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The Devil you know returns in this brand new entry in the over-the-top action series available on the PC. Prepare to get downright demonic with this signature blend of high-octane stylized action and otherworldly & original characters the series is known for. Director Hideaki Itsuno and the core team have returned to create the most insane, technically advanced and utterly unmissable action experience of this generation!
The threat of demonic power has returned to menace the world once again in Devil May Cry 5. The invasion begins when the seeds of a “demon tree” take root in Red Grave City. As this hellish incursion starts to take over the city, a young demon hunter Nero, arrives with his partner Nico in their “Devil May Cry” motorhome. Finding himself without the use of his right arm, Nero enlists Nico, a self-professed weapons artist, to design a variety of unique mechanical Devil Breaker arms to give him extra powers to take on evil demons such as the blood sucking flying Empusa and giant colossus enemy Goliath.
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As human-induced earthquakes increase in frequency and magnitude, researchers race to uncover their effects on surface water and groundwater.
Researchers trace the origin of a 2015 iceberg to a crack that formed deep beneath the ice.
Scientists use a new remote-controlled robot to capture data from the middle of an open ocean typhoon.
Coastal wetland loss after an oil spill can be more extensive than after a hurricane.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the only ocean current to circle the planet and the largest wind-driven current on Earth. It's also 30% more powerful than scientists realized.
More clustering of clouds due to higher temperatures increases the likelihood of heavy downpours.
As floods become more frequent around the globe, scientists work to pinpoint what puts certain regions at risk.
The current warming trend could mean the collapse of ocean's global conveyor belt, which would have far-reaching effects on climate around the world. But this collapse could still be avoided.
The seasonality of fine-scale, near-surface ocean dynamics raises important considerations for an upcoming satellite mission to measure global sea surface height.
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Pictures of African Americans During World War II
World War II began over 80 years ago and as we continue to honor those Americans who undoubtedly and courageously contributed to the defense of our nation, we often overlook in our remembrances the valiant efforts of African Americans. Throughout the war years they repeatedly had to battle adversaries on two fronts: the enemy overseas and racism at home. African-Americans recognized the paradox of fighting a world war for the "four freedoms'' while being subjected to prejudicial practices in the United States. Thus, as the war unfolded, they vehemently insisted on the privileges of full citizenship. African-Americans were ready to work and fight for their country, but at the same time they demanded an end to the discrimination against them.
To that end, over 2.5 million African-American men registered for the draft, and black women volunteered in large numbers. While serving in the Army, Army Air Forces, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, they experienced continuing discrimination and segregation. Despite these impediments, many African-American men and women met the challenge and persevered. They served with distinction, made valuable contributions to the war effort, and earned well-deserved praise and commendations for their struggles and sacrifices.
On the homefront, African-Americans also did their part to support the war. They worked in war industries and in government wartime agencies, sold war bonds, voluntarily conserved goods needed for the war, performed civil defense duties, encouraged troops by touring camps as entertainers, risked their lives on the front lines to report the war, and performed many other vital services.
The images described on this page illustrate African-American participation in World War II. The pictures were selected from the holdings of the Still Picture Branch (RRSS) of the National Archives and Records Administration. The majority of the pictures were chosen from the records of the Army Signal Corps (Record Group 111), Department of the Navy (Record Group 80), Coast Guard (Record Group 26), Marine Corps (Record Group 127) and the Office of War Information (Record Group 208).
The pictures are first grouped by the five military branches and then by subject headings entitled Merchant Marine, Women in the Military, Training, Rest and Relaxation, Personalities, and the Homefront.
Whenever possible, original captions are used and appear in quotation marks; however, no attempt was made to verify completely the accuracy of all the information included in these captions. Obvious errors and misspellings were corrected, but no effort was made to standardize identification of military ranks, which were cited by photographers in various ways. The captions also reflect the fact that the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) was renamed the Women's Army Corps (WAC) in July 1943, and the Air Corps (AC), after a reorganization, became the Army Air Forces (AAF) in March 1942.
Many of the captions were edited for length, and extraneous information and pejorative terms were eliminated. Conversely, information was sometimes added to help the reader understand a caption. Within an original caption, this additional material appears in brackets. When no caption was available, one was created. If the photographers, artists, locations, or dates of the photograph were known, they also are listed. Following all of this information in the caption are local identification numbers followed by a link to the National Archives Identifier (NAID), which will direct you to the photo’s digitized file via NARA’s online catalog. The selected photographs are in the public domain.
Barbara Lewis Burger researched, selected, and arranged the items for this list and wrote the introductory information in 1993. Additional updates to this introduction were made as recently as May 2021.
Some of the terms used at the time may now be considered to be outdated, inaccurate, derogatory, disrespectful, or culturally insensitive. NARA does not alter, edit, or modify original captions, as they are part of the historical record and reflect and document the standard language, attitudes, and biases at the time.
1. "On parade, the 41st Engineers at Ft. Bragg, NC in color guard ceremony." N.D. National Archives Identifier: 535822, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4HHH-2
2. "An MP on motorcycle stands ready to answer all calls around his area. Columbus, Georgia." April 13, 1942. Pfc. Victor Tampone. National Archives Identifier: 531136, Local Identifier: 111-SC-134951.
3. "A company of men has set up its office between the columns (Doric) of an ancient Greek temple of Neptune, built about 700 B.C." At desk, front to rear: Sgts. James Shellman, Gilbert A. Terry, John W. Phoenix, Curtis A. Richardson, and Leslie B. Wood. In front of desk, front to rear: T/Sgt. Gordon A. Scott, M/Sgt. Walter C. Jackson, Sgt. David D. Jones, and WO Carlyle M. Tucker. Italy. September 22, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531170, Local Identifier: 111-SC-181588.
4. "Three soldiers of the United States Army sit in place at a radar used by the 90th Coast Artillery in Casablanca, French Morocco." June 19, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531325, Local Identifier: 111-SC-223413.
5. "A kitchen was set up along the beach for the...labor battalion unloading the boats. This picture shows a couple of the men enjoying a hot meal for a change. Massacre Bay, Attu, Aleutian Islands." May 20, 1943. T/5 Vincent A. Wallace. National Archives Identifier: 531159, Local Identifier: 111-SC-174129.
6. "Negro soldiers draw rations at the camp cook house at their station in Northern Ireland. Detachments of Negro troops were among the latest arrivals with the American forces in Northern Ireland." Ca. August 1942. Acme. National Archives Identifier: 535544, Local Identifier: 208-AA-46G-1.
7. "... American Army Engineer task force in Liberia find themselves in a land from which their ancestors came. Wash day and Pvt. Jack David scrubs out his things on top of a table made from native trees." Ca. July 1942. Fred Morgan. National Archives Identifier: 531144, Local Identifier: 111-SC-150980-B.
8. "Negro members of the 477th Antiaircraft Artillery, Air Warning Battalion, study maps in the operations section at Oro Bay, New Guinea." November 15, 1944. Pvt. Edward Grefe. National Archives Identifier: 531348, Local Identifier: 111-SC-305909.
9. "U.S.-built Army trucks wind along the side of the mountain over the Ledo supply road now open from India into Burma..." n.d. National Archives Identifier: 535540, Local Identifier: 208-AA-45L-1.
10. "A U.S. Army soldier and a Chinese soldier place the flag of their ally on the front of their jeep just before the first truck convoy in almost three years crossed the China border en route from Ledo, India, to Kunming, China, over the Stilwell road." February 6, 1945. Sgt. John Gutman. National Archives Identifier: 535573, Local Identifier: 208-AA-338A-1.
11. "Two soldiers gather up their baggage as transportation arrives to take them to their outfit on Guam. Another soldier sits disconsolately awaiting further orders of transportation." August 4, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535552, Local Identifier: 208-AA-63HH-1.
12. "... troops in Burma stop work briefly to read President Truman's Proclamation of Victory in Europe." May 9, 1945. S/Sgt. Yarnell. National Archives Identifier: 531341, Local Identifier: 111-SC-262229.
13. "Seeking to rescue a Marine who was drowning in the surf at Iwo Jima, this sextet of Negro soldiers narrowly missed death themselves when their amphibian truck was swamped by heavy seas. From left to right, back row, they are T/5 L. C. Carter, Jr., Private John Bonner, Jr., Staff Sergeant Charles R. Johnson. Standing, from left to right, are T/5 A. B. Randle, T/5 Homer H. Gaines, and Private Willie Tellie." March 11, 1945. S/Sgt. W. H. Feen. National Archives Identifier: 532547, Local Identifier: 127-N-114329.
14. "Negro troops of the 24th Infantry, attached to the Americal Division, wait to advance behind a tank assault on the Jap[anese], along Empress Augusta Bay on Bougainville." 1944. National Archives Identifier: 531254, Local Identifier: 111-SC-202491.
15. "Sgt. John C. Clark...and S/Sgt. Ford M. Shaw...(left to right) clean their rifles in bivouac area alongside the East West Trail, Bougainville. They are members of Co. E, 25th Combat Team, 93rd Division..." April 4, 1944. Lt. Schuman. National Archives Identifier: 531404, Local Identifier: 111-SC-364565.
16. "Cautiously advancing through the jungle, while on patrol in Japanese territory off the Numa-Numa Trail, this member of the 93rd Infantry Division is among the first Negro foot soldiers to go into action in the South Pacific theater." May 1, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 531184, Local Identifier: 111-SC-189381-S.
17. "Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, U.S. Third Army commander, pins the Silver Star on Private Ernest A. Jenkins of New York City for his conspicuous gallantry in the liberation of Chateaudun, France..." October 13, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535724, Local Identifier: 208-FS-3489-2.
18. "Pvt. Jonathan Hoag,...of a chemical battalion, is awarded the Croix de Guerre by General Alphonse Juin, Commanding General of the F.E.C., for courage shown in treating wounded, even though he, himself, was wounded. Pozzuoli area, Italy." March 21, 1944. Rutberg. National Archives Identifier: 531182, Local Identifier: 111-SC-188939.
19. "These drivers of the 666th Quartermaster Truck Company, 82nd Airborne Division, who chalked up 20,000 miles each without an accident, since arriving in the European Theater of Operations." Left to right: T/5 Sherman Hughes, T/5 Hudson Murphy, Pfc. Zacariah Gibbs. Ca. May 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535533, Local Identifier: 208-AA-32P-3.
20. "Lt. Gen. Joseph T. McNarney, Deputy Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater, inspects Honor Guard of MPs during his tour of the Fifth Army front at the 92nd Division Sector." January 4, 1945. Yaskell. National Archives Identifier: 531415, Local Identifier: 111-SC-380271.
21. "Easter morning, T/5 William E. Thomas...and Pfc. Joseph Jackson...will roll specially prepared eggs on Hitler's lawn." March 10, 1945. 1st Lt. John D. Moore. National Archives Identifier: 531253, Local Identifier: 111-SC-202330.
22. "Members of Battery A, 4520 AA stand by and check their equipment while the convoy takes a break." November 9, 1944. Musae. National Archives Identifier: 531222, Local Identifier: 111-SC-196212-S.
23. "Pvt. William A. Reynolds..., an ambulance driver exhibits a .50-caliber machine gun bullet which lodged above the windshield of his vehicle when he was strafed by a German plane while driving at the front in France..." 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535536, Local Identifier: 208-AA-32P-18.
24. "Two smiling French soldiers fill the hands of American soldiers with candy, in Rouffach, France, after the closing of the Colmar pocket." February 5, 1945. Todd. National Archives Identifier: 531247, Local Identifier: 111-SC-199861-S.
25. "A platoon of Negro troops surrounds a farm house in a town in France, as they prepare to eliminate a German sniper holding up an advance. Omaha Beachhead, near Vierville-sur-Mer, France." June 10, 1944. Todd. National Archives Identifier: 531188, Local Identifier: 111-SC-190120.
26. "Volunteer combat soldiers prepare for a day's training in preparation for shipment to veteran units at front lines in Germany." February 28, 1945. Edgren. National Archives Identifier: 531357, Local Identifier: 111-SC-337901.
27. "Cpl. Carlton Chapman...is a machine-gunner in an M-4 tank, attached to a Motor Transport unit near Nancy, France." 761st Mt. Bn. November 5, 1944. Ryan. National Archives Identifier: 531221, Local Identifier: 111-SC-196106-S.
28. "... troops of a field artillery battery emplace a 155mm howitzer in France. They have been following the advance of the infantry and are now setting up this new position." June 28, 1944. Rothenberger. National Archives Identifier: 531198, Local Identifier: 111-SC-191890-S.
29. "T/5 Dexter Clayton...and M/Sgt. Nelson T. Ewing...are tying wire to pole after sag is taken up. France." July 25, 1944. Gallo. National Archives Identifier: 531197, Local Identifier: 111-SC-191834-S.
30. "This mine detector crew is demonstrating what they do before going to work on or around telephone poles in France." Left to right: M/Sgt. Bennie Burns, Sgt. Vincent MacNeill, Sgt. Frank Mack, Pfc. Riggles McCutcheon, T/Sgt. John A. Barbee, and Sgt. Thomas G. Alexander. July 13, 1944. Norton. National Archives Identifier: 531193, Local Identifier: 111-SC-191360-S.
