Tuesday of each month), and Windows Defender (an optional download in the case of Windows XP, incorporating MSE functionality in the case of Windows 8 and later).[64] Additionally, several capable antivirus software programs are available for free download from the Internet (usually restricted to non-commercial use).[65] Tests found some free programs to be competitive with commercial Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection Microsoft's System File Checker can be used to check for and repair corrupted system files.

Some viruses disable System Restore and other important Windows Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection such as Task Manager and Command Prompt. Many such viruses can be removed by rebooting the computer, entering Windows safe mode with networking,[68] and then using system tools or Microsoft Safety Scanner.[69]

Hardware implants can be of any type, so there can be no general way to detect them.

Website security scans[edit]

As malware also harms the compromised websites (by breaking reputation, blacklisting in search engines, etc.), some websites offer vulnerability scanning.[70] Such scans check the website, detect malware, may note outdated software, and may report known security issues.

"Air gap" isolation or "parallel network"[edit]

As a last resort, computers can be protected from malware, and infected computers can be prevented from disseminating trusted information, by imposing an "air gap" (i.e. completely disconnecting them from all other networks). However, malware can still cross the air gap in some situations. Stuxnet is an example of malware that is introduced to the target environment via a USB drive, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection.

AirHopper,[71] BitWhisper,[72] GSMem [73] and Fansmitter[74] are four techniques introduced by researchers that can leak data from air-gapped computers using electromagnetic, thermal and acoustic emissions.

Grayware[edit]

See also: Privacy-invasive software and Potentially unwanted program

Grayware (sometimes spelled as greyware) is a term applied to unwanted applications or files that are not classified as malware, but can worsen the performance of computers and may cause security risks.[75]

It describes applications that behave in an annoying or undesirable manner, and yet are less serious or troublesome than malware. Grayware encompasses spyware, adware, fraudulent dialers, joke programs, remote access tools and other unwanted programs that may harm the performance of computers or cause inconvenience. The term came into use around 2004.[76]

Another term, potentially unwanted program (PUP) or potentially unwanted application (PUA),[77] refers to applications that would be considered unwanted despite often having been downloaded by the user, possibly after failing to read a download agreement. PUPs include spyware, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, adware, and fraudulent dialers. Many security products classify unauthorised key generators as grayware, although they frequently carry true malware in addition to their ostensible purpose.

Software maker Malwarebytes lists several criteria for classifying a program as a PUP.[78] Some types of adware (using stolen certificates) turn off anti-malware and virus protection; technical remedies are available.[45]

History[edit]

Main article: History of computer viruses

See also: History of ransomware

Further information: Timeline of computer viruses and worms

Before Internet access became widespread, viruses spread on personal computers by infecting executable programs or boot sectors of floppy disks. By inserting a copy of itself Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection the machine code instructions in these programs or boot sectors, a virus causes itself to be run whenever the program is run or the disk is booted. Early computer viruses were written for the Apple II and Macintosh, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, but they became more widespread with the dominance of the IBM PC and MS-DOS system. The first IBM PC virus in the "wild" was a boot sector virus dubbed (c)Brain,[79] created in 1986 by the Farooq Alvi brothers in Pakistan.[80]

The first worms, network-borne infectious programs, originated not on personal computers, but on multitasking Unix systems. The first well-known worm was the Internet Worm of 1988, which infected SunOS and VAXBSD systems. Unlike a virus, this worm did not insert itself into other programs. Instead, it exploited security holes (vulnerabilities) in network server programs and started itself running as a separate process.[81] This same behavior is used by today's worms as well.[82][83]

With the rise of the Microsoft Windows platform in the 1990s, and the flexible macros of its applications, it became possible to write infectious code in the macro language of Microsoft Word and similar programs. These macro viruses infect documents and templates rather than applications (executables), but rely on the fact that macros in a Word document are a form of executable code.[84]

Academic research[edit]

Main article: Malware research

The notion of a self-reproducing computer Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection can be traced back to initial theories about the operation of complex automata.[85]John von Neumann showed that in theory a program could reproduce itself. This constituted a plausibility result in computability theory. Fred Cohen experimented with computer viruses and confirmed Neumann's postulate and investigated other properties of malware such as detectability and self-obfuscation using rudimentary encryption. His 1987 doctoral dissertation was on the subject of computer viruses.[86] The combination of cryptographic technology as part of the payload of the virus, exploiting it for attack purposes was initialized and investigated from the mid 1990s, and includes initial ransomware and evasion ideas.[87]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Look up malware in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malware.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Ransomware

Malicious software used in ransom demands

Ransomware is a type of malware from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's personal data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid. While some simple ransomware may lock the system so that it is not difficult for a knowledgeable person to reverse, more advanced malware uses a technique called cryptoviral extortion. It encrypts the victim's files, making them inaccessible, and demands a ransom payment to decrypt them.[1][2][3][4] In a Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection implemented cryptoviral extortion attack, recovering the files without the decryption key is an intractable problem – and difficult to trace digital currencies such as paysafecard or Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that are used for the ransoms, making tracing and prosecuting the perpetrators difficult.

Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan disguised as a legitimate file that the user is tricked into downloading or opening when it arrives as an email attachment. However, one high-profile example, the WannaCry worm, traveled automatically between computers without user interaction.[5]

Starting as early as 1989 with the first documented ransomware known as the AIDS trojan, the use of ransomware scams has grown internationally.[6][7][8] There were 181.5 million ransomware attacks in the first six months of 2018. This record marks a 229% increase over this same time frame in 2017.[9] In June 2014, vendor McAfee released data showing that it had collected more than double the number of ransomware samples that quarter than it had in the same quarter of the previous year.[10]CryptoLocker was particularly successful, procuring an estimated US$3 million before it was taken down by authorities,[11] and CryptoWall was estimated by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to have accrued over US$18 million by June 2015.[12] In 2020, the IC3 received 2,474 complaints identified as ransomware with adjusted losses of over $29.1 million. The losses could be more than that according to FBI.[13]

Operation[edit]

The concept of file-encrypting ransomware was invented and implemented by Young and Yung at Columbia University and was presented at the 1996 IEEE Security & Privacy conference. It is called cryptoviral extortion and it was inspired by the fictional facehugger in the movie Alien.[14] Cryptoviral extortion is the following three-round protocol carried out between the attacker and the victim.[1]

  1. [attackervictim] The attacker generates a key pair and places the corresponding public key in the malware. The malware is released.
  2. [victimattacker] To carry out the cryptoviral extortion attack, the malware generates a random symmetric key and encrypts the victim's data with it. It uses the public key in the malware to encrypt the symmetric key. This is known as hybrid encryption and it results in a small asymmetric ciphertext as well as the symmetric ciphertext of the victim's data. It zeroizes the symmetric key and the original plaintext data to prevent recovery. It puts up a message to the user that includes the asymmetric ciphertext and how to pay the ransom. The victim sends the asymmetric ciphertext and e-money to the attacker.
  3. [attackervictim] The attacker receives the payment, deciphers the asymmetric ciphertext with the attacker's private key, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, and sends the symmetric key to the victim. The victim deciphers the encrypted data with the needed symmetric key thereby completing the cryptovirology attack.

The Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection key is randomly generated and will not assist other victims. At no point is the attacker's private key exposed to victims and the victim need only send a very small ciphertext (the encrypted symmetric-cipher key) to the attacker.

Ransomware attacks are typically carried out using a Trojan, entering a system through, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, for example, a malicious attachment, embedded link in a Phishing email, or a vulnerability in a network service. The program then runs a payload, which locks the system in some fashion, or claims to lock the system but does not (e.g., a scareware program). Payloads may display a fake warning purportedly by an entity such as a law enforcement agency, falsely claiming that the system has been used for illegal activities, contains content such as pornography and "pirated" media.[15][16][17]

Some payloads consist simply of an application designed to lock or restrict the system until payment is made, typically by setting the Windows Shell to itself,[18] or even modifying the master boot record and/or partition table to prevent the operating system from booting until it is repaired.[19] The most sophisticated payloads encrypt files, with many using strong encryption to encrypt the victim's files in such a way that only the malware author has the needed decryption key.[1][20][21]

Payment is virtually always the goal, and the victim is coerced into paying for the ransomware to be removed either by supplying a program that can decrypt the files, or by sending an unlock code that undoes the payload's changes. While the attacker may simply take the money without returning the victim's files, it is in the attacker's best interest to perform the decryption as agreed, since victims will stop sending payments if it becomes known that they serve no purpose. A key element in making ransomware work for the attacker is a convenient payment system that is hard to trace. A range of such payment methods have been used, including wire transfers, premium-rate text messages,[22] pre-paid voucher services such as paysafecard,[6][23][24] and the Bitcoincryptocurrency.[25][26][27]

In May 2020, vendor Sophos reported that the global average cost to remediate a ransomware attack (considering downtime, people time, device cost, network cost, lost opportunity and ransom paid) was $761,106. Ninety-five percent of organizations that paid the ransom had their data restored.[28]

History[edit]

See also: History of computer viruses and History of malware

Encrypting ransomware[edit]

The first known malware extortion attack, the "AIDS Trojan" written by Joseph Popp in 1989, had a design failure so severe it was not necessary to pay the extortionist at all. Its payload hid the files on the hard drive and encrypted only their names, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, and displayed a message claiming that the Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection license to use a certain piece of software had expired. The user was asked to pay US$189 to "PC Cyborg Corporation" in order to obtain a repair tool even though the decryption key could be extracted from the code of the Trojan. The Trojan was also known as "PC Cyborg". Popp was declared mentally unfit to stand trial for his actions, but he promised to donate the profits from the malware to fund AIDS research.[29]

The idea of abusing anonymous cash systems to safely collect ransom from human kidnapping was introduced in 1992 by Sebastiaan von Solms and David Naccache.[30] This electronic money collection method was also proposed for cryptoviral extortion attacks.[1] In the von Solms-Naccache scenario a newspaper publication was used (since bitcoin ledgers did not exist at the time the paper was written).

The notion of using public key cryptography for data kidnapping attacks was introduced in 1996 by Adam L. Young and Moti Yung. Young and Yung critiqued the failed AIDS Information Trojan that relied on symmetric cryptography alone, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, the fatal flaw being that the decryption key could be extracted from the Trojan, and implemented an experimental proof-of-concept cryptovirus on a Macintosh SE/30 that used RSA and the Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) to hybrid encrypt the victim's data. Since public key cryptography is used, the virus only contains the encryption key. The attacker keeps the corresponding private decryption key private. Young and Yung's original experimental cryptovirus had the victim send the asymmetric ciphertext to the attacker who deciphers it and returns the symmetric decryption key it contains to the victim for a fee. Long before electronic money existed Young and Yung proposed that electronic money could be extorted through encryption as well, stating that "the virus writer can effectively hold all of the money ransom until half of it is given to him. Even if the e-money was previously encrypted by the user, it is of no use to the user if it gets encrypted by a cryptovirus".[1] They referred to these attacks as being "cryptoviral extortion", an overt attack that is part of a larger class of attacks in a field called cryptovirology, which encompasses both overt and covert attacks.[1] The cryptoviral extortion protocol was inspired by the parasitic relationship between H. R. Giger's facehugger and its host in the movie Alien.[1][14]

Examples of extortionate ransomware became prominent in May 2005.[31] By mid-2006, Trojans such as Gpcode, TROJ.RANSOM.A, Archiveus, Krotten, Cryzip, and MayArchive began utilizing more sophisticated RSA encryption schemes, with ever-increasing key-sizes. Gpcode.AG, which was detected in June 2006, was encrypted with a 660-bit RSA public key.[32] In June 2008, a variant known as Gpcode.AK was detected. Using a 1024-bit RSA key, it was believed large enough to be computationally infeasible to break without a concerted distributed effort.[33][34][35][36]

Encrypting ransomware returned to prominence in late 2013 with the propagation of CryptoLocker—using the Bitcoindigital currency platform to collect ransom money. In December 2013, ZDNet estimated based on Bitcoin transaction information that between 15 October and 18 December, the operators of CryptoLocker had procured about US$27 million from infected users.[37] The CryptoLocker technique was widely copied in the months following, including CryptoLocker 2.0 (thought not to be related to CryptoLocker), CryptoDefense (which initially contained a major design flaw that stored the private key on the infected system in a user-retrievable location, due to its use of Windows' built-in encryption APIs),[26][38][39][40] and the August 2014 discovery of a Trojan specifically targeting network-attached storage devices produced by Synology.[41] In January 2015, it was reported that ransomware-styled attacks have occurred against individual websites via hacking, and through ransomware designed to target Linux-based web servers.[42][43][44]

