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Iconic One Theme grep Mell 3b Ethernet controller: Mellanox Technologies MT Family [ConnectX-5 Ex] 3b Ethernet controller: Mellanox Technologies MT Family [ConnectX-5 Ex]

then determine the card firmware version with mstflint on the appropriate PCI bus:

[root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# mstflint -d /proc/bus/pci/3b/ q Image type: FS4 FW Version: FW Release Date: Product Version:
  • ZFS Storage Appliances

    ovcasn02r1:> configuration version show
  • Cisco switches

    ovcasw21r1# show version
  •  Upgrading the Storage Network

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Storage Network is available since Controller Software release This feature enables access for virtual machines to the internal ZFS storage appliance, and requires 60TB of space on the ZFS storage appliance.

    Functionality is built in to the storage network upgrade to ensure the upgrade process works properly. This includes three lock files that are set during the storage network upgrade and are designed to prevent specific behaviors that can interrupt the upgrade. The prevents provisioning actions on compute nodes during upgrade. The is placed immediately following the successful completion of the first management node upgrade, and prevents the use of CLI commands before the storage network upgrade is complete. The prevents any customer-initiated changes to the spine or leaf switches while the upgrade is taking place. The locks are removed at the completion of the storage network upgrade, regardless of success or failure.

    Caution

    This is a disruptive upgrade during which the Cisco spine switches are reconfigured and the network interfaces on the ZFS software appliance will be reconfigured.

    Performing Pre-checks and Upgrading the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Storage Network

    1. Log in to the management node and run the command.

      pca_upgrader -V -t storage-network
    2. If you use the optional ASRM and OEM agents, stop them.

      service asrm stop service gcstartup stop
    3. Upgrade the storage network.

      pca_upgrader -U -t storage-network PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /var/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us for more details. Beginning PCA Storage Network Pre-Upgrade Checks arenaqq.us for more details.

      Note

      After the successful upgrade of management nodes, an upgrade lock is left in place. This lock is intentional to ensure that the storage network upgrade is performed before attempting to upgrade the compute nodes.

    4. If you use the optional the ASRM and OEM agents, restart them.

      service asrm start service gcstartup start

     Upgrading the Management Node Controller Software

    UPGRADE BOTH MANAGEMENT NODES CONSECUTIVELY

    With the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader, the two management node upgrade processes are theoretically separated. Each management node upgrade is initiated by a single command and managed through the Upgrader, which invokes the native Oracle VM Manager upgrade mechanisms. However, you must treat the upgrade of the two management nodes as a single operation.

    During the management node upgrade, the high-availability (HA) configuration of the management node cluster is temporarily broken. To restore HA management functionality and mitigate the risk of data corruption, it is critical that you start the upgrade of the second management node immediately after a successful upgrade of the first management node.

    NO MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS DURING UPGRADE

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader manages the entire process to upgrade both management nodes in the appliance. Under no circumstances should you perform any management operations – through the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Dashboard or CLI, or Oracle VM Manager – while the Upgrader process is running, and until both management nodes have been successfully upgraded through the Upgrader. Although certain management functions cannot be programmatically locked during the upgrade, they are not supported, and are likely to cause configuration inconsistencies and considerable repair downtime.

    Once the upgrade has been successfully completed on both management nodes, you can safely execute appliance management tasks and configuration of the virtualized environment.

    As of Release , a separate command line tool is provided to manage the Controller Software update process. The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader requires only a couple of commands to execute several sets of tasks, which were scripted or manual steps in previous releases. The Upgrader is more robust and easily extensible, and provides a much better overall upgrade experience.

    A more detailed description of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader is included in the introductory chapter of this book. Refer to Section , “Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader”.

     Rebooting the Management Node Cluster

    It is advised to reboot both management nodes before starting the appliance software update. This leaves the management node cluster in the cleanest possible state, ensures that no system resources are occupied unnecessarily, and eliminates potential interference from processes that have not completed properly.

    Rebooting the Management Node Cluster

    1. Using SSH and an account with superuser privileges, log into both management nodes using the IP addresses you configured in the Network Setup tab of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Dashboard. If you use two separate consoles you can view both side by side.

    2. Run the command pca-check-master on both management nodes to verify which node owns the active role.

    3. Reboot the management node that is NOT currently the active node. Enter init 6 at the prompt.

    4. Ping the machine you rebooted. When it comes back online, reconnect using SSH and monitor system activity to determine when the secondary management node takes over the active role. Enter this command at the prompt: tail -f /var/log/messages. New system activity notifications will be output to the screen as they are logged.

    5. In the other SSH console, which is connected to the current active management node, enter init 6 to reboot the machine and initiate management node failover.

      The log messages in the other SSH console should now indicate when the secondary management node takes over the active role.

    6. Verify that both management nodes have come back online after reboot and that the active role has been transferred to the other manager. Run the command pca-check-master on both management nodes.

      If this is the case, proceed with the software update steps below.

     Installing the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader

    Always download and install the latest version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader before you execute any verification or upgrade procedures.

    Downloading and Installing the Latest Version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader

    1. Confirm which version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader is already on your system.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# yum search pca_upgrader pca_upgrader-<>arenaqq.us
    2. Log into My Oracle Support and download the latest version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader to a secure location, if it is newer than the version on your system.

      The Upgrader can be found under patch ID , and is included in part 1 of a series of downloadable zip files. Any updated versions of the Upgrader will be made available in the same location.

      To obtain the Upgrader package, download this zip file and extract the file .

      Once you have downloaded and extracted the series of Upgrader zip files, execute the script to assemble the ISO image from the zip files.

    3. If you downloaded a newer version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader, you must upgrade to the newer version. From the directory where the package was saved, run the command .

      Verify the new version was installed using the command.

    4. Copy the downloaded package to the active management node and install it.

      Note

      Install the version that matches the Oracle release that is currently running on the management node. For example, if you are upgrading the first management node to version , the current management node is running , so you must use the version for update. If you are upgrading the second management node, the first management node has been upgraded to version , so you must use the version for this update.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca-check-master NODE: MASTER: True root@ovcamn05r1 tmp]# yum install pca_arenaqq.us Preparing..########################################### [%] 1:pca_upgrader########################################### [%]

      Caution

      Always download and use the latest available version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader.

    5. Install the upgrade on the second management node.

     Verifying Upgrade Readiness

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader has a verify-only mode. It allows you to run all the pre-checks defined for a management node upgrade, without proceeding to the actual upgrade steps. The terminal output and log file report any issues you need to fix before the system is eligible for the next Controller Software update.

    Note

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader cannot be stopped by means of a keyboard interrupt or by closing the terminal session. After a keyboard interrupt () the Upgrader continues to execute all pre-checks. If the terminal session is closed, the Upgrader continues as a background process.

    If the Upgrader process needs to be terminated, enter this command .

    Verifying the Upgrade Readiness of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance

    1. Go to Oracle VM Manager and make sure that all compute nodes are in Running status. If any server is not in Running status, resolve the issue before proceeding.

      For help resolving issues to correct the compute node status, refer to the support note with Doc ID or contact Oracle Support.

    2. Perform