31. "Soldiers of the 161st Chemical Smoke Generating Company, U.S. Third Army, move a barrel of oil in preparation to refilling an M-2 smoke generator, which spews forth a heavy cloud of white smoke. These men are engaged in laying a smoke screen to cover bridge building activities across the Saar River near Wallerfangen, Germany." December 11, 1944. Rothenberger. National Archives Identifier: 531229, Local Identifier: 111-SC-197552.
32. "Pvts. George Cofield...and Howard J. Davis...guard a newly-constructed bridge site over the Rhine River, built by U.S. Ninth Army Engineers." March 30, 1945. T/5 H. R. Weber and Pfc. Sperry. National Archives Identifier: 531273, Local Identifier: 111-SC-204770.
33. "Crews of U.S. light tanks stand by awaiting call to clean out scattered Nazi machine gun nests in Coburg, Germany." April 25, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535534, Local Identifier: 208-AA-32P-10.
34. "Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond, Commanding General of the 92nd Infantry (`Buffalo') Division in Italy, inspects his troops during a decoration ceremony." Ca. March 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535547, Local Identifier: 208-AA-47Y-1.
35. "Members of a Negro mortar company of the 92nd Division pass the ammunition and heave it over at the Germans in an almost endless stream near Massa, Italy. This company is credited with liquidating several machine gun nests..." ca. November 1944. Acme. National Archives Identifier: 535546, Local Identifier: 208-AA-47U-6.
36. "Tricky Nazi captured. German prisoner wearing civilian clothes, sits in jeep at south gate of walled city of Lucca, Italy, awaiting removal to a rear area." Ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535566, Local Identifier: 208-AA-305A-2.
37. "Pfc. Robert Askew...with the 3278th Quartermaster Company, examines overshoes which have been turned in. Overshoes proved their worth and helped prevent trench foot during the rains." April 8, 1944. Lapidus. National Archives Identifier: 531412, Local Identifier: 111-SC-371005.
38. "Body of American soldier is borne on stretcher from terrain in vicinity of Malmedy, Belgium, where on or about 17 December 1944, the Germans committed many atrocities." ca. December 1944. Taylor. National Archives Identifier: 532956, Local Identifier: 153-WC-1-19.
39. "This Negro combat patrol advanced three miles north of Lucca (furthermost point occupied by American troops) to contact an enemy machine gun nest. Here a bazooka-man cuts loose at the target some 300 yards distant." September 7, 1944. Edwards. National Archives Identifier: 531216, Local Identifier: 111-SC-194328.
40. "Negro `doughfoots' of the 92nd Infantry (`Buffalo') Division pursue the retreating Germans through the Po Valley. German forces in Italy have since capitulated unconditionally." Ca. May 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535550, Local Identifier: 208-AA-49E-1-13.
41. "Genoa, Italy. In this newly liberated city the 92nd Division troops enter the Galleria Guiseppe [sic] Garibaldi." April 27, 1945. Leviton. National Archives Identifier: 531355, Local Identifier: 111-SC-337144.
42. "Capt. Ezekia Smith, 370th Inf. Regt., 92nd Div., receives treatment at the 317th Collecting Station, for shell fragments in face and shoulders suffered near Querceta, Italy. Here, surgeon stitches the wound. Fifth Army, Pietrasanta Area, Italy." February 10, 1945. Bull. National Archives Identifier: 531332, Local Identifier: 111-SC-236685.
Army Air Forces
43. "Howard A. Wooten." Graduated December 1944 from Air Corps School, Tuskegee, AL. Ca. December 1944. National Archives Identifier: 512886, Local Identifier: 18-T-44-K-17.
44. "Members of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the Army Air Forces, famous all-Negro outfit, who are rapidly making themselves feared by enemy pilots, pose for a picture at the Anzio beachhead. In the foreground, head bared, is 1st Lt. Andrew Lane." Ca. February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520624, Local Identifier: 80-G-54413.
45. "1909th Engineers Aviation Battalion (Negro) aboard LST 683. " August 15, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520691, Local Identifier: 80-G-337464.
46. "With an officer giving them pointers from a giant map, pilots of an American P-51 Mustang fighter-bomber group learn their `target for today' during a briefing at a base in Italy. Both the map and the briefing chart (right) indicate another objective in Germany will soon be on the receiving end of their bullets and bombs. The men are members of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, whose planes fly as part of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force." Ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535766, Local Identifier: 208-MO-18K-32983.
47. "Fliers of a P-51 Mustang Group of the 15th Air Force in Italy `shoot the breeze' in the shadow of one of the Mustangs they fly." Left to right: Lt. Dempsey W. Morgan, Jr.; Lt. Car roll S. Woods; Lt. Robert H. Nelson, Jr.; Capt. Andrew D. Turner; and Lt. Clarence P. Lester. Ca. August 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535842, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6XXX-1.
48. "Pilots of a U.S. Army Air Forces fighter squadron, credited with shooting down 8 of the 28 German planes destroyed in dog-fights over the new Allied beachheads south of Rome, on Jan. 27, talk over the day's exploits at a U.S. base in the Mediterranean theater. Negro members of this squadron, veterans of the North African and Sicilian campaigns, were formerly classmates at a university in the southern U.S." February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535763, Local Identifier: 208-MO-18H-22051.
49. "American pilots of a P-51 Mustang fighter group, whose planes are named after wild horses that once roamed the U.S., listen intently as they are briefed for a mission at a base in Italy. Like cavalrymen of old, they ride down the enemy in their flying steeds and have destroyed German installations and personnel throughout Europe. They are members of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, whose fighters and bombers are part of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force, which also includes British, French, and Polish fliers." Ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535788, Local Identifier: 208-N-32987.
50. "[Capt. Andrew D. Turner], who in a few minutes will be escorting heavy bombers en route to enemy targets, signals to the chief of his ground crew before taking off from a base in Italy. He is a member of the 15th U.S. Army Air Force, which has been smashing enemy objectives in Germany and the Balkans with both fighter and bomber craft. The pilot's plane, a Mustang, is named for a type of wild horse that once roamed in America." ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535765, Local Identifier: 208-MO-18K-32981.
51. "Lt. Andrew D. Marshall, pilot in a Negro fighter group of the Mediterranean Allied Air Force had his plane shot up by flak during a strafing mission over Greece before the Allied invasion. When he came down all that was left of the plane was his engine and himself. But he only suffered some bruises and cuts. Greeks hid him from the Nazis, then directed him to the British forces when they parachuted into Greece. Here Lt. Marshall tells an American pilot of the 51st Troop Carrier Wing of his harrowing experience." ca. October 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535556, Local Identifier: 208-AA-102E-5.
52. "Members of the Nation's first Negro Navigation Cadets, who will receive their commissions in the Army Air Forces on February 26th, visited City Hall as guests of Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia this afternoon. They are shown on the steps of City Hall as the mayor greeted their commanding officer, Maj. Galen B. Price." February 16, 1944. Acme. National Archives Identifier: 535936, Local Identifier: 208-PU-113M-26.
53. "Capts. Lemuel R. Custis (left) and Charles B. Hall, of the 99th Fighter Squadron of the U.S. Army Air Forces, chat while on leave in New York City. Their all-Negro squadron first went into action in North Africa on June 4, 1943, and is now closely supporting Allied ground forces advancing in Italy. The fighter group flies all types of combat missions--bomber escort, dive bombing, patrol for beachheads, and strafing. In one year, the squadron has made more than 3,000 sorties and has shot down 17 planes, scored 3 probables and damaged 6 other planes." Ca. June 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535767, Local Identifier: 208-MO-120H-29054.
54. "1st Lt. Lee Rayford...who has returned to the United States from Italy where he served with the 99th Fighter Squadron. The nature of his assignment here has not been announced. Other pilots formerly assigned to the 99th now back in America include 1st Lts. Walter I. Lawson, Charles W. Dryden, Graham Smith and Louis R. Purnell." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535836, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6EEE-1.
55. "An armorer of the 15th U.S. Air Force checks ammunition belts of the .50 caliber machine guns in the wings of a P-51 Mustang fighter plane before it leaves an Italian base for a mission against German military targets. The 15th Air Force was organized for long range assault missions and its fighters and bombers range over enemy targets in occupied and satellite nations, as well as Germany itself." Ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535764, Local Identifier: 208-MO-18H-32984.
56. "Members of the ground crew of a Negro fighter squadron of the 15th U.S. Air Force in Italy place a loaded wing tank on a P-51 Mustang before the group takes off on another mission escorting bombers over enemy targets. The squadron uses the auxiliary fuel tanks for long distance flights." Left to right: T/Sgt. Charles K. Haynes, S/Sgt. James A. Sheppard, and M/Sgt. Frank Bradley. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535549, Local Identifier: 208-AA-49E-1-3.
57. "Sharing credit for Negro fighter pilots' victory over Nazis are mechanics George Johnson...and James C. Howard... . Their outfit, the 99th Fighter Squadron, bagged 12 Nazi fighter planes in two days." Ca. February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535548, Local Identifier: 208-AA-49E-1-1.
58. "Capt. Wendell O. Pruitt..., one of the leading pilots of the 15th Air Force always makes sure that he leaves his valuable ring with his crew chief, S/Sgt. Samuel W. Jacobs." Ca. November 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535541, Local Identifier: 208-AA-46BB-4.
59. "Staff Sgt. William Accoo..., crew chief in a Negro group of the 15th U.S. Air Force, washes down the P-51 Mustang fighter plane of his pilot with soap and water before waxing it to give it more speed." Ca. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535543, Local Identifier: 208-AA-46BB-30.
60. "Staff Sgt. Alfred D. Norris...crew chief of a Negro fighter group of the 15th U.S. Air Force, closes the canopy of a P-51 Mustang for his pilot, Capt. William T. Mattison...operations officer of the squadron based in Italy." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535542, Local Identifier: 208-AA-46BB-6.
61. "Staff officers of an...Air Corp Squadron near Fez, French Morocco. Left to right: Lt. Col. Benjamin O. Davis, C.O.; Capt. Hayden C. Johnson, Adjutant; Capt. E. Jones, Service Det.; Lt. Wm. R. Thompson, Armaments; Lt. Hervert E. Carter, Engineers; Lt. Erwin B. Lawrence, Operations; Lt. George R. Currie, Ordnance." May 12, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531174, Local Identifier: 111-SC-184968.
62. "Jackie Wilson (left) and Ray Robinson have fought two bitterly contested ring encounters. Now it's Sgt. Wilson and Pvt. Robinson in the same Aviation Squadron at Mitchel Field, New York, and they stand shoulder to shoulder--ready for a fight to the death on the Axis." 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535945, Local Identifier: 208-PU-214B-5.
63. "The crew of the U.S. Navy submarine chaser [PC 1264] salutes the United States flag as the 173-foot long escort vessel is commissioned in a U.S. East Coast port. As soon as they qualify through experience and training, eight members of the crew of 53 Negro sailors will replace the present chief petty officers." May 1, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535785, Local Identifier: 208-N-26553.
64. "Negro sailors of the U.S.S. Mason (DE 529) commissioned at Boston Navy Yard on 20 Mar. 1944 proudly look over their ship which is the first to have [a] predominately Negro crew." March 20, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520644, Local Identifier: 80-G-218861.
65. "A gun crew of six Negroes who were given the Navy Cross for standing by their gun when their ship was damaged by enemy attack in the Philippine area." Crew members: Jonell Copeland, AtM2/c; Que Gant, StM; Harold Clark, Jr., StM; James Eddie Dockery, StM; Alonzo Alexander Swann, StM; and Eli Benjamin, StM. Ca. 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520688, Local Identifier: 80-G-334029.
66. "Negro messmen aboard a United States Navy cruiser who volunteered for additional duty as gunners. They have been doing proficient work under battle conditions on a task force in the Pacific under the instruction of the officers at the right." July 10, 1942. National Archives Identifier: 520597, Local Identifier: 80-G-21743.
67. "His crew sank a German submarine." U.S.S. Otter (DE 210). Ca. March 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535845, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7HHH-1.
68. "Capt. H. W. Taylor making award presentations aboard U.S.S. Cowpens (CVL 25). Fred Magee, Jr., St3/c USN, receiving commendation of the Secretary of the Navy." The commendation was for attempting to rescue, at a risk to his own life, a shipmate from drowning. October 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520664, Local Identifier: 80-G-291220.
69. "Charlie Dunston, S1/c, amputee case at the Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, PA..." August 1, 1945. Ens. Thomas Binford. National Archives Identifier: 520698, Local Identifier: 80-G-377110.
70. Children aboard the SS Jean Lafitte, bound for the States with internees freed from a Japanese internment camp in the Philippines, gather around Pendleton (Bumblebee) Thompson. Thompson volunteered as cook in the camp where they were interned. Ca. April 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520635, Local Identifier: 80-G-128907.