In some infections, there is a two-stage payload, common in many malware systems. The user is tricked into running a script, which downloads the main virus and executes it. In early versions of the dual-payload system, the script was contained in a Microsoft Office document with an attached VBScript macro, or in a windows scripting facility (WSF) file. As detection systems started blocking these first stage payloads, the Microsoft Malware Protection Center identified a trend away toward LNK files with self-contained Microsoft Windows PowerShell scripts.[45] In 2016, PowerShell was found to be involved in nearly 40% of endpoint security incidents,[46]

Some ransomware strains have used proxies tied to Torhidden services to connect to their command and control servers, increasing the difficulty of tracing the exact location of the criminals.[47][48] Furthermore, dark web vendors have increasingly started to offer the technology as a service, wherein ransomware is sold, ready for deployment on victims' machines, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, on a subscription basis, similarly to Adobe Creative Cloud or Office 365.[48][49][50]

Symantec has classified ransomware to be the most dangerous cyber threat.[51]

On 28 September 2020, the computer systems at US’ biggest healthcare provider the Universal Health Services, was hit by a ransomware attack. The UHS chain from different locations reported noticing problems, with some locations reporting locked computers and phone systems from early Sunday (27 September).[52][51]

Non-encrypting ransomware[edit]

In August 2010, Russian authorities arrested nine individuals connected to a ransomware Trojan known as WinLock. Unlike the previous Gpcode Trojan, WinLock did not use encryption. Instead, WinLock trivially restricted access to the system by displaying pornographic images and asked users to send a premium-rate SMS (costing around US$10) to receive a code that could be used to unlock their machines. The scam hit numerous users across Russia and neighbouring countries—reportedly earning the group over US$16 million.[17][53]

In 2011, a ransomware Trojan surfaced that imitated the Windows Product Activation notice, and informed users that a system's Windows installation had to be re-activated due to "[being a] victim of fraud". An online activation option was offered (like the actual Windows activation process), but was unavailable, requiring the user to call one of six international numbers to input a 6-digit code. While the malware claimed that this call would be free, it was routed through a rogue operator in a country with high international phone rates, who placed the call on hold, causing the user to incur large international long distance charges.[15]

In February 2013, a ransomware Trojan based on the Stamp.EK exploit kit surfaced; the malware was distributed via sites hosted on the project hosting services SourceForge and GitHub that claimed to offer "fake nude pics" of Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection In July 2013, an OS X-specific ransomware Trojan surfaced, which displays a web page that accuses the user of downloading pornography. Unlike its Windows-based counterparts, it does not block the entire computer, but simply exploits the behaviour of the web browser itself Adobe Acrobat Pro DC 2021 Crack Full Keygen Free frustrate attempts to close the Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection through normal means.[55]

In July 2013, a 21-year-old man from Virginia, whose computer coincidentally did contain pornographic photographs of underage girls with whom he had conducted sexualized communications, turned himself in to police after receiving and being deceived by FBI MoneyPak Ransomware accusing him of possessing child Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection. An investigation discovered the incriminating files, and the man was charged with child sexual abuse and possession of child pornography.[56]

Exfiltration (Leakware / Doxware)[edit]

The converse of ransomware is a cryptovirology attack invented by Adam L. Young that threatens to publish stolen information from the victim's computer system rather than deny the victim access to it.[57] In a leakware attack, malware exfiltrates sensitive host data either to the attacker or alternatively, to remote instances of the malware, and the attacker threatens to publish the victim's data unless a ransom is paid. The attack was presented at West Point in 2003 and was summarized in the book Malicious Cryptography as follows, "The attack differs from the extortion attack in the following way. In the extortion attack, the victim is denied access to its own valuable information and has to pay to get it back, where in the attack that is presented here the victim retains access to the information but its disclosure is at the discretion of the computer virus".[58] The attack is rooted in game theory and was originally dubbed "non-zero sum games and survivable malware". The attack can yield monetary gain in cases where the malware acquires access to information that may damage the victim user or organization, e.g., the reputational damage that could result from publishing proof that the attack itself was a success.

Common targets for exfiltration include:

  • third party information stored by the primary victim (such as customer account information or health records);
  • information proprietary to the victim (such as trade secrets and product information)
  • embarrassing information (such as the victim's health information or information about the victim's personal past)

Exfiltration attacks are usually targeted, with a curated victim list, and often preliminary surveillance of the victim's systems to find potential data targets and weaknesses.[59][60]

Mobile ransomware[edit]

With the increased popularity of ransomware on PC platforms, ransomware targeting mobile operating systems has also proliferated. Typically, mobile ransomware payloads are blockers, as there is little incentive to encrypt data since it can be easily restored via online synchronization.[61] Mobile ransomware typically targets the Android platform, as it allows applications to be installed from third-party sources.[61][62] The payload is typically distributed as an APK file installed by an unsuspecting user; it may attempt to display a blocking message over top of all other applications,[62] while another used a form of clickjacking to cause the user to give Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection "device administrator" privileges to achieve deeper access to the system.[63]

Different tactics have been used on iOS devices, such as exploiting iCloud accounts and using the Find My iPhone system to lock access to the device.[64] On iOS 10.3, Apple patched a bug in the handling of JavaScript pop-up windows in Safari that had been exploited by ransomware websites.[65] It recently[when?] has been shown that ransomware may also target ARM architectures like those that can be found in various Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, such as Industrial IoT edge devices.[66]

In August 2019 researchers demonstrated it's possible to infect DSLR cameras with ransomware.[67] Digital cameras often use Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP - standard protocol used to transfer files.) Researchers found that it was possible to exploit vulnerabilities in the protocol to infect target camera(s) with ransomware (or execute any arbitrary code). This attack was presented at the Defcon security conference in Las Vegas as a proof of concept attack (not as actual armed malware).

Notable attack targets[edit]

Further information: List of cyberattacks § Ransomware attacks

Notable software packages[edit]

Reveton[edit]

In 2012, a major ransomware Trojan known as Reveton began to spread. Based on the Citadel Trojan (which itself, is based on the Zeus Trojan), its payload displays a warning purportedly from a law enforcement agency claiming that the computer has been used for illegal activities, such as downloading unlicensed software or child pornography. Due to this behaviour, it is commonly referred to as the "Police Trojan".[68][69][70] The warning informs the user that to unlock their system, they would have to pay a fine using a voucher from an anonymous prepaid cash service such as Ukash or paysafecard. To increase the illusion that the computer is being tracked by law enforcement, the screen also displays the computer's IP address, while some versions display footage from a victim's webcam to give the illusion that the user is being recorded.[6][71]

Reveton initially began spreading in various European countries in early 2012.[6] Variants were localized with templates branded with the logos of different law enforcement organizations based on the user's country; for example, variants used in the United Kingdom contained the branding of organizations such as the Metropolitan Police Service and the Police National E-Crime Unit. Another version contained the logo of the royalty collection societyPRS for Music, which specifically accused the user of illegally downloading music.[72] In a statement warning the public about the malware, the Metropolitan Police clarified that they would never lock a computer in such a way as part of an investigation.[6][16]

In May 2012, Trend Micro threat researchers discovered templates for variations for the United States and Canada, suggesting that its authors may have been planning to target users in North America.[73] By August 2012, a new variant of Reveton began to spread in the United States, claiming to require the payment of a $200 fine to the FBI using a MoneyPak card.[7][8][71] In February 2013, a Russian citizen was arrested in Dubai by Spanish authorities for his connection to a crime ring that had been using Reveton; ten other individuals were arrested on money laundering charges.[74] In August 2014, Avast Software reported that it had found new variants of Reveton that also distribute password-stealing malware as part of its payload.[75]

CryptoLocker[edit]

Main article: CryptoLocker

Encrypting ransomware reappeared in September 2013 with a Trojan known as CryptoLocker, which generated a 2048-bit RSA key pair and uploaded in turn to a command-and-control server, and used to encrypt files using a whitelist of specific file extensions. The malware threatened to delete the private key if a payment of Bitcoin or a pre-paid cash voucher was not made within 3 days of the infection. Due to the extremely large key size it uses, analysts and those affected by the Trojan considered CryptoLocker extremely difficult to repair.[25][76][77][78] Even after the deadline passed, the private key could still be obtained using an online tool, but the Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection would increase to 10 BTC—which cost approximately US$2300 as of November 2013.[79][80]

CryptoLocker was isolated by the seizure of the Gameover ZeuSbotnet as part of Operation Tovar, as officially announced by the U.S. Department of Justice on 2 June 2014. The Department of Justice also publicly issued an indictment against the Russian hacker Evgeniy Bogachev for his alleged involvement in the botnet.[81][82] It was estimated that at least US$3 million was extorted with the malware before the shutdown.[11]

CryptoLocker.F and TorrentLocker[edit]

In September 2014, a wave of ransomware Trojans surfaced that first targeted users in Australia, under the Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection CryptoWall and CryptoLocker (which is, as with CryptoLocker 2.0, unrelated to the original CryptoLocker). The Trojans spread via fraudulent e-mails claiming to be failed parcel delivery notices from Australia Post; to evade detection by automatic e-mail scanners that follow all links on a page to scan for malware, this variant was designed to require users to visit a web page and enter a code before the payload is actually downloaded, preventing such automated processes from being able to scan the payload. Symantec determined that these new variants, which it identified as CryptoLocker.F, were again, unrelated to the original CryptoLocker due to differences in their operation.[83][84] A notable victim of the Trojans was the Australian Broadcasting Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection live programming on its television news channelABC News 24 was disrupted for half an hour and shifted to Melbourne studios due to a CryptoWall infection on computers at its Sydney studio.[85][86][87]

Another Trojan in this wave, TorrentLocker, initially contained a design flaw comparable to CryptoDefense; it used the same keystream for every infected computer, making the encryption trivial to overcome. However, this flaw was later fixed.[38] By late-November 2014, it was estimated that over 9,000 users had been infected by TorrentLocker in Australia alone, trailing only Turkey with 11,700 infections.[88]

CryptoWall[edit]

Another major ransomware Trojan targeting Windows, CryptoWall, first appeared in 2014. One strain of CryptoWall was distributed as part of a malvertising campaign on the Zedo ad network in late-September 2014 that targeted several major websites; the ads redirected Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection rogue websites that used browser plugin exploits to download the payload. A Barracuda Networks researcher also noted that the payload was signed with a digital signature in an effort to appear trustworthy to security software.[89] CryptoWall 3.0 used a payload written in JavaScript as part of an email attachment, which downloads executables disguised as JPG images. To further evade detection, the malware creates new instances of explorer.exe and svchost.exe to communicate with its servers. When encrypting files, the malware also deletes volume shadow copies and installs spyware that steals passwords and Bitcoin wallets.[90]

The FBI reported in June 2015 that nearly 1,000 victims had contacted the bureau's Internet Crime Complaint Center to report CryptoWall infections, and estimated losses of at least $18 million.[12]

The most recent version, CryptoWall 4.0, enhanced its code to avoid antivirus detection, and encrypts not only the data in files but also the Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection names.[91]

Fusob[edit]

Fusob is one of the major mobile ransomware families. Between April 2015 and March 2016, about 56 Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection of accounted mobile ransomware was Fusob.[92]

Like a typical mobile ransomware, it employs scare tactics to extort people to pay a ransom.[93] The program pretends to be an accusatory authority, demanding the victim to pay a fine from $100 to $200 USD or otherwise face a fictitious charge. Rather surprisingly, Fusob suggests using iTunes gift cards for payment. Also, a timer clicking down on the screen adds to the users’ anxiety as well.

In order to infect devices, Fusob masquerades as a pornographic video player. Thus, victims, thinking it is harmless, unwittingly download Fusob.[94]

When Fusob is installed, it first checks the language used in the device. If it uses Russian or certain Eastern European languages, Fusob does nothing. Otherwise, it proceeds on to lock the device and demand ransom. Among victims, about 40% of them are in Germany with the United Kingdom and the United States following with 14.5% and 11.4% respectively.

Fusob has lots in common with Small, which is another major family of mobile ransomware. They represented over 93% of mobile ransomware between 2015 and 2016.