71. "Coxswain William Green observes safety precautions in checking his pistol while Albert S. Herbert, Quartermaster first class..., stands by with a clip of ammunition and holster belt, ready to complete the formalities." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535844, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7CCC-1.
72. "Enlisted men serving on Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides...placing 6-inch shells in magazines at the Naval Ammunition Depot." From left to right: S1/c Dodson B. Samples, S1/c Raymond Wynn, S1/c Edward L. Clavo, and S1/c Jesse Davis. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 520631, Local Identifier: 80-G-123941.
73. "... entrance to the U.S. Navy Base Camp Annex, Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides." Guards on duty: S1/c Dook Bland and S1/c Taft Gray. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 520632, Local Identifier: 80-G-123962.
74. "Construction of the prefabricated steel storage warehouse [by members of the 34th Construction Bn.] at Halavo Seaplane Base, Florida Island [Solomon Islands]." September 19, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 520629, Local Identifier: 80-G-89138.
75. "M. D. Shore, S1/c, operating a forklift truck at the Navy supply depot at Guam, Marianas." June 8, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520685, Local Identifier: 80-G-330221.
76. "Halavo Seaplane Base, Florida Island, Solomons, plumbing department personnel. The entire front row except the CPO are natives..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 518842, Local Identifier: 71-SB-28-3.
77. "34th CBs working on purification of their water supply at Solomon Islands." Ca. August 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520640, Local Identifier: 80-G-203393.
78. "Enlisted men aboard the U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14) hear the news of Japan's surrender." August 14, 1945. Lt. B. Gallagher. National Archives Identifier: 520868, Local Identifier: 80-G-469544.
79. "Group of recently appointed Negro officers." Left to right, front row: Ensigns George Clinton Cooper, Graham Edward Martin, Jesse Walter Arbor, John Walter Reagan, Reginald Ernest Goodwin. Back row, left to right, Ensigns Phillip George Barnes, Samuel Edward Barnes, Dalton Louis Baugh, James Edward Hare, Frank Ellis Sublett, and WO Charles Byrd Lear. February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520671, Local Identifier: 80-G-300215.
80. "Lt. Cmdr. Grady Avent, USNR, Commanding Officer at the Navy's largest Negro base, Manana Barracks, Hawaii, inspects plans presented by Public Works Officer, Lt. Edward S. Hope, USNR, [right] Navy's highest ranking Negro officer." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535854, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8E-1.
81. "A dispensary at a Naval ammunition depot in the Marianas. Prevention against a case of sore throat. Patient--Dan Kennedy, S1/c, `Dr.' Stanton B. Shaw, PhM2/c, who is in charge." June 8, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520684, Local Identifier: 80-G-330215.
82. "Group of CBs acting as stretcher bearers for the 7th Marines. Peleliu." September 1944. Sgt. McBride. National Archives Identifier: 532537, Local Identifier: 127-N-96475.
83. "Leading petty officers of one of the Navy's new Logistics Support Companies... This company is undergoing combat training by Service Force Advance Base Section at a station on Oahu Island prior to their departure for duty in a combat area." Left to right, front row: Boatswain Mate Second Class James W. Chase and Coxswain John D. Perry. Left to right, back row: Coxswains Raymond C. Vaultz, Elmer Williams, Darrel M. Beech, and Jimmie Cook. May 10, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535537, Local Identifier: 208-AA-43TT-1.
84. "E. Perry, Seaman 1/c, is splicing steel cable... This is a highly specialized naval activity. Some of the most constructive work at any naval command is performed by the `riggers.'" May 17, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535850, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7QQ-6.
85. "Looking to sea from the signal bridge is Napoleon Reid, Seaman 2/c., USNR, shown standing on lookout watch on a ship somewhere in the Pacific." March 19, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535846, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7III-1.
86. "William Baldwin, first Navy Negro recruit for General Service." June 2, 1942. National Archives Identifier: 535852, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8B-2.
87. "Crewmen aboard U.S.S. Tulagi (CVE-72) en route to southern France for Aug. 15th invasion. Miles Davis King, StM 2/c, carrying a loaded magazine to his 20mm gun." August 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520763, Local Identifier: 80-G-417623.
88. "Negro mechanics work on PBY at NAS Seattle, WA, Alvin V. Morrison, AMM 3/c, doing overhaul." April 27, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520648, Local Identifier: 80-G-233274.
89. "Richard Salter, CK 3/c, a talker of a gun station, aboard the U.S.S. Tulagi (CVE-72) off the coast of southern France." August 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. National Archives Identifier: 520858, Local Identifier: 80-G-468780.
90. "Steward's mates joke as they dry silverware in the wardroom of U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14)." November 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. National Archives Identifier: 520869, Local Identifier: 80-G-469560.
91. "... [The] tug YTM 466, operating out of the Mine Warfare School, Yorktown, VA. Her captain is T. Perdue, Boatswain Mate 1/c..." May 17, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535848, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7QQ-4.
92. A deck hand loops a manila line. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535849, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7QQ-5.
US Marine Corps
93. Photograph of Marine Howard P. Perry at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Original Caption: "Breaking a tradition of 167 years, the U.S. Marine Corps started enlisting Negroes on June 1, 1942. The first class of 1,200 Negro volunteers began their training 3 months later as members of the 51st Composite Defense Battalion at Montford Point, a section of the 200-square-mile Marine Base, Camp Lejeune, at New River, NC." National Archives Identifier: 535870, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10KK-1.
94. "The first Negro to be commissioned in the Marine Corps has his second lieutenant's bars pinned on by his wife. He is Frederick C. Branch of Charlotte, NC." November 1945. National Archives Identifier: 532577, Local Identifier: 127-N-500043.
95. "Handling Negro Marine public relations at the Montford Point Camp here are Sgt. Lucious A. Wilson (left)..., and his photographer, Cpl. Edwin K. Anderson... Sgt. Wilson is a former correspondent for the New York Amsterdam News...." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535867, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10FFFF-1.
96. "Marine Cpl. Robert L. Hardin...checks the main distributing frame in Montford Point's headquarters for line difficulties." N.d. Sgt. L. A. Wilson. National Archives Identifier: 532515, Local Identifier: 127-N-8768.
97. "... Although a dress uniform is not a part of the regular equipment, most of the Negro Marines spend $54 out of their pay for what is generally considered the snappiest uniform in the armed services... Photo shows a group of the Negro volunteers in their dress uniforms." Ca. May 1943. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535871, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10NN-2.
98. "First Negro Marines decorated by the famed Second Marine Division somewhere in the Pacific (left to right) Staff Sgt Timerlate Kirven...and Cpl. Samuel J. Love, Sr... They received Purple Hearts for wounds received in the Battle of Saipan..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535872, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10SSSS-1.
99. "Pfc. Luther Woodward..., a member of the Fourth Ammunition Company, admires the Bronze Star awarded to him for `his bravery, initiative and battle-cunning.' ..." The award was later upgraded to the Silver Star. April 17, 1945. Cpl. Irving Deutch. National Archives Identifier: 532553, Local Identifier: 127-N-119492.
100. "Marines, following the rapid Japanese retreat northward on Okinawa, pause for a moments rest at the base of a Japanese war memorial. They are (on steps) Pfc. F. O. Snowden; Navy Pharmacist's Mate, 2nd class R. Martin; (on monument, left to right) Pvt. J. T. Walton, Pvt. R. T. Ellenberg, Pfc. Clyde Brown, Pvt. Robb Brawner. Photo was taken during the battle for Okinawa." April 12, 1945. Cpl. Art Sarno. National Archives Identifier: 532550, Local Identifier: 127-N-117624.
101. "Peleliu Island...Marines move through the trenches on the beach during the battle." September 15, 1944. Fitzgerald. National Archives Identifier: 532535, Local Identifier: 127-N-9527.
102. "Iwo Jima...Negro Marines on the each at Iwo Jima are, from left to right, Pfcs. Willie J. Kanody, Elif Hill, and John Alexander." March 1945. C. Jones. National Archives Identifier: 532546, Local Identifier: 127-N-11383.
103. "Negro Marines, attached to the Third Ammunition Company, take time out from supplying ammunition to the front line on Saipan. Riding captured...bicycle is Pfc. Horace Boykin; and left to right, Cpl. Willis T. Anthony, Pfc. Emmitt Shackelford, and Pfc. Eugene Purdy." June 1944. National Archives Identifier: 532531, Local Identifier: 127-N-8600.
104. "Aboard a Coast Guard-manned transport..., a Negro Marine, Robert Stockman, goes over his carbine with Coast Guardsmen." Ca. February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 513195, Local Identifier: 26-G-321.
105. "Aboard a Coast Guard-manned transport somewhere in the Pacific, these Negro Marines prepare to face the fire of Jap[anese] gunners." Ca. February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 513197, Local Identifier: 26-G-321.
106. "Surrounded by a veteran crew of Marines who have spent 15 months in the Southwest and Central Pacific, this gun, named the 'Lena Horne' by its crew, points majestically skyward. The gun is manned by members of [the 51st] Defense Battalion, one of two such Negro units in the Corps." 1945. Nicholson. National Archives Identifier: 532556, Local Identifier: 127-N-12174.
107. "Two Negro Marine movie operators." January 1945. National Archives Identifier: 532539, Local Identifier: 127-N-109561.
108. "Two Negro duck [DUKW] drivers turn riflemen after their vehicle is destroyed." February 19, 1945. Christian. National Archives Identifier: 532545, Local Identifier: 127-N-111123.
109. "Marine Sgt. F. Smit...and Cpl. S. Brown...open a coconut to get a cool drink on Saipan." June 1944. National Archives Identifier:
532391, Local Identifier: 127-GW-1359-85636.
110. "Carrying a Jap[anese] prisoner from stockade to be evacuated and treated for malnutrition. Iwo Jima." February 23, 1945. Don Fox. National Archives Identifier: 532544, Local Identifier: 127-N-110622.
111. "Negro assault troops await orders D-day to attack enemy shortly after they had come ashore at Saipan in the Marianas." June 1944. T/Sgt. William Fitch. U.S. Coast Guard. National Archives Identifier: 532528, Local Identifier: 127-N-83928.
112. "Coast Guardsman Aught Guttery, Jr., first class Steward's Mate,...is shown aboard the Coast Guard-manned assault transport on which he served during the initial landings at Guam." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535864, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8WWW-9.
113. "Coast Guardsman Charles Tyner, Fireman first class, examines the jagged shrapnel hole in the helmet he wore during the initial assault on the beaches of Southern France... Tyner suffered just a superficial scratch... ." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513183, Local Identifier: 26-G-2748.
114. "Two Coast Guard officers brave the wintry blasts of snow aboard a Coast Guard cutter on the North Atlantic patrol. The officers who give their cheery greetings despite the icy weather are Lt.(jg.) Clarence Samuels (right) and Ens. J.J. Jenkins (left)..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513211, Local Identifier: 26-G-3686.
115. "Five steward's mates stand at their battle stations, as a gun crew aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate in the southwest Pacific. On call to general quarters, these Coast Guardsmen man a 20mm AA gun. They are, left to right, James L. Wesley, standing with a clip of shells; L. S. Haywood, firing; William Watson, reporting to bridge by phone from his gun captain's post; William Morton, loading a full clip, assisted by Odis Lane, facing camera across gun barrel." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513214, Local Identifier: 26-G-3797.
116. "... crew members who man the 20mm guns of a Coast Guard fighting ship have won an enviable reputation for gunnery results, due primarily to incessant practice in assembly and operation. As expressed by the intent faces in this picture, these men play for keeps." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513191, Local Identifier: 26-G-3154.
117. Coast Guardsman. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535862, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8WWW-3.
118. "... crew of a 20mm gun aboard a Coast Guard fighting ship are hanging up some new records for speed and accuracy. Left to right: Daniel Moore, Walter L. Bottoms, William Wheeler, and Rudolph C. Grimes, all Steward's Mates, second class." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513190, Local Identifier: 26-G-3151.
119. "Two Ohio Coast Guardsmen [John R. Smith, on the left, and Daniel J. Kaczorowski] stand at their gun aboard a Coast Guard-manned invasion transport on which they served during the invasion of Normandy." Smith, steward's mate, third class, also served during assaults against North Africa, Sicily, and Italy. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513179, Local Identifier: 26-G-2624.
120. "Coast Guardsman George W. Steele...is serving aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate in the North Pacific... [He] has been stationed with his vessel for the past 16 months." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535859, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8UUU-1.
121. "A startling change is affected by Coast Guardsman Dorall Austin, Steward's Mate third class, at the alarm of general quarters aboard his Coast Guard assault transport somewhere in the Pacific. With the enemy sighted Austin springs from his duty in the ship's galley to his battle station as a gunner..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535860, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8UUU-2.
122. "Coast Guardsman Marvin Sanders, Fireman first class,... is presently serving in the engine room of a Coast Guard manned Army repair ship doing a vital job repairing the invading fleet in the southwest Pacific." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535863, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8WWW-8.