WannaCry[edit]

Main article: WannaCry ransomware attack

In May 2017, the WannaCry ransomware attack spread through the Internet, using an exploit vector named EternalBlue, which was allegedly leaked from the U.S. National Security Agency. The ransomware attack, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, unprecedented in scale,[95] infected more than 230,000 computers in over 150 countries,[96] using 20 different languages to demand money from users using Bitcoin cryptocurrency. WannaCry demanded US$300 per computer.[97] The attack affected Telefónica and several other large companies in Spain, as well as parts of the British National Health Service (NHS), where at least 16 hospitals had to turn away patients or cancel scheduled operations,[98]FedEx, Deutsche Bahn, Honda,[99]Renault, as well as the Russian Interior Ministry and Russian telecom MegaFon.[100] The attackers gave their victims a 7-day deadline from the day their computers Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection infected, after which the encrypted files would be deleted.[101]

Petya[edit]

Main article: Petya (malware)

See also: 2017 cyberattacks on Ukraine

Petya was first discovered in March 2016; unlike other forms of encrypting ransomware, the malware aimed to infect the master boot record, installing a payload which encrypts Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection file tables of the NTFS file system the next time that the infected system boots, blocking the system from booting into Windows at all until the ransom is paid. Check Point reported that despite what it believed to be an innovative evolution in ransomware design, it had resulted in relatively-fewer infections than other ransomware active around the same time frame.[102]

On 27 June 2017, a heavily modified version of Petya was used for a global cyberattack primarily targeting Ukraine (but affecting many countries[103]). This version had been modified to propagate using the same EternalBlue exploit that was used by WannaCry. Due to another design change, it is also unable to actually unlock a system after the ransom is paid; this led to security analysts speculating that the attack was not meant to generate illicit profit, but to simply cause disruption.[104][105]

Bad Rabbit[edit]

On 24 October 2017, some users in Russia and Ukraine reported a new ransomware attack, named "Bad Rabbit", which follows a similar pattern to WannaCry and Petya by encrypting the user's file tables and then demands a Bitcoin payment to decrypt them. ESET believed the ransomware to have been distributed by a bogus update to Adobe Flash software.[106] Among agencies that were affected by the ransomware were: Interfax, Odesa International Airport, Kyiv Metro, and the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine.[107] As it used corporate network structures to spread, the ransomware was also discovered in other countries, including Turkey, Germany, Poland, Japan, South Korea, and the United States.[108] Experts believed the ransomware attack was tied to the Petya attack in Ukraine (especially because Bad Rabbit's code has many overlapping and analogical elements to the code of Petya/NotPetya,[109] appending to CrowdStrike Bad Rabbit and NotPetya's DLL (dynamic link library) share 67 percent of the same code[110]) though the only identity to the culprits are the names of characters from the Game of Thrones series embedded within the code.[108]

Security experts found that the ransomware did not use the EternalBlue exploit to spread, and a simple method to inoculate an unaffected machine running older Windows versions was found by 24 October 2017.[111][112] Further, the sites that had been used to spread the bogus Flash updating have gone offline or removed the problematic files within a few days of its discovery, effectively killing off the spread of Bad Rabbit.[108]

SamSam[edit]

In 2016, a new strain of ransomware emerged that was targeting JBoss servers.[113] This strain, named "SamSam", was found to bypass the process of phishing or illicit downloads in favor of exploiting vulnerabilities on weak servers.[114] The malware uses a Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection Desktop Protocolbrute-force attack to guess weak passwords until one is broken. The virus has been behind attacks on government and healthcare targets, with notable hacks occurring against the town of Farmington, New Mexico, the Colorado Department of Transportation, Davidson County, North Carolina, and most recently, a major breach of security on the infrastructure of Atlanta.[114]

Mohammad Mehdi Shah Mansouri (born in Qom, Iran in 1991) and Faramarz Shahi Savandi (born in Shiraz, Iran, in 1984) are wanted by the FBI for allegedly launching SamSam ransomware.[115] The two have allegedly made $6 million from extortion and caused over $30 million in damages using the malware.[116]

[edit]

On May 7, 2021 a cyberattack was executed on the US Colonial Pipeline. The Federal Bureau of Investigation identified DarkSide as the perpetrator of the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack, perpetrated by Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection code, that led to a voluntary shutdown of the main pipeline supplying 45% of fuel to the East Coast of the United States. The attack was described as the worst cyberattack to date on U.S. critical infrastructure. DarkSide successfully extorted about 75 Bitcoin (almost US$5 million) from Colonial Pipeline. U.S. officials are investigating whether the attack was purely criminal or took place with the involvement of the Russian government or another state sponsor. Following the attack, DarkSide posted a statement claiming that "We are apolitical, we do not participate in geopolitics.Our goal is to make money and not creating problems for society."

On May 10, SentinelOne published an analysis of the DarkSide Ransomware attack, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection.

In May 2021, the FBI and Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency issued a joint alert urging the NIUBI Partition Editor 7.4.0 with Crack and Keygen [Latest] Free Download 2021 and operators of critical infrastructure to take certain steps to reduce their vulnerability to DarkSide ransomware and ransomware in general.

Syskey[edit]

Syskey is a utility that was included with Windows NT-based operating systems to encrypt the user account database, optionally with a password. The tool has sometimes been effectively used as ransomware during technical support scams—where a caller with remote access to the computer may use the tool to lock the user out of their computer with a password known only to them.[117] Syskey was removed from later versions of Windows 10 and Windows Server in 2017, due to being obsolete and "known to be used by hackers as part of ransomware scams".[118][119]

Ransomware-as-a-service[edit]

Ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) became a notable method after the Russia-based[120] or Russian-speaking[121] group REvil staged operations against several targets, including the Brazil-based JBS S.A. in May 2021, and the US-based Kaseya Limited in July 2021.[122] After a July 9, 2021 phone call between United States president Joe Biden and Russian president Vladimir Putin, Biden told the press, "I made it very clear to him that the United States expects when a ransomware operation is coming from his soil even though it’s not sponsored by the state, we expect them to act if we give them enough information to act on who that is." Biden later added that the United States would take the group's servers down if Putin did not.[123][124] Four days later, REvil websites and other infrastructure vanished from the internet.[125]

Mitigation[edit]

If an attack is suspected or detected in its early stages, it takes some time for encryption to take place; immediate removal of the malware (a relatively simple process) before it has completed would stop further damage to data, without salvaging any already lost.[126][127]

Security experts have suggested precautionary measures for dealing with ransomware. Using software or other security policies to block known payloads from launching will help to prevent infection, but will not protect against all attacks[25][128] As such, having a proper backup solution is a critical component to defending against ransomware. Note that, because many ransomware attackers will not only encrypt the victim's live machine but it will also attempt to delete any hot backups stored locally or on accessible over the network on a NAS, it's also critical to maintain "offline" backups of data stored in locations inaccessible from any potentially infected computer, such as external storage drives or devices that do not have any access to any network (including the Internet), prevents them from being accessed by the ransomware. Moreover, if using a NAS or Cloud storage, then the computer should have append-only permission to the destination storage, such that it cannot delete or overwrite previous backups. According to comodo, applying two Attack Surface Reduction on OS/Kernal provides materially reduced attack surface which results in heightened security posture.[129][130][131]

Installing security updates issued by software vendors can mitigate the vulnerabilities leveraged by certain strains to propagate.[132][133][134][135][136] Other measures include cyber hygiene − exercising caution when opening e-mail attachments and links, network segmentation, and keeping critical computers isolated from networks.[137][138] Furthermore, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection mitigate the spread of ransomware measures of infection control can be applied.[139] Such may include disconnecting infected machines from all networks, educational programs,[140] effective communication channels, malware surveillance[original research?] and ways of collective participation[139]

File system defenses against ransomware[edit]

A number of file systems keep snapshots of the data they hold, which can be used to recover the contents of files from a time prior to the ransomware attack in the event the ransomware does not disable it.

  • On Windows, the Volume shadow copy (VSS) is often used to store backups of data; ransomware often targets these snapshots to prevent recovery and therefore it is often advisable to disable user access to the user tool VSSadmin.exe to reduce the risk that ransomware can disable or delete past copies.
  • On Windows 10, users can add specific directories or files to Controlled Folder Access in Windows Defender to protect them from ransomware.[141] It is advised to add backup and other important directories to Controlled Folder Access.
  • Unless malware gains root on the ZFS host system in deploying an attack coded to issue ZFS administrative commands, file servers running ZFS are broadly immune to ransomware, because ZFS is capable of snapshotting even a large file system many times Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection hour, and these snapshots are immutable (read only) and easily rolled back or files recovered in the event of data corruption.[142] In general, only an administrator can delete (but cannot modify) snapshots.

File decryption and recovery[edit]

There are a number of tools intended specifically to decrypt files locked by ransomware, although successful recovery may not be possible.[2][143] If the same encryption key is used for all files, decryption tools use files for which there are both uncorrupted backups and encrypted copies (a known-plaintext attack in the jargon of cryptanalysis. But, it only works when the cipher the attacker used was weak to begin with, being vulnerable to known-plaintext attack); recovery of the key, if it is possible, may take several days.[144] Free ransomware decryption tools can help decrypt files encrypted by the following forms of ransomware: AES_NI, Alcatraz Locker, Apocalypse, BadBlock, Bart, BTCWare, Crypt888, CryptoMix, CrySiS, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, EncrypTile, FindZip, Globe, Hidden Tear, Jigsaw, LambdaLocker, Legion, NoobCrypt, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, Stampado, SZFLocker, TeslaCrypt, XData.[145]

In addition, old copies of Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection may exist on the disk, which has been previously deleted. In some cases, these deleted versions may still be recoverable using software designed for that purpose.

Growth[edit]

Ransomware malicious software was first confined to one or two countries in Eastern Europe and subsequently spread across the Atlantic to the United States and Canada.[146] The number of cyberattacks during 2020 was double that of 2019.[147] The first versions of this type of malware used various techniques to disable the computers[146] by locking the victims system machine (Locker Ransomware) [133]. Ransomware uses different tactics to extort victims. One of the most common methods is locking the device's screen by displaying a message from a branch of local law enforcement alleging that the victim must pay a fine for illegal activity. The ransomware may request a payment by sending an SMS message to a premium rate number. Some similar variants of the malware display pornographic image content and demanded payment for the removal of it.[146]

By 2011 ransomware tactics had evolved. Attackers began using electronic Serial number photoshop 2019 crack methods as well as language localization to the affected device.

Corporations, private entities, governments, and hospitals can be affected by these malicious attacks. In 2016, a significant uptick in ransomware attacks on hospitals was noted. According to the 2017 Internet Security Threat Report from Symantec Corp, ransomware affected not only IT systems but also patient care, clinical operations, and billing. Online criminals may be motivated by the money available and sense of urgency within the healthcare system.[148]

Ransomware is growing rapidly across the internet users but also for the IoT environment[146] which creates a challenging problem to the INFOSEC while increasing the attack surface area. They are evolving into more sophisticated attacks and, they are becoming more resistant; at the same time, they are also more accessible than ever. Today, for a cheap price, the attackers have access to ransomware as a service. The big problem is that millions of dollars are lost by some organizations and industries that have decided to pay, such as the Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center and the MedStar Health.[149] At the end, the pressure to offer services to the patients and keep their lives is so critical that they are forced to pay, and the attacker knows that. The problem here is that by paying the ransom, they are funding the cybercrime.

According to Symantec 2019 ISTR report, for the first time since 2013, in 2018 there was an observed decrease in ransomware activity with a drop of 20 percent. Before 2017, consumers were the preferred victims, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, but in 2017 this changed dramatically, it moved to the enterprises. In 2018 this path accelerated with 81 percent infections which represented a 12 percent increase.[150] The common distribution method today is based on email campaigns.

The first reported death following a ransomware attack was at a German hospital in October 2020.[151]

An effective and successful cyber awareness training program must be sponsored from the top of the organization with supporting policies and procedures which effectively outline ramifications of non-compliance, frequency of training and a process for acknowledgement of training. Without sponsorship from the “C-level” executives the training cannot be ignored.  Other factors that are key to a successful Cyber Awareness Training program is to establish a baseline identifying the level of knowledge of the organization to establish where the users are in their knowledge prior to training and after. Whichever approach an organization decides to implement, it is important that the organization has policies and procedures in place that provide training that is up to date, performed frequently and has the backing of the entire organization from the top down.

Investment in technology to detect and stop these threats must be maintained, but along with that we need to remember and focus on our weakest link, which is the user.