123. "... These Negro members of a Coast Guard Horse Patrol unit patrol beaches in the New Jersey area in all kinds of weather. Left to right: Seamen first class C. R. Johnson, Jesse Willis, Joseph Washington, and Frank Garcia." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535853, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8CCC-1.
124. "Coast Guardsman Joseph K. Noel, Radioman third class, is pictured on duty aboard a Coast Guard-manned frigate doing patrol duties in the North Pacific." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535861, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8VVV-5.
125. "Coast Guardsman Levern Robinson, Seaman first class, is shown at work in the ship's laundry, aboard a Coast Guard manned troop transport operating in the Atlantic. The transport is engaged in bringing home our victorious fighting men from liberated Europe for well-earned leaves and reassignments." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535865, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8WWW-10.
126. "These Coast Guardsmen, crew members of a Coast Guard combat cutter, help patrol sea lanes and protect convoys bound for the European battle zone. Left to right: Atwood Taylor, Steward's Mate first class; Richard U. Mitchell, Steward's Mate first class; R. E. Bird, Jr., Steward's Mate second class; Robert Woldon, Steward's Mate first class; Grover Taylor, Steward's Mate first class; [and] Jacob A. Lawrence, Steward's Mate second class, who is also the ship's artist." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535856, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8LLL-1.
127. "Captain and crew of a new Liberty Ship [SS Booker T. Washington] just after it completed its maiden voyage to England. (L-R) C. Lastic, Second Mate; T. J. Young, Midshipman; E. B. Hlubik, Midshipman; C. Blackman, Radio Operator; T. A. Smith, Chief Engineer; Hugh Mulzac, Captain of the ship; Adolphus Fokes, Chief Mate; Lt. H. Kruley; E. P. Rutland, Second Engineer; and H. E. Larson, Third Engineer." Captain Hugh Mulzac is fourth from the left on the first row. February 8, 1943. Baum. National Archives Identifier: 531168, Local Identifier: 111-SC-180665.
128. "Reginald Brandon...recently completed the eight-month course in Radio Operations and Maintenance at Gallup's Island [MA] Radio Training School of the Maritime Commission. He is the first Negro graduate of the school. . . . Upon assignment he will have the rank of ensign." N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535829, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5P-1.
129. "Ens. Joseph Banks Williams...first Negro to graduate from the U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps, has been assigned to active duty on the S.S. Booker T. Washington..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535833, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5R-1.
130. "Members of a `CHECKERBOARD' crew that brought a Liberty Ship from the U.S. to England, fondle their mascot `BOOKER.' (L-R) R. C. Woods, A. M. Mulzac, W. B. Shepard, and S. O'Neil." February 6, 1943. Baum. National Archives Identifier: 531167, Local Identifier: 111-SC-180663.
131. A seaman with the U.S. Maritime Service. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535819, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3ZZ-4.
132. Two U.S. Maritime Service seamen in front of a 4th War Loan poster. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535818, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3ZZ-3.
133. "Artist George Wright, an American merchant seaman, presents to Russian Captain Orset Chevstov a painting depicting a Soviet woman war worker and an American seaman unloading a U.S. Lend-Lease tank at a Soviet port..." August 18, 1944. Wide World Photos. National Archives Identifier: 535787, Local Identifier: 208-N-31563.
134. A mariner in the U.S. Maritime Service. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535817, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3ZZ-2.
135. "Lt.(jg.) Stanly Marlowe Smith, U.S. Maritime Service; [Mrs. Marion H. Elliott] Assistant Executive Secretary of the National Council of Negro Women; and Mrs. B.L. Derrick, Chairman." Lt. Smith is pictured at a war bond rally in Washington, DC, where he spoke and was honored. August 8, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 542396, Local Identifier: 357-G-83-4308.
136. "... Clifford R. Jenkins, Jr... After a course at the Cooks and Bakers School at the U.S. Maritime Training Base, Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn [NY],...is now baking for merchant seamen aboard the [SS] Patrick Henry, first Liberty Ship launched." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 542398, Local Identifier: 357-G-93-548.
137. "Capt. Clifton Lastic, Master of Liberty Ship [SS] Bert Williams chats with Joe Curran, President of N.M.U. [National Maritime Union]." The SS Bert Williams is named for an African-American comedian. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 542397, Local Identifier: 357-G-86-510.
138. "Aboard a Victory ship en route to the Pacific war zone, Chief Mate Earl Stanfield coaches Bos'n Maxie Weisbarth (with whiskers) in mysteries of navigation." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 542399, Local Identifier: 357-G-98-5728.
139. "Arnold R. Fesser, oiler, 17 years at sea: `We got a big job to do until this war is won. We will keep them sailing until the end. Then we have got time for holidays." October 14, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 542400, Local Identifier: 357-G-203-4690.
140. The launching party for the SS Harriet Tubman. June 3, 944.Guy Nicholas. National Archives Identifier: 535828, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5E-3.
Women in the Military
141. "U.S. Army nurses, newly arrived, line the rail of their vessel as it pulls into port of Greenock, Scotland, in European Theater of Operations. They wait to disembark as the gangplank is lowered to the dock." August 15, 1944. Meyer. National Archives Identifier: 531204, Local Identifier: 111-SC-192605-S.
142. "Surgical ward treatment at the 268th Station Hospital, Base A, Milne Bay, New Guinea. Left to right: Sgt. Lawrence McKreever, patient; 2nd Lt. Prudence Burns, ward nurse; 2nd Lt. Elcena Townscent, chief surgical nurse; and an unidentified nurse." June 22, 1944. Pfc. Michael Pitcairn. National Archives Identifier: 530771, Local Identifier: 111-SC-287482.
143. "Pfc. Johnnie Mae Welton, Negro WAC, laboratory technician trainee, conducts an experiment in the serology laboratory sf the Fort Jackson Station Hospital, Fort Jackson, SC." March 20, 1944.Jensen. National Archives Identifier: 531360, Local Identifier: 111-SC-341534.
144. "WAACs at work in Temp. Bldg. `M', 26th Street, Washington, DC, WAAC Headquarters. Left to right: Lts. Harriet West and Irma Cayton,...going over their recruiting schedule report." 1942.Wilfred Morgan. National Archives Identifier: 531139, Local Identifier: 111-SC-144958.
145. "Auxiliaries Ruth Wade and Lucille Mayo (left to right) further demonstrate their ability to service trucks as taught them during the processing period at Fort Des Moines and put into practice at Fort Huachuca, Arizona." December 8, 1942. Oster. National Archives Identifier: 531153, Local Identifier: 111-SC-162466.
146. "... WAAC cooks prepare dinner for the first time in new kitchen at Fort Huachuca, Arizona." December 5, 1942.Oster. National Archives Identifier: 531152, Local Identifier: 111-SC-162454.
147. "Capt. Della H. Raney, Army Nurse Corps, who now heads the nursing staff at the station hospital at Camp Beale, CA, has the distinction of being the first Negro nurse to report to yuty in the present war..." April 11, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535942, Local Identifier: 208-PU-161K-1.
148. "The first Negro WACs to arrive [on] the continent of Europe were 800 girls of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Bn, who had also been the first to arrive in England. After the battalion had set up its facilities at Rouen, France, it held an `open house', which was attended by hundreds of Negro soldiers. Pvt. Ruth L. James,...of the battalion area is on duty at the gate." May 26, 1945.Pfc. Stedman. National Archives Identifier: 531333, Local Identifier: 111-SC-237072.
149. "Somewhere in England, Maj. Charity E. Adams,...and Capt. Abbie N. Campbell,...inspect the first contingent of Negro members of the Women's Army Corps assigned to overseas service." 6888th Central Postal Directory Bn. February 15, 1945. Holt. National Archives Identifier: 531249, Local Identifier: 111-SC-200791.
150. "Members of the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion take part in a parade ceremony in honor of Joan d'Arc at the marketplace where she was burned at the stake." May 27, 1945.Pfc. Stedman. National Archives Identifier: 531431 & 175539237, Local Identifier: 111-SC-426441.
151. "The `Top-Kick' looks them over at Camp Shanks, New York, Transportation Corps staging area of the New York Port of Embarkation. Tech. Sgt. Tommye Berry, Acting 1st Sgt. of the Negro WAC group..." April 16, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535929, Local Identifier: 208-PU-10D-7.
152. "Lt. Florie E. Gant...tends a patient at a prisoner-of war hospital somewhere in England." October 7, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 531495, Local Identifier: 112-SGA-Nurses-44-1676.
153. "A company of Negro WAACs was reviewed by the Hon. Lester A. Walton, U.S. Minister to Liberia, recently on a visit to an American camp near Monrovia [Liberia]. The WAACs are shown as they lined up for review." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535837, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6KKK-5.
154. "Willa Beatrice Brown, a 31-year-old Negro American, serves her country by training pilots for the U.S. Army Air Forces. She is the first Negro woman to receive a commission as a lieutenant in the U.S. Civil Air Patrol." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535717, Local Identifier: 208-FS-793-1.
155. "Two Negro SPARS pause on the ladder of the dry-land ship `U.S.S. Neversail' during their `boot' training at the U.S. Coast Guard Training Station, Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn, NY. They are recent enlistees and have the ratings of apprentice seamen. In front is SPAR Olivia Hooker and behind her is SPAR Aileen Anita Cooks." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535869, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10K-1.
156. "Inspecting a Grumman Wildcat engine on display at the U.S. Naval Training School (WR) Bronx, NY, where she is a `boot' is WAVE Apprentice Seaman Frances Bates." 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520638, Local Identifier: 80-G-183373.
157. "Hospital Apprentices second class Ruth C. Isaacs, Katherine Horton and Inez Patterson (left to right) are the first Negro WAVES to enter the Hospital Corps School at National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, MD." March 2, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520634, Local Identifier: 80-G-126506.
158. "Cmdr. Thomas A. Gaylord, USN (Ret'd), administers oath to five new Navy nurses commissioned in New York..." Phyllis Mae Dailey, the Navy's first African-American nurse, is second from the right. March 8, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520618, Local Identifier: 80-G-48365.
159. "Lt.(jg.) Harriet Ida Pickens and Ens. Frances Wills, first Negro Waves to be commissioned. They were members of the final graduating class at Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School (WR) Northampton, MA." December 21, 1944.Cropped view. National Archives Identifier: 520670, Local Identifier: 80-G-297441.
160. "Sixteen Negro soldiers recently won the coveted `wings' of the U.S. Army paratroopers at Fort Benning, in the southern U.S. state of Georgia. The picture shows some of them riding high in a C-47 transport plane preparing to make one of the required five qualifying jumps." March 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535719, Local Identifier: 208-FS-1783-1.
161. "Just after stepping out of Ft. Benning [GA] Theater No. 4 at the conclusion of the 16th O.C.S. graduating exercises, 2nd Lts. Henry C. Harris, Jr.; Frank Frederick Doughton; Elmer B. Kountze; and Rogers H. Beardon (behind) start pinning their brass bars on each others shoulders." May 29, 1942. Golz. National Archives Identifier: 531137, Local Identifier: 111-SC-137679.
162. "Lt. B. Holmes instructing cadres in the art of parry and long thrust in bayonet practice. Left to right: T/Sgt. Leroy Smith, Pvt. George W. Jones, and Sgt. Leo Shorty, look on." 92d Division, Fort McClellan, AL. November 1942. National Archives Identifier: 531140, Local Identifier: 111-SC-147979.
163. "A squad of non-coms, cadres of the 92nd Division, get a refresher course in charging through smoke. When the main body of troops arrives it will be up to the cadres to train them." Fort McClellan, AL. November 1942. National Archives Identifier: 531141, Local Identifier: 111-SC-147998.
164. "Men of the Sixteenth Battalion, crack all-Negro training unit at the Field Artillery Replacement Center, Fort Bragg, NC, are shown in their daily rifle calisthenics. After nine weeks training the men have developed a rhythm and precision in these body building exercises that is seldom equalled by more experienced troops." February 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531155, Local Identifier: 111-SC-166875.
165. "Address of welcome to [Army Air Corps] cadets in front of Booker T. Washington Monument on the grounds of Tuskegee Institute." Tuskegee, AL. August 1941. National Archives Identifier: 531132, Local Identifier: 111-SC-122432.
166. "[Army Air Corps] cadets reporting to Captain B[enjamin] O. Davis, Jr. commandant of cadets." Tuskegee Field, AL. September 1941. National Archives Identifier: 531133, Local Identifier: 111-SC-122434.
167. "Officer returns salute as he passes the cadets lined up during review." Tuskegee Field, AL. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535831, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5QQ-6.
168. "Basic and advanced flying school for Negro Air Corps cadets, Tuskegee, Alabama... In the center is Capt. Roy F. Morse, Air Corps... He is teaching the cadets how to send and receive code." On the left, from front to rear: James B. Knighten, Lee Rayford, and C. H. Flowers. On the right, from front to rear: George Levi Knox, Sherman W. White, and Mac Ross. January 1942. Wilfred Morgan. National Archives Identifier: 535830, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5QQ-3.
169. "Pilots at Selfridge Field [MI] learn to carry out bombing missions as they would carry them out under actual combat conditions. These pilots are being briefed for a practice raid." Ca. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535963, Local Identifier: 208-VM-1-5-68A.
170. "Negro pilots in one of the flight formations which will soon carry them over enemy territory. Here they are flying the shark-nosed P-40 fighter aircraft." Selfridge Field, MI. Ca. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535964, Local Identifier: 208-VM-1-5-69G.
171. "Negro recruits at Manhattan Beach Training Station, [NY]." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513165, Local Identifier: 26-G-142-2114.
172. "... George C. Fields, 32, points proudly to the honor certificate presented him yesterday at graduation exercises for the tenth Negro class to be graduated from the Navy's Service Schools at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Fields served as President Roosevelt's valet for four years before entering the Navy." Ca. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535847, Local Identifier: 208-NP-7QQ-2.
173. "As a landing barge noses onto the beach, members of the Negro Seabee Battalion clamber ashore. This assault training is supplemental to the Seabees' chief work as construction crews for the U.S. Navy." Ca. December 1942. National Archives Identifier: 535776, Local Identifier: 208-N-570.
174. "CQM L. J. Russell, USNR, teaching navigation to Charles W. Divers, QM2c; Royal H. Gooden, QM2c; Lewis F. Blanton, QM3c; Calvin Bell, QM2c at NTS Norfolk, VA. Their ship (now being constructed) will be U.S.S. Mason (DE 529)." January 3, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520611, Local Identifier: 80-G-44828.
175. "Carlton J. Dearborn, S2c [cements a stringer on the fuselage of balsam model of Stuka Dive Bomber at Camp Smalls, U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Dearborn teaches sailors to identify enemy and Allied aircraft]." March 13, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 520667, Local Identifier: 80-G-294792.
176. "Steward's Mates School at NAS Seattle, WA. Marching under the direction of Chief Steward Robert Nargrove." April 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520647, Local Identifier: 80-G-233266.
177. "A platoon of Negro `boot recruits' listen to their drill instructor [Sgt. Gilbert Hubert Johnson] whose job is to turn them into finished Marines." Montford Point Camp, NC. Ca. April 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535866, Local Identifier: 208-NP-10FF-1.
178. "Judo instruction is one of the high spots in the life of the latest addition to the Leatherneck Marines here. An instructor shows a recruit how to make the enemy's bayonet useless. Cpl. Arvin Lou Ghazlo, USMC, giving judo instructions to Pvt. Ernest C. Jones, USMCR." Montford Point Camp, NC. April 1943. National Archives Identifier: 532513, Local Identifier: 127-N-5334.
179. "A trio of recruits in training to take their places as fighting Leathernecks in the U.S. Marine Corps, run the rugged obstacle course at Camp Lejeune, NC [Montford Point Camp]. The Marine recruits have shown such excellent results in their aptitudes and leadership capacities that an expanded Navy recruiting program is now underway." April 1943. Pat Terry. National Archives Identifier: 532514, Local Identifier: 127-N-5335.
180. Two recruits in a light tank during training in mechanized warfare at Montford Point Camp, NC. April 1943. Pat Terry. National Archives Identifier: 532512, Local Identifier: 127-N-5320-B.
181. "Under the direction of Swimming Instructor, Marine Pfc. Paul Tolliver..., Leathernecks in training at Montford Point Camp learn the correct movements for the breaststroke." November 1944. Anderson. National Archives Identifier: 532367, Local Identifier: 127-GC-404-8276.
182. "Marines receiving instruction in the Demolition Course at Montford Point Camp [NC], during intensive combat training in preparation for action in the Pacific." February 1945. Sgt. L. A. Wilson. National Archives Identifier: 532516, Local Identifier: 127-N-9019.
183. "American Negro nurses, commissioned second lieutenants in the U.S. Army Nurses Corps, limber up their muscles in an early-morning workout during an advanced training course at a camp in Australia. The nurses, who already had extensive training in the U.S., will be assigned to Allied hospitals in advanced sectors of the southwest Pacific theater." February 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535782, Local Identifier: 208-N-2296.
184. "WAAC Capt. Charity Adams of Columbia, NC, who was commissioned from the first officer candidate class, and the first of her group to receive a commission, drills her company on the drill ground at the first WAAC Training Center, Fort Des Moines, Iowa." May 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531334, Local Identifier: 111-SC-238651.
185. "A Negro WAAC [Mrs. Mary K. Adair] takes an examination for Officers' Candidate School, Fort McPherson, Georgia." June 20, 1942. National Archives Identifier: 531337, Local Identifier: 111-SC-25635.
186. "U.S. Army nurses are taking notes during a lecture in [a] classroom at the Army Nurse Training Center in England." September 5, 1944. Klosterman. National Archives Identifier: 531411, Local Identifier: 111-SC-37076.
Rest and Relaxation
187. "A contingent of 15 nurses,...arrive in the southwest Pacific area, received their first batch of home mail at their station." 268th Station Hospital, Australia. Three of the nurses are Lts. Prudence L. Burns, Inez Holmes, and Birdie E. Brown. November 29, 1943. Sgt. Dick D. Williams. National Archives Identifier: 531410, Local Identifier: 111-SC-370740.
188. "The Bowling Alleys at Fort McClellan, Alabama, are well patronized by members of WAC Det #2 in their off-duty hours. M/Sgt Helen Starr...is ready to send a ball on its way down the alley." January 27, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 531173, Local Identifier: 111-SC-18369.
189. "WAAC officers go shopping...soon after their arrival at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, these two officers [3d Officers Vera Harrison and Irma J. Cayton] started shopping for lamps and other accessories needed in their recreation hall." 1942. Oster. National Archives Identifier: 531154, Local Identifier: 111-SC-16248.
190. "Send `em V-Mail and keep `em smiling." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535851, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8AAA-1.
191. "... U.S. Coast Guardsmen make use of a telephone booth in Scotland. They are on liberty from their ship, a Coast Guard combat cutter engaged in convoy escort duty." From left to right: Officers' Cook Second Class Joseph Andy, Officers' Steward First Class Casiano Aquino, Gunner's Mate Second Class Vincent G. Igoe, Electrician's Mate Second Class George Trigony, Radioman Third Class Carlton Lee, and Officers' Steward Second Class Daniel Riley. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513167, Local Identifier: 26-G-1550.
192. "Relaxing aboard a U.S. Coast Guard-manned transport headed for Pacific invasion areas, three Negro Marines catch a smoke. Tomorrow, it will be the smoke of battle." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513196, Local Identifier: 26-G-321.
193. "Aboard a U.S. Coast Guard-manned transport somewhere in the Pacific, a group of Negro Marines presents a cheerful front." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 513198, Local Identifier: 26-G-322.
194. "Negro boxing champions at Great Lakes, IL." U.S. Naval Training Station. March 3, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 520668, Local Identifier: 80-G-29485.
195. "However pressing his duties STM2/c James Lee Frazer always finds time to read a few chapters from his Bible each day. In this study he is especially intense about his devotional routine...it was the night before the opening strike of a raid on Manila Bay." January 9, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520675, Local Identifier: 80-G-30524.
196. "34th CB's trading with natives from Malaita. Left to right: native; Percy J. Hope, MS2c; Lilton T. Walker, S1c; two natives; Jack Kelsen, SC1c." Halavo, Florida Island, Solomon Islands. September 23, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 520630, Local Identifier: 80-G-8916.
197. "Somewhere in England one of the hottest bands in the European Theater of Operations belongs to a Special United States Naval Construction Battalion..." The band leader and trumpeter is Coxswain Thomas J. Lindsey (left), and the drummer is S1c. Edward A. Grant. December 14, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 535858, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8T-2.
198. "... sailors in their bunkroom aboard the U.S.S. Ticonderoga (CV-14) on eve of the Battle of Manila, PI. Thomas L. Crenshaw (STM1/c) looks at a picture of his three children, while a bunkmate writes a letter home." November 4, 1944. Lt. Wayne Miller. National Archives Identifier: 520867, Local Identifier: 80-G-46951.
199. Navy baseball team--Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. September 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520633, Local Identifier: 80-G-12396.
200. "Negro troops, moving over the Atlantic on a Coast Guard manned troop transport, sprawl on a hatch to `bat the breeze' and talk of home. They are on their way to the fighting lines in Europe..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535816, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3WW-22.
201. Soldiers listening to a jukebox. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535751, Local Identifier: 208-LU-35CC-4.
202. "Rickshaws are almost as common in India as they are in China. Some of the...troops are on their way to see `Tarzan's New York Adventure'--in India..." July 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535539, Local Identifier: 208-AA-45HH-1.
203. "After a hard day's work a shower and shave are in order. Sgt. Wm. H. Whaley...soaps himself before taking a cold shower while Sgt. Delos Oliver...lathers up..." Ca. July 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535538, Local Identifier: 208-AA-45BB-1.
204. "Negro GIs and American Red Cross workers, college graduates, join in some musical fun at Assam, India..." Left to right: Cpl. Robert Barttow, Pvt. James Montgomery, Jeannette C. Dorsey, and Willie Lee Johnson. August 23, 1944. Grigg. National Archives Identifier: 531351, Local Identifier: 111-SC-329741.
205. "Chaplain William T. Green reads the benediction at the marriage ceremony of Pfc. Florence A. Collins, a WAC of the 6888th Postal Directory Battalion, to Cpl. William A. Johnson of the 1696th Labor Supervision Co. This is the first Negro marriage to be performed in the European Theater of Operations." Rouen, France. August 19, 1945. T/5 L. Kaufman. National Archives Identifier: 531314, Local Identifier: 111-SC-210939.
206. "Sgt. Franklin Williams, home on leave from army duty, with his best girl Ellen Hardin, splitting a soda. They met at Douglas High School." Baltimore, MD. May 1942. Arthur Rothstein. National Archives Identifier: 535838, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6LL-11.
207. "Christmas Dance at Negro Service Club #3. The dance was sponsored by the 1323rd Engineers. They had their own orchestra. Camp Swift, Texas." December 23, 1943. Pvt. Greene. National Archives Identifier: 531180, Local Identifier: 111-SC-188341.
208. "For his 19th birthday, this sergeant's buddies baked him a cake and decorated it with the tools of his trade. P.S.: He didn't light the candles." Ca. May 1942. Fred Morgan. National Archives Identifier: 531143, Local Identifier: 111-SC-150930-B.
209. "Long, dangerous missions over enemy territory and inclement weather often necessitate fighter planes returning to their bases with gas in their tanks for little over 3 minutes flying time. Pilots of a 15th AAF squadron decided to form a club to be known as `The Three Minute Egg Club', with membership limited to those unfortunates who landed within the narrow margin." Left to right: 1st Lts. Clarence A. Dart and Wilson D. Eagelson and 2d Lt. William N. Olsbrook. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535545, Local Identifier: 208-AA-47E-1.
210. "Negro [air cadet] shown on a cot in his barracks studying as he gazes fondly at his collection of photos of his girl friends." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535832, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5QQ-9.
211. "Pvt. Lloyd A. Taylor, 21-year-old transportation dispatcher at Mitchel Field, New York City, who knows Latin, Greek, Spanish, French, German, and Japanese, studies a book on Chinese. A former medical student at Temple University, he passes two hours a day studying languages as a hobby." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535873, Local Identifier: 208-NS-3753-2.
212. "Dorothy Donegan, pianist, and Camp Robert Smalls swing band at NTS, Great Lakes." June 16, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 520669, Local Identifier: 80-G-29490.
213. "Lester Granger, while inspecting facilities for Negro personnel at NAS, San Diego, CA, stops to chat with Rofes Herring, S1/c; Walter Calvert, S2/c; and Nollie H. Million, civilian employe[e], as Lt. Roper (left) stands by." June 20, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 520687, Local Identifier: 80-G-33398.
214. "Marian Anderson, world's greatest contralto, entertains a group of overseas veterans and WACs on [the] stage of the San Antonio Municipal Auditorium..." April 11, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535928, Local Identifier: 208-PU-5A-3.
215. "Bishop John Andrew Gregg, Leader of [the] African Methodist Church in North Central United States and Envoy of President Roosevelt, fondles a pet koala bear adopted by Pfc. Sammy Hurt... Around the Bishop are members of the [630th] Ordnance Company." July 21, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531169, Local Identifier: 111-SC-180917.
216. "Hattie McDaniel (center), Chairman of the Negro Division of the Hollywood Victory Committee, takes time off from rehearsals...to lead a caravan of entertainers and hostesses to Minter Field,...for a vaudeville performance and dance for soldiers stationed there. The young lady to the right of Miss McDaniel is Miss Virginia Paris, noted concert singer." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535875, Local Identifier: 208-NS-4264-5.
217. "Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis watches a Signal Corps crew erecting poles, somewhere in France." August 8, 1944. Cunningham. National Archives Identifier: 531201, Local Identifier: 111-SC-192258-S.
218. "Capt. Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr., of Washington, D.C., climbing into an Advanced Trainer. Tuskegee, Alabama." January 1942. Wilfred Morgan. National Archives Identifier: 535718, Local Identifier: 208-FS-872-3.