Criminal arrests and convictions[edit]

Zain Qaiser[edit]

A British student, Zain Qaiser, from Barking, London was jailed for more than six years at Kingston Crown Court for his ransomware Windows 7 Enterprise 32/64bit crack serial keygen in 2019.[152] He is said to have been "the most prolific cyber criminal to be sentenced in the UK". He became active when he was only 17. He contacted the Russian controller of one of the most powerful attacks, believed to be the Lurk malware gang, and arranged for a split of his profits. He also contacted online criminals from China and the US to move the money. For about one and a half years, he posed as a legitimate supplier of online promotions of book advertising on some of the world's most visited legal pornography websites. Each of the adverts that was promoted on the websites contained the Reveton Ransomware strain of the malicious Angler Exploit Kit (AEK)[153] that seized control of the machine. Investigators discovered about £700,000 of earnings, although his network may have earned more than £4m. He may have hidden some money using cryptocurrencies. The ransomware would instruct victims to buy GreenDot MoneyPak vouchers, and enter the code in the Reveton panel displayed on the screen. This money entered a MoneyPak account managed by Qaiser, who would Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection deposit the voucher payments into an American co-conspirator's debit card—that of Raymond Odigie Uadiale, who was then a student at Florida International University during 2012 and 2013 and later worked for Microsoft. Uadiale would convert the money into Liberty Reserve digital currency and deposit it into Qaiser's Liberty Reserve account.[154]

A breakthrough in this case occurred in May 2013 when authorities from several countries seized the Liberty Reserve servers, obtaining access to all its transactions and account history. Qaiser was running encrypted virtual machines on his Macbook Pro with both Mac and Windows operating systems.[155] He could not be tried earlier because he was sectioned under the UK Mental Health Act at Goodmayes Hospital (where he was found to be using the hospital Wi-Fi to access his advertising sites.) His lawyer claimed that Qaiser had suffered from mental illness.[152] Russian police arrested 50 members of the Lurk malware gang in June 2016.[156] Uadiale, a naturalized US citizen of Nigerian descent, was jailed for 18 months.[157]

Freedom of speech challenges and criminal punishment[edit]

The publication of proof-of-concept attack code is common among academic researchers and vulnerability researchers. It teaches the nature of the threat, conveys the gravity of the issues, and enables countermeasures to be devised and put into place. However, lawmakers with the support of law-enforcement bodies are contemplating making the creation of ransomware illegal. In the state of Maryland, the original draft of HB 340 made it a felony to create ransomware, punishable by up to 10 years in prison.[158] However, this provision was removed from the final version of the bill.[159] A minor in Japan was arrested for creating and distributing ransomware code.[160] Young and Yung have had the ANSI C source code to a ransomware cryptotrojan on-line, at cryptovirology.com, since 2005 as part of a cryptovirology book being written. The source code to the cryptotrojan is still live on the Internet and is associated with a draft of Chapter 2.[161]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Financial Institutions and Customer Information: Complying with the Safeguards Rule

Many companies collect personal information from their customers, including names, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, addresses, and phone numbers; bank and credit card account numbers; income and credit histories; and Social Security numbers. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley (GLB) Act requires companies defined under the law as “financial institutions” to ensure the security and confidentiality of this type of information. As part of its implementation of the GLB Act, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued the Safeguards Rule, which requires financial institutions under FTC jurisdiction to have measures in place to keep customer information secure. But safeguarding customer information isn’t just the law. It also makes good business sense. When you show customers you care about the security of Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection personal information, you increase their confidence in your company. The Rule is available at ftc.gov.

Who Must Comply?

The definition of “financial institution” includes many businesses that may not normally describe themselves that way. In fact, the Rule applies to all businesses, regardless of size, that are “significantly engaged” in providing financial products or services. This includes, for example, check-cashing businesses, payday lenders, mortgage brokers, nonbank lenders, personal property or real estate appraisers, professional tax preparers, and courier services. The Safeguards Rule also applies to companies like credit reporting agencies and ATM operators that receive information about the customers of other financial institutions. In addition to developing their own safeguards, companies covered by the Rule are responsible for taking steps to ensure that their affiliates and service providers safeguard customer information in their care.
For more information on whether the Safeguards Rule applies to your company, consult section 313.3(k) of the GLB Privacy Rule and the Financial Activities Regulations. Both are available at www.ftc.gov/enforcement/rules/rulemaking-regulatory-reform-proceedings/privacy-consumer-financial-information.

How To Comply

The Safeguards Rule requires companies to develop a written information security plan that describes their program to protect customer information. The plan must be appropriate to the company’s size and complexity, the nature and scope of its activities, and the sensitivity of the customer information it handles. As part of its plan, each company must:

  • designate one or more employees to coordinate its information security program;
  • identify and assess the risks to customer information in each relevant area of the company’s operation, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current safeguards for controlling these risks;
  • design and implement a safeguards program, and regularly monitor and test it;
  • select service providers that can maintain appropriate safeguards, make sure your contract requires them to maintain safeguards, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, and oversee their handling of customer information; and
  • evaluate and adjust the program in light of relevant circumstances, including changes in the firm’s business or operations, or the results of security testing and monitoring.

The requirements are designed to be flexible. Companies should implement safeguards appropriate to their own circumstances. For example, some companies may choose to put their safeguards program in a single document, while others may put their plans in several different documents — say, one to cover an information technology division and another to describe the training program for employees. Similarly, a company may decide to designate a single employee to coordinate safeguards or may assign this responsibility to several employees who will work together. In addition, companies must consider and address any unique risks raised by their business operations — such as the risks raised when employees access customer data from their homes or other off-site locations, or when customer data is transmitted electronically outside the company network.

Securing Information

The Safeguards Rule requires companies to assess and address the risks to customer information in all areas of their operation, including three areas that are particularly important to information security: Employee Management and Training; Information Systems; and Detecting and Managing System Failures. One of the early steps companies should take is to determine what information they are collecting and storing, and whether they have a business need to do so. You can reduce Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection risks to customer information if you know what you have and keep only what you need.

Depending on the nature Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection their business operations, firms should consider implementing the following practices:
Employee Management and Training. The success of your information security plan depends largely on the employees who implement it. Consider:

  • Checking references or doing background checks before hiring employees who will have access to customer information.
  • Asking every new employee to sign an agreement to follow your company’s confidentiality and security standards for handling customer information.
  • Limiting access to customer information to employees who have a business reason Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection see it. For example, give employees who respond to customer inquiries access to customer files, but only to the extent they need it to do their jobs.
  • Controlling access to sensitive information by requiring employees to use “strong” passwords that must be changed on a regular basis. (Tough-to-crack passwords require the use of at least six characters, upper- and lower-case letters, and a combination of letters, numbers, and symbols.)
  • Using password-activated screen savers to lock employee computers after a period of inactivity.
  • Developing policies for appropriate use and protection of laptops, PDAs, cell phones, or other mobile devices. For example, make sure employees store these devices in a secure place when not in use. Also, consider that customer information in encrypted files will be better protected in case of theft of such a device.
  • Training employees to take basic steps to maintain the security, confidentiality, and integrity of customer information, including:
    • Locking rooms and file cabinets where records are kept;
    • Not sharing or openly posting employee passwords in work areas;
    • Encrypting Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection customer information when it is Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection electronically via public networks;
    • Referring calls or other requests for customer information to designated individuals who have been trained in how your company safeguards personal data; and
    • Reporting suspicious attempts to obtain customer information to designated personnel.
  • Regularly reminding all employees of your company’s policy — and the legal requirement — to keep customer information secure and confidential. For example, consider posting reminders about their responsibility for security in areas where customer information is stored, like file rooms.
  • Developing policies for employees who telecommute. For example, consider whether or how employees should be allowed to keep or access customer data at home. Also, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, require employees who use personal computers to store or access customer data to use protections against viruses, spyware, and other unauthorized intrusions.
  • Imposing disciplinary measures for security policy violations.
  • Preventing terminated employees from accessing customer information by immediately deactivating their passwords and user names and taking other appropriate measures.
    Information Systems. Information systems include network and software design, and information processing, storage, transmission, retrieval, and disposal. Here are some suggestions on maintaining security throughout the life cycle of customer information, from data entry to data disposal:
  • Know where sensitive customer information is stored and store it securely. Make sure only authorized employees have access. For example:
    • Ensure that storage areas are protected against destruction or damage from physical hazards, like fire or floods.
    • Store records in a room or cabinet that is locked when unattended.
    • When customer information is stored on a server or other computer, ensure that the computer is accessible only with a “strong” password and is kept in a physically-secure area.
    • Where possible, avoid storing sensitive customer data on a computer with an Internet connection.
    • Maintain secure backup records and keep archived data secure by storing it off-line and in a physically-secure area.
    • Maintain a careful inventory of your company’s computers and any other equipment on which customer information may be stored.
  • Take steps to ensure the secure transmission of customer information. For example:
    • When you transmit credit card information or other sensitive financial data, use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or other secure connection, so that the information is protected in transit.
    • If you collect information online directly from customers, make secure transmission automatic. Caution customers against transmitting sensitive data, like account numbers, via email or in response to an unsolicited email or pop-up message.
    • If you must transmit sensitive data by email over the Internet, be sure to encrypt the data.
  • Dispose of customer information in a secure way and, where applicable, consistent with the FTC’s Disposal Rule. For example:
    • Consider designating or hiring a records retention manager to supervise the disposal of records containing customer information. If you hire an outside disposal company, conduct due diligence beforehand by checking references or requiring that the company be certified by a recognized industry group.
    • Burn, pulverize, or shred papers containing customer information so that the information cannot be read or reconstructed.
    • Destroy or erase data when disposing of computers, disks, CDs, magnetic tapes, hard drives, laptops, PDAs, cell phones, or any other electronic media or hardware containing customer information.
      Detecting and Managing System Failures. Effective security management requires your company to deter, detect, and defend against security breaches. That means taking reasonable steps to prevent attacks, quickly diagnosing a security incident, and having a plan in place for responding effectively. Consider implementing the following procedures:
  • Monitoring the websites of your software vendors and reading relevant industry publications for news about emerging threats and available defenses.
  • Maintaining up-to-date and appropriate programs and controls to prevent unauthorized access to customer information. Be sure to:
    • check with software vendors regularly to get and install patches that resolve software vulnerabilities;
    • use anti-virus and anti-spyware software that updates automatically;
    • maintain up-to-date firewalls, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, particularly if you use a broadband Internet connection or allow employees to connect to your network from home or other off-site locations;
    • regularly ensure that ports not used for your business are closed; and
    • promptly pass along information and instructions to employees regarding any new security risks or possible breaches.
  • Using appropriate oversight or audit procedures to detect the improper disclosure or theft of customer information. It’s wise to:
    • keep logs of activity on your network and monitor them for signs of unauthorized access to customer information;
    • use an up-to-date intrusion detection system to alert you of attacks;
    • monitor both in- and out-bound transfers of information for indications of a compromise, such as unexpectedly large amounts of data being transmitted from your system to an unknown user; and
    • insert a dummy account into each of your customer lists and monitor the account to detect any unauthorized contacts or charges.
  • Taking steps to preserve the security, confidentiality, and integrity of customer information in the event of a breach. If a breach occurs:
    • take immediate action to secure any information that has or may have been compromised. For example, if a computer connected to the Internet is compromised, disconnect the computer from the Internet;
    • preserve and review files or programs that may reveal how the breach occurred; and
    • if feasible and appropriate, bring in security professionals to help assess the breach as soon as possible.
  • Considering notifying consumers, law enforcement, and/or businesses in the event of a security breach. For example:
    • notify consumers if their personal information is subject to a breach that poses a significant risk of identity theft or related harm;
    • notify law enforcement if the breach may involve criminal activity or there is evidence that the breach has resulted in identity theft or related harm;
    • notify the credit bureaus and other businesses that may be affected by the breach. See Information Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection and the Risk of Identity Theft: Guidance for Your Business; and
    • check to see if breach notification is required under applicable state law.

For More Information

Additional guidance is available at www.ftc.gov/privacy/glbact. Resources at that site may alert you to new risks to information security and give people whose information may have been compromised important first-things-first advice for responding. Visit www.onguardonline.gov for information that can help you train your employees in safe computing practices on the job and at home. In addition, Trading Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection, the following organizations have information to help you implement appropriate safeguards for your customer data:

The FTC works for the consumer to prevent fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair business practices in the marketplace and to provide information to help consumers spot, stop, and avoid them. To file a complaint or to get free information on consumer issues, visit ftc.gov or call toll-free, 1-877-FTC-HELP (1-877-382-4357); TTY: 1-866-653-4261. The FTC enters consumer complaints into the Consumer Sentinel Network, a secure online database and investigative tool used by hundreds of civil and criminal law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and abroad.

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