219. "Lena Horne conserves fuel (gas)." N.d. Randt Studios, Inc. National Archives Identifier: 535820, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4CCC-1.
220."War Correspondent Ted Stanford of The Pittsburgh Courier, a weekly, interviews 1st Sgt. Morris O. Harris,...a tankman of the 784th Tank Battalion operating with the Ninth Army." March 28, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535535, Local Identifier: 208-AA-32P-14.
221. "After receiving first aid treatment in practice raid in Washington, DC, air-raid `victim' is removed to hospital by a Medical Corps of the Office of Civilian Defense." The physician is Dr. Charles Drew. N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535826, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4W-2.
222. "First of the famous Mills Brothers quartet to enter Army service, Pvt. Harry Mills stops at the jukebox in the Reception Center PX to hear how he sounds on one of the latest Mills Brothers recordings. Left to right: S/Sgt. Arthur Whyte, Sgt. Robert Seymour, Pfc. George Blair, and Pvt. Harry Mills. Fort Custer, MI." 1943 National Archives Identifier: 531178, Local Identifier: 111-SC-187426.
223. "Miss Josephine Baker, popular stage performer, sings the National Anthem as the finale to the show held in the Municipal Theater, Oran, Algeria, N. Africa. The band is directed by T/Sgt. Frank W. Weiss." May 17, 1943. National Archives Identifier: 531160, Local Identifier: 111-SC-175237.
224. [Mary McLeod Bethune], "Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt and others at the opening of Midway Hall, one of two residence halls built by the Public Buildings Administration of FWA for Negro government girls..." Washington, DC. May 1943. James Stephen Wright. National Archives Identifier: 533032, Local Identifier: 162-PBA-10-F-561.
225. "Sgt. Romare Bearden, noted young Negro artist whose paintings have been exhibited in galleries and museums in several metropolitan centers...is shown (right) discussing one of his paintings, `Cotton Workers,' with Pvt. Charles H. Alston, his first art teacher and cousin... Both Bearden and Alston are members of the 372nd Infantry Regiment stationed in New York City." Ca. February 1944. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535841, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6W-1.
226. Theodore R. Poston, head of the Negro Press Section, Office of War Information. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535824, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4MMM-1.
227. "Mr. Truman K. Gibson, Jr., Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War, pictured at press conference Monday, April 9, following his return from Mediterranean and European Theaters of Operations." April 9, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535930, Local Identifier: 208-PU-77F-5.
228. "After inspecting a regiment of Negro artillerymen during a visit to Hawaii, Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson congratulates Col. Chauncey M. Hooper,...commander of the unit, while Lt. Gen. Robert C. Richardson, Jr. and Col. Harry B. Reubel,...watch with approval." August 1943. National Archives Identifier: 524377, Local Identifier: 107-T-7-2.
229. Judge William H. Hastie, dean of the Howard University Law School, Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War. Ca. 1941. National Archives Identifier: 535835, Local Identifier: 208-NP-6BBB-1.
230. "Earl `Father' [Fatha] Hines, a great swing musician, is shown with Pvt. Charles Carpenter, former manager of the Hines orchestra..." Camp Lee, VA. N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535834, Local Identifier: 208-NP-5XX-9.
231. "Surrounded by recruits, Marva Louis, wife of champion Joe [Louis], takes time out from a tour of nightclubs to entertain men in the Negro regiments at the U.S. Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, IL. Some 2,000 bluejackets gathered in a regimental drill hall to hear her songs." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535855, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8J-2.
232. "World Heavyweight champ Joe Louis (Barrow) sews on the stripes of a technical sergeant--to which he has been promoted..." April 10, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535937, Local Identifier: 208-PU-120V-12.
233. "Paul Robeson, world famous Negro baritone, leading Moore Shipyard [Oakland, CA] workers in singing the Star Spangled Banner, here at their lunch hour recently, after he told them: `This is a serious job--winning this war against fascists. We have to be together.' Robeson himself was a shipyard worker in World War I." September 1942. Wide World Photos. National Archives Identifier: 535874, Local Identifier: 208-NS-3848-2.
234. "Admiral C. W. Nimitz, CinCPac, pins Navy Cross on Doris Miller, at ceremony on board warship in Pearl Harbor, T. H." May 27, 1942. National Archives Identifier: 535857, Local Identifier: 208-NP-8PP-2.
235. "Brig. Gen. Robert N. Young, Commanding General of the Military District of Washington, assists Melba Rose, aged 2, daughter of Mrs. Rosie L. Madison,...in viewing the Silver Star posthumously awarded her father 1st Lt. John W. Madison, of the 92nd Infantry Division, who was killed in action in Italy..." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535559, Local Identifier: 208-AA-139B-1.
236. "The National Council of Negro Women entertained British war workers representing labor unions and American labor women just returned from an eight-week tour of Great Britain..." April 21, 1945. National Archives Identifier: 535812, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3AA-1.
237. "LSM Vessel No. 325 launching party." Mrs. Lula Martin, Chicago, IL, second from the left, was the sponsor. August 25, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 513046, Local Identifier: 19-N-7058.
238. "To learn how to shop with point stamps, these youngsters in a Fairfax County, Virginia, grade school have set up a play store, complete with point value table and informational material on point rationing." N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535821, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4FFF-1.
239. "Air raid wardens at a sector meeting in Washington, DC, discuss the zones they control during a practice air raid." N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535827, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4W-3.
240. "V" home campaign, Washington, DC. October 1942. National Archives Identifier: 533827, Local Identifier: 171-OCD-140.
241. "Cardozo High School, Washington, DC." High School Victory Corps. June 1943. Bonn. National Archives Identifier: 512754, Local Identifier: 12-E-41-398.
242. "William R. Carter, government pharmacist for 40 years... As [a] laboratory aide in the Food and Drug Administration of the Federal Security Agency, he is entrusted with the job of preparing media for testing the sterility of bandage material." N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535823, Local Identifier: 208-NP-4JJ-1.
243. "Making model airplanes for U.S. Navy at the Armstrong Technical High School. Washington, DC." March 1942. Marjory Collins. National Archives Identifier: 535814, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3KK-1.
244. "... the public school children of the South-Central District of Chicago purchased $263,148. 83 in war bonds and stamps...a huge check representing enough money for 125 jeeps, two pursuit planes and motorcycle was presented to Maj. C. Udell Turpin of the Illinois War Bond Sales staff." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535815, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3MM-1.
245. "This highly experienced Negro draftsman is one of many skilled technical Negro workers employed in speeding war production at a large eastern arsenal." May 1942. Howard Liberman. National Archives Identifier: 535806, Local Identifier: 208-NP-2HH-1.
246. "Cortez W. Peters, World's Champion Portable Typist, is shown with ten late model standard-size typewriters which he turned over to the Government to aid the drive for 600,000 machines for the Army and Navy." November 1942. Danor. National Archives Identifier: 535804, Local Identifier: 208-NP-1V-1.
247. "Pin-up girls at NAS Seattle, Spring Formal Dance. Left to right: Jeanne McIver, Harriet Berry, Muriel Alberti, Nancy Grant, Maleina Bagley, and Matti Ethridge." April 10, 1944. National Archives Identifier: 520646, Local Identifier: 80-G-23326.
248. "Final assembly of the pilot's compartment is being made by these Negro workers in a large eastern aircraft factory. These youths went directly from a war training course to their jobs in this plant." May 1942. Howard Liberman National Archives Identifier: 535810, Local Identifier: 208-NP-2VV-2.
249. "Insignia for military police are being turned out in an eastern quartermaster corps depot where this young worker has obtained war production employment." May 1942. Howard Liberman. National Archives Identifier: 535807, Local Identifier: 208-NP-2HHH-1.
250. "Under the direction of Cecil M. Coles, NYA foreman, Miss Juanita E. Gray learns to operate a lathe machine at the Washington, DC, NYA War Production and Training Center. This former domestic worker is one of hundreds of Negro women trained at this center." N.d. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535809, Local Identifier: 208-NP-2QQQQ-1.
251. "The Negro janitors of the plant maintenance department in North America's Kansas City factory in V-formation as they start out on their daily tasks." February 4, 1942. Carl Conley. National Archives Identifier: 535801, Local Identifier: 208-NP-1KK-1.
252. "... Welders Alivia Scott, Hattie Carpenter, and Flossie Burtos await an opportunity to weld their first piece of steel on the ship [SS George Washington Carver]." Kaiser Shipyards, Richmond, CA. Ca. 1943. E.F. Joseph. National Archives Identifier: 535800, Local Identifier: 208-NP-1HHH-5.
253. "Bertha Stallworth, age 21, shown inspecting end of 40mm artillery cartridge case at Frankford Arsenal." N.d. National Archives Identifier: 535805, Local Identifier: 208-NP-1WW-1.
254. "Miss Clara Camille Carroll..., contributes her bit to the war effort in her daily work. She is one of the thousands of Negro girls now filling clerical positions in the Nation's Capital." January 15, 1943. Roger Smith. National Archives Identifier: 535813, Local Identifier: 208-NP-3F-3.
255. "... women employed at Savannah Quartermaster Depot, Savannah, Georgia." Ca. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 522887, Local Identifier: 86-WWT-67-6.
256. Howard Wilson operating the sewing machine in the C. & E. Shoe Shop at Fort Benning, Georgia, as he finishes off a pair of parachutists boots. July 1942. Mooney National Archives Identifier: 531138, Local Identifier: 111-SC-13770.
257. Mrs. Sam Crawford helps with tobacco harvesting on her husband's farm in Maryland. Mrs. Crawford wears the Women's Land Army uniform. October 8, 1943. Cooper. National Archives Identifier: 532819, Local Identifier: 145-AAA-272.
258. Keep us flying. Buy War Bonds. Color poster of a Tuskegee Airman (probably Lt. Robert W. Diez) by an unidentified artist. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 514823, Local Identifier: 44-PA-1217.
259. United We Win. Color poster featuring a photograph by Howard Liberman of integrated aircraft factory workers. 1943. ational Archives Identifier: 513820, Local Identifier: 44-PA-370.
260. Above and Beyond the Call of Duty. Color poster of Doris (Dorie) Miller by David Stone Martin. 1943. National Archives Identifier: 535886, Local Identifier: 208-PMP-68.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954 film)
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea is a 1954 American Technicolorscience fiction-adventure film and one of the first features shot in CinemaScope. It was personally produced by Walt Disney through Walt Disney Productions, directed by Richard Fleischer, and stars Kirk Douglas, James Mason, Paul Lukas, and Peter Lorre. It was also the first feature-length Disney film to be distributed by Buena Vista Distribution. The film is adapted from Jules Verne's 1870 novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.
The film was a critical and commercial success, being especially remembered for the fight with a giant squid, and Mason's definitive performance as the charismatic anti-hero Captain Nemo. It won two Academy Awards for Best Art Direction and Best Special Effects. It is considered an early precursor of the steampunk genre.
In 1868, rumors spread of a sea monster which attacks ships in the Pacific Ocean and disrupt shipping lanes. Professor Aronnax and his assistant, Conseil, board a U.S. Navy ship dispatched on an expedition to investigate the problem. They board the frigate, and are joined by master-harpooner Ned Land.
After months of patrolling, a nearby steamship explodes; when the frigate arrives, the "monster" is spotted. As the frigate's crew open fire with cannons, the "monster" rams the warship. Ned, Conseil and Aronnax are thrown overboard. The crippled frigate drifts away, not responding to their cries for help. Clinging to flotsam, Aronnax and Conseil encounter a metal vessel, and realize the "monster" is a man-made "submerging boat" that appears deserted. Going aboard, Aronnax finds a viewport and witnesses an underwater funeral, while Ned Land arrives on an overturned longboat from their ship. Aronnax resists leaving just long enough for the submarine crew to spot him.
Ned, Aronnax, and Conseil attempt to leave in the longboat, but the crew stops them. The captain introduces himself as Nemo, master of the Nautilus. He returns Ned and Conseil to the deck while offering Aronnax, whom he recognizes, the chance to stay. After Aronnax proves willing to die with his companions, Nemo allows Ned and Conseil to remain aboard.
Nemo takes them to the penal colony island of Rura Penthe, where the prisoners are loading a munitions ship. Nemo was a prisoner there, as were many of his crew. Nautilus rams the steamer, destroying it and killing the crew. Nemo tells Aronnax that he saved thousands from death in war, and that this "hated nation" tortured his wife and son to death while attempting to force him to reveal his discoveries. In Nemo's cabin, Ned and Conseil find the coordinates of Nemo's secret island base, Vulcania, and Ned releases messages in bottles.
Off the coast of New Guinea, Nautilus becomes stranded on a reef. Nemo allows Ned to go ashore with Conseil, ostensibly to collect specimens, while admonishing them to stay on the beach. Ned goes exploring for avenues of escape, and finds human skulls posted on stakes. Ned rejoins Conseil, and they row away, pursued by cannibals. Aboard Nautilus, the cannibals are repelled by electrical charges sent through its hull. Nemo confines Ned to the brig for disobeying orders.
A warship fires upon Nautilus, which descends into the depths, where it attracts a giant squid. After an electric charge fails to repel it, Nemo and his men surface during a storm to dislodge it. Nemo is caught in one of its tentacles, and Ned, having escaped from captivity, harpoons the squid in the eye, saving Nemo. Nemo has a change of heart and claims he wants to make peace with the world.
As Nautilus nears Vulcania, Nemo finds the island surrounded by warships, with marines converging on his base. On the deck Ned tries to identify himself to the warships. Aronnax is furious, recognizing that Nemo will destroy all evidence of his discoveries. Nemo, having submerged Nautilus to enter his base, goes ashore and activates a prearranged time bomb, but is mortally wounded from a bullet to his back. After navigating the submarine away from Vulcania, Nemo announces that he will be "taking the Nautilus down for the last time". The crew declares that they will accompany their captain.
Aronnax, Conseil, and Ned are confined to their cabins, while Nautilus's crew also retreat to their cabins at Nemo's instructions. Ned escapes and manages to surface the submarine, hitting a reef in the process, causing her to flood. Nemo dies viewing his beloved undersea domain.
Aronnax tries retrieving his journal, but the urgency of their escape obliges Ned to knock him unconscious and carry him out. Aboard Nautilus's skiff, the three companions along with Nemo's pet sea lion, Esmeralda, witness Vulcania explode and a billowing mushroom cloud rise above the island's destruction. Ned apologizes to Aronnax for hitting him, but Aronnax concedes that the loss of his journal might have been for the best. As the Nautilus sinks, Nemo's last words to Aronnax echo: "There is hope for the future. And when the world is ready for a new and better life, all this will someday come to pass...in God's good time."
In November 1950, independent producer Sid Rogell announced he had acquired the film rights to the novel as well as a film adaptation prepared by Robert L. Lippert's production company. He had planned to start shooting within a year at the General Service Studios. However, in December 1951, it was reported that Walt Disney had purchased the film rights from Rogell.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was filmed at various locations in The Bahamas and Jamaica, with the cave scenes filmed beneath what is now the Xtabi Resort on the cliffs of Negril. Filming began in spring of 1954. According to the two-disc DVD release of the film, the San Francisco scenes at the beginning were shot at Universal Studios while most of the modeling shots were done at 20th Century Fox. Some of the location filming sequences were so complex that they required a technical crew of more than 400 people. The film presented many other challenges, as well. The famous giant squid attack sequence had to be entirely re-shot, as it was originally filmed as taking place at dusk and in a calm sea.[Note 1] The sequence was filmed again, this time taking place at night and during a huge gale, both to increase the drama and to better hide the cables and other mechanical workings of the animatronic squid.
With a total (and greatly over-run) production cost of $9 million, the film was the most expensive in Hollywood to that date and presented a serious financial risk to the studio should it flop.
Differences between novel and film
The film was praised as faithfully adapting the novel. James W. Maertens writes that while this is true, "Close comparison of the novel and film reveals many changes, omissions, even reversals, which affect the story's fundamental concern (besides scientific education), a representation of class and gender, specifically masculinity, in the industrial age." Nemo's submarine, battery-powered in the novel, is powered by atomic energy in the film. The novel's submarine is also a "streamlined, cigar shaped sub" while the film's is "a more ornate vessel". The film's director and screenwriter extracted "the most memorable" scenes from the novel and freely reordered them under the assumption that viewers would not remember the novel's order of events. The film's submarine is also depicted as being built from undersea salvage, where in the novel, Nemo orders parts from various industries to secretly ship to an island for assembly, which Maertens called a "logistical genius and manipulation of Industrial Age manufacturing".
Rather than an authentic soundtrack recording of the film's score or dialogue, two vinyl studio cast record albums were released to coincide with the film's first two releases (1954 and 1963). Both albums contained condensed and heavily altered versions of the film's script without the usage of any of the film's cast for character voices. In addition, both albums were narrated by Ned Land as opposed to Aronnax, who narrated the film and the original novel. Neither album mentioned Nemo as actually being "cracked" (i.e. insane), as the film does, and considerably sanitized the character by omitting any mention of him killing anyone. The albums also had Nemo surviving at the end and releasing Ned, Arronax, and Conseil out of gratitude for their saving his life. In this version, Ned, Aronnax and Conseil were not shipwrecked because the Nautilus rammed the ship they were on, but because a hurricane came up.
The first album was issued in 1954 in conjunction with the film's original release, and starred William Redfield as the voice of Ned. This album, a book-and-record set, was issued as part of RCA Victor's Little Nipper series on two 45-RPM records.[better source needed] The second album, released by Disneyland Records in 1963 in conjunction with the film's first re-release, was issued on one 331⁄3 RPM 12-inch LP with no accompanying booklet and no liner notes – the usual practice with most Disneyland label albums. It contained much more of the film's plot, but with many of the same alterations as the first album, so this recording was technically a remake of the earlier one. The cast for the 1963 album was uncredited. Neither album listed the film's credits or made any mention of the film's cast.
A single for the film's most memorable song "A Whale of a Tale", written by Norman Gimbel and Al Hoffman and sung by Kirk Douglas, was also released in 1954 under the Decca Children's Series label. The song "And the Moon Grew Brighter and Brighter", which Douglas had sung in the movie Man Without a Star (written by Lou Singer and Jimmy Kennedy), was the B-side. Both songs can be found on the 2008 digital release of the film's soundtrack. In the film, Johann Sebastian Bach's Toccata and Fugue in D minor is played by Nemo on the Nautilus's organ, but James Mason's playing is actually dubbed by an anonymous organist.
On January 29, 2008, Walt Disney Records released a 26-track digital album containing the music of Paul Smith's original soundtrack score to 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, plus both sides of the "A Whale of a Tale" single, as well as a digital booklet companion that explores the music of the film. This was the first official release of the film score and was initially available only through the iTunes Store. Intrada released the same soundtrack on CD in 2011. The music for 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was composed by Paul Smith, with Joseph Dubin acting as the orchestrator.
|1.||"Main Title (Captain Nemo’s Theme)"||Paul Smith||2:26|
|2.||"Street Fight"||Paul Smith||1:04|
|3.||"Aboard the Abraham Lincoln / Hunting the Monster"||Paul Smith||2:28|
|4.||"A Whale of a Tale"||Kirk Douglas||2:09|
|5.||"The Monster Attacks"||Paul Smith||2:21|
|6.||"Deserted Sub / Burial / Captured"||Paul Smith||9:14|
|7.||"Fifty Fathoms / The Island of Crespo"||Paul Smith||8:45|
|8.||"Storm at Sea / Nemo Plays"||Paul Smith||2:25|
|9.||"Strange Man of the Seas"||Paul Smith||4:04|
|10.||"Nemo’s Torment"||Paul Smith||0:59|
|11.||"Justified Hate"||Paul Smith||1:29|
|12.||"Searching Nemo’s Cabin"||Paul Smith||4:02|
|13.||"Ned’s Bottles"||Paul Smith||0:43|
|14.||"Ashore at New Guinea"||Paul Smith||2:54|
|15.||"Native Drums / Back to the Nautilus"||Paul Smith||3:08|
|17.||"The Giant Squid"||Paul Smith||6:53|
|18.||"Ambush at Vulcania"||Paul Smith||4:47|
|19.||"Nemo Wounded"||Paul Smith||2:43|
|20.||"Escape from Vulcania"||Paul Smith||3:41|
|21.||"Finale / Deep Is the Mighty Ocean"||Paul Smith||0:56|
|22.||"A Whale of a Tale (Single)"||Kirk Douglas||2:11|
|23.||"And the Moon Grew Brighter and Brighter (Single B-Side)"||Kirk Douglas||2:35|
|24.||"A Whale of a Tale"||Bill Kanady||2:24|
|25.||"A Whale of a Tale"||The Wellingtons||2:07|
|26.||"A Whale of a Tale (Reprise)"||Kirk Douglas||0:11|
Over the years, the film has been released on VHS, LaserDisc, SelectaVision videodisc, DVD, and Blu-ray. A 1080p HD version from a 4K restoration was released on iTunes in 2014. In 2019, the film was released on Blu-ray via the Disney Movie Club. The film was available to stream on Disney+ when the service launched on November 12, 2019.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea earned $8 million in North American distributor rentals at the box office, making it the third highest-grossing film of 1954.
Bosley Crowther of The New York Times stated that, "As fabulous and fantastic as anything he has ever done in cartoons is Walt Disney's 'live action' movie made from Jules Verne's '20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.' Turned out in CinemaScope and color, it is as broad, fictitiously, as it is long (128 minutes), and should prove a sensation—at least with the kids". Gene Arneel of Variety praised the film as "a special kind of picture making, combining photographic ingenuity, imaginative story telling and fiscal daring." He further added that "Richard Fleischer's direction keeps the Disney epic moving at a smart clip, picking up interest right from the start and deftly developing each of the many tense moments...Earl Fenton's screenplay looks to be a combination of the best in the Verne original and new material to suit the screen form. It's a fine job of writing simulating pic fare. Technical credits — underline the water photography — are excellent." Philip K. Scheuer, reviewing for the Los Angeles Times, wrote "Technically the film is a marvel itself, with actual underwater shot made in the Bahamas alternating with surface scale models that defy detection as such." He also praised Mason's performance claiming "he lends depth and dimension to the stock figure of the 'mad genius.' The proof: he sometimes seems more pitied than scorned."Harrison's Reports wrote that "Expertly utilizing the CinemaScope medium and Technicolor photography, he [Walt Disney] and his staff have fashioned a picture that is not only a masterpiece from the production point of view but also a great entertainment, the kind that should go over in a big way with all types of audiences."
Modern-day film critic Steve Biodrowski said that the film is "far superior to the majority of genre efforts from the period (or any period, for that matter), with production design and technical effects that have dated hardly at all". Biodrowski also added that the film "may occasionally succumb to some of the problems inherent in the source material (the episodic nature does slow the pace), but the strengths far outweigh the weaknesses, making this one of the greatest science-fiction films ever made". On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 89% based on 27 reviews. The website's critical consensus reads: "One of Disney's finest live-action adventures, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea brings Jules Verne's classic sci-fi tale to vivid life, and features an awesome giant squid".
Awards and nominations
The film's primary art director Harper Goff, who designed the Nautilus, was not a member of the Art Directors Union in 1954 and therefore, under a bylaw within the Academy of Motion Pictures, was unable to receive his Academy Award for Art Direction.
In Disney resorts
Disneyland used the original sets as a walk-through attraction from 1955 to 1966. Walt Disney World Resort'sMagic Kingdom also had a dark ride named 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage from 1971 to 1994 which consisted of a submarine ride, complete with the giant squid attack, and an arrangement of the main theme from the 1954 film playing on Captain Nemo's organ in the background. For this ride, voice artist Peter Renaday stood in for James Mason in the role of Captain Nemo. In 1994, a walkthrough attraction at Disneyland Paris, named Les Mystères du Nautilus, opened, and a dark ride at Tokyo DisneySea was created in 2001. The exterior to The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Undersea Adventure contains a silhouette of the Nautilus in a rock wall and the tiki barTrader Sam's Grog Grotto at Disney's Polynesian Village Resort serves a cocktail called the "Nautilus" which is itself served in a stylized drinking vessel resembling the submarine, and features a dive helmet and a mechanical squid tentacle that pours liquor behind the bar.
Comic book adaptation
Remake and prequel
On January 6, 2009, Variety reported that a live-action remake titled 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Captain Nemo was being planned with Joseph McGinty Nichol, known as "McG", attached to direct. The film serves as an origin story for the central character, Captain Nemo, as he builds his warship, the Nautilus. McG has remarked that it will be "much more in keeping with the spirit of the novel" than Richard Fleischer's film, in which it will reveal "what Aronnax is up to and the becoming of Captain Nemo, and how the man became at war with war itself." It was written by Bill Marsilli, with Justin Marks and Randall Wallace brought in to do rewrites. The film was to be produced by Sean Bailey with McG's Wonderland Sound and Vision.
McG once suggested that he wanted Will Smith as Captain Nemo, but he has reportedly turned down the part. As a second possible choice, McG had mentioned Sam Worthington, whom he worked with on Terminator Salvation, though they did not ever discuss it seriously. In November 2009, the project was shelved by then-Walt Disney Pictures chairman Rich Ross after having spending nearly $10 million on pre-production work. Prior to the announcement, McG and Bailey had been notified of the project's cancellation.
During the 2010 San Diego Comic-Con, director David Fincher announced plans of directing 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea for Walt Disney Pictures based on a script by Scott Z. Burns. While Fincher was wrapping up The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011), it was speculated that 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea would enter principal photography by late 2012. In the meantime, Fincher began courting Brad Pitt to play the role of Ned Land while the film was kept on hold. However, in February 2013, it was announced that Pitt had officially turned down the role.
In April 2013, it was announced that the Australian government will provide a one-off incentive of $20 million in order to secure the production. Despite this, the film was put on hold again the following month due to complications in casting a lead. On July 17, 2013, Fincher dropped out of the film to direct the adaptation of Gone Girl. Fincher revealed in an interview that he left the film because he wanted Channing Tatum for Ned Land, but Disney wanted Chris Hemsworth for the role. Additionally, the money originally allocated for the production of this film was redirected towards Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales.
In February 2016, Disney announced that it was planning a live-action film titled Captain Nemo, with James Mangold directing. In February 2020, it was reported that Mangold was no longer attached to the project.
In August 2021, it was announced that a ten episode miniseries titled Nautilus entered development. The series will be an origin story about Captain Nemo and will be written by James Dormer who will co-produce with Johanna Devereaux. On November 12, 2021, Shazad Latif was cast in the lead role while Michael Matthews will direct the series.
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Why Earth’s Cracked Crust May Be Essential for Life
Plate tectonics might even be responsible for another atmospheric ingredient, and arguably the most important: oxygen.
A full 2 billion years before the Cambrian explosion, back in the Archean eon, Earth had hardly any of the air we breathe now. Algae had begun to use photosynthesis to produce oxygen, but much of that oxygen was consumed by iron-rich rocks that used the oxygen to make rust.
According to research published in 2016, plate tectonics then initiated a two-step process that led to higher oxygen levels. In the first step, subduction causes the Earth’s mantle to change and produce two types of crust — oceanic and continental. The continental version has fewer iron-rich rocks and more quartz-rich rocks that don’t pull oxygen out of the atmosphere.
Then over the next billion years — from 2.5 billion years ago to 1.5 billion years ago — rocks weathered down and pumped carbon dioxide into the air and oceans. The extra carbon dioxide would have aided algae, which then could make even more oxygen — enough to eventually spark the Cambrian explosion.
Plate tectonics may also have given life an evolutionary boost. Robert Stern, a geologist at the University of Texas, Dallas, thinks plate tectonics arose sometime in the Neoproterozoic era, between 1 billion and 540 million years ago. This would have coincided with a period of unusual global cooling around 700 million years ago, which geologists and paleoclimate experts refer to as “snowball Earth.” In April, Stern and Nathaniel Miller of the University of Texas, Austin, published research suggesting that plate tectonics would have catastrophically redistributed the continents, disturbing the oceans and the atmosphere. And, Stern argues, this would have had major consequences for life.
“You need isolation and competition for evolution to really get going. If there is no real change in the land-sea area, there is no competitive drive and speciation,” Stern said. “That’s the plate tectonics pump. Once you get life, you can really make it evolve fast by breaking up continents and continental shelves and moving them to different latitudes and recombining them.”
Stern has also argued that plate tectonics might be necessary for the evolution of advanced species. He reasons that dry land on continents is necessary for species to evolve the limbs and hands that allow them to grasp and manipulate objects, and that a planet with oceans, continents and plate tectonics maximizes opportunities for speciation and natural selection.
“I think you can get life without plate tectonics. I think we did. I don’t think you can get us without plate tectonics,” he said.
Stern imagines a far future in which orbiting telescopes can determine which exoplanets are rocky, and which ones have plate tectonics. Emissaries to distant star systems should aim for the ones without plate tectonics first, he said, the better to avoid spoiling the evolution of complex life on another world.
Cracking Earth’s Shell
But everything depends on when the process started, and that’s a big open question.
Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago and started out as an incandescent ball of molten rock. It probably did not have plate tectonics in any recognizable form for at least 1 billion years after its formation, mostly because the newborn planet was too hot, said Craig O’Neill, a planetary scientist at Macquarie University in Australia.
Back then, as now, convection within the planet’s inner layers would have moved heat and rock around. Rock in the mantle is squeezed and heated in the crucible of Earth’s innards and then rises toward the surface, where it cools and becomes denser, only to sink and start the process again. Picture a lava lamp.
Through convection, vertical motion was happening even on the early Earth. But the mantle at that time was relatively thin and “runny,” O’Neill said, and unable to generate the force necessary to break the solid crust.
“Subduction wasn’t happening. There was no horizontal motion,” Klepeis said. “So there was a time before continents, before the first continent formed” — the time before land, if you will. Earth would have had a so-called “stagnant lid,” without disparate plates.
O’Neill published research in 2016 showing that early Earth might have been more like Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io, “where you have a volcanically active regime, and not a lot of lateral motion,” O’Neill said. As the planet began to cool, plates could more readily couple with the mantle below, causing the planet to transition into an era of plate tectonics.
This raises the question of what cracked the lid and created those plates in the first place.
Some researchers think an intrusion might have gotten things moving. In the past two years, several teams of researchers have proposed that asteroids left over from the birth of the solar system might have cracked Earth’s lid. Last fall, O’Neill and colleagues published research suggesting that a bombardment of asteroids, half a billion years after Earth formed, could have started subduction by suddenly shoving the cold outer crust into the hot upper mantle. In 2016, Maruyama and colleagues argued that asteroids would have delivered water along with their impact energy, weakening rocks and enabling plate movement to start.
But it’s possible Earth didn’t need a helping hand. Its own cooling process may have broken the lid into pieces, like a cake baked in a too-hot oven.
Three billion years ago, Earth may have had short-lived plate tectonic activity in some regions, but it was not widespread yet. Eventually, cooler areas of crust would have been pulled downward, weakening the surrounding crust. As this happened repeatedly, the weak areas would have gradually degraded into plate boundaries. Eventually, they would have formed full tectonic plates driven by subduction, according to a 2014 paper in Nature by David Bercovici of Yale University and Yanick Ricard of the University of Lyon in France.
Or the opposite might have happened: Instead of cold crust pushing down, hot mantle plumes — like the kind that are driving Hawaii’s eruptions — could have risen to the surface, percolating through the crust and melting it, breaking the lid apart. Stern and Scott Whattam of Korea University in Seoul showed how this could work in a 2015 study.
According to these theories, plate tectonics may have started and stopped several times before picking up momentum about 3 billion years ago. “If you had to press everyone’s buttons and make them take a number, there’s a running ballpark in the community that around 3 billion years ago, plate tectonics started emerging,” O’Neill said.
Yet it’s hard to know for sure because the evidence is so fragmentary.
“Oceanic crust is only 200 million years old. We’re just missing the evidence that we need,” O’Neill said. “There’s a lot of geochemistry that’s come a long way since the 1980s, but the same fundamental questions are still there.”
The oldest rocks on Earth suggest that some sort of proto-subduction was happening as far back as 4 billion years ago, but these rocks are hard to interpret, O’Neill said. Meanwhile, sometime between 3 billion and 2 billion years ago, Earth’s mantle apparently underwent several chemical changes that can be attributed to cooling, changing its convection pattern. Some geologists take this as a recording of the gradual onset and spread of tectonic plates throughout the planet.
“The real answer is we don’t know,” said Brad Foley, a geophysicist at Pennsylvania State University. “We’ve got these rocks, but we can’t figure out what’s the smoking gun that would tell us there is plate tectonics or subduction at this time, or there definitely wasn’t.”
Plates on Other Planets
So are tectonics essential to life?
Ultimately, the problem is that we have one sample. We have one planet that looks like Earth, one place with water and a slipping and sliding outer crust, one place teeming with life. Other planets or moons may have activity resembling tectonics, but it’s not anything close to what we see on Earth.
Take Enceladus, a frozen moon of Saturn that is venting material into space from strange-looking fractures in its global ice crust. Or Venus, a planet that seems to have been resurfaced 500 million years ago but has no plates that we can discern. Or Mars, which has the solar system’s largest volcano in Olympus Mons, but whose tectonic history is mysterious. Olympus Mons is found in a great bulging province called Tharsis, which is so gigantic that it might have weighed down Mars’ crust enough to cause its poles to wander.
O’Neill has published research showing that a Mars-size planet with abundant water could be pushed into a tectonically active state. And others have argued that some regions in Mars’ southern hemisphere resemble seafloor spreading. But researchers agree it hasn’t had any action for at least 4 billion years, which is roughly the age of its crust, according to data from orbiters and robots on the surface.
“There is some argument that maybe very, very early on, it could have had plate tectonics, but my view is it probably never did,” Foley said.
Groundwater Flow and the Water Cycle
• Water Science School HOME • Groundwater topics • The Water Cycle •
Water cycle components » Atmosphere·Condensation·Evaporation·Evapotranspiration·Freshwater lakes and rivers·Groundwater flow·Groundwater storage·Ice and snow·Infiltration·Oceans·Precipitation·Snowmelt·Springs·Streamflow·Sublimation·Surface runoff
There's more water than just what you can see.
Groundwater discharge emerges from springs in the Redwall Limestone wall of the Grand Canyon into the Colorado River at Vasey's Paradise.
Credit: R.A. McNish, USGS
You see water all around you every day as lakes, rivers, ice, snow and rain. There are also vast amounts of water that are unseen—water existing in the ground. And even though groundwater is unseen, it is moving below your feet right now. As part of the water cycle, groundwater is a major contributor to flow in many streams and rivers and has a strong influence on river and wetland habitats for plants and animals. People have been using groundwater for thousands of years and continue to use it today, largely for drinking water and irrigation. Life on Earth depends on groundwater just as it does on surface water.
There are rivers flowing below our feet ... a myth?
Have you ever heard that there are rivers of water flowing underground? Do you think it is true? Actually, it is pretty much a myth. Even though there are some caverns, lava and ice tubes, and horizontal springs that can carry water, the vast majority of underground water occupies the spaces between rocks and subsurface material. Generally, water underground is more like water in a sponge. It occupies the spaces between soil and rock particles. At a certain depth below the land surface, the spaces between the soil and rock particles can be totally filled with water, resulting in an aquifer from which groundwater can be pumped and used by people.
Groundwater flows underground
Groundwater flows underground...at different rates
Some of the precipitation that falls onto the land infiltrates into the ground to become groundwater. If the water meets the water table (below which the soil is saturated), it can move both vertically and horizontally. Water moving downward can also meet more dense and water-resistant non-porous rock and soil, which causes it to flow in a more horizontal fashion, generally towards streams, the ocean, or deeper into the ground.
If groundwater wants to be a member in good standing of the water cycle, then it can't be totally static and stay where it is. As the diagram shows, the direction and speed of groundwater movement is determined by the various characteristics of aquifers and confining layers of subsurface rocks (which water has a difficult time penetrating) in the ground. Water moving below ground depends on the permeability (how easy or difficult it is for water to move) and on the porosity (the amount of open space in the material) of the subsurface rock. If the rock has characteristics that allow water to move relatively freely through it, then groundwater can move significant distances in a number of days. But groundwater can also sink into deep aquifers where it takes thousands of years to move back into the environment, or even go into deep groundwater storage, where it might stay for much longer periods.
Sometimes when you dig a hole ... watch out!
If an aquifer is under enough pressure, an artesian well tapping the aquifer can result in pressurized water shooting above the land surface.
Bottled water is a very popular beverage nowadays all over the world. Sometimes it is because the local drinking water is of lower quality and sometimes it is just a convenience. Some bottled water is advertised as "artesian well water". Is the water really any different than other groundwater?
Artesian well, Sycamore Valley, Missouri
Credit: James Baughn
Artesian well water is not really different from non-artesian well water - but it comes to the surface in a different manner. In the diagram above, you can see that there are unconfined and confined aquifers in the ground. The confinement of water in an aquifer, which can result in pressure, determines if water coming from it is artesian or not. Wells drilled into confined aquifers can yield artesian water.
- Unconfined aquifers: In unconfined aquifers, water has simply infiltrated from the surface and saturated the subsurface material. If people drill a well into an unconfined aquifer, they have to install a pump to push water to the surface.
- Confined aquifers: Confined aquifers have layers of rock above and below it that are not very permeable to water. Natural pressure in the aquifer can exist; pressure which can sometimes be enough to push water in a well above the land surface. No, not all confined aquifers produce artesian water, but, as this picture of an artesian well in Missouri, USA shows, artesian pressure can force water to the surface with great pressure.
So, in what way is bottled artesian well water different from other well water? Mainly, the company that bottles it doesn't have to go to the expense of installing a pump in their well.
Groundwater and global water distribution
As these charts show, even though the amount of water locked up in groundwater is a small percentage of all of Earth's water, it represents a large percentage of total freshwater on Earth. The pie chart shows that about 1.7 percent of all of Earth's water is groundwater and about 30.1 percent of freshwater on Earth occurs as groundwater. As the bar chart shows, about 5,614,000 cubic miles (mi3), or 23,400,000 cubic kilometers (km3), of groundwater exist on Earth. About 54 percent is saline, with the remaining 2,526,000 mi3 (10,530,000 km3) , about 46 percent, being freshwater.
|Water source||Water volume,|
in cubic miles
in cubic kilometers
|Percent of total water||Percent of total freshwater|
|Total global water||332,500,000||1,386,000,000||--||--|
Source: Gleick, P. H., 1996: Water resources. In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, ed. by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press, New York, vol. 2, pp. 817-823.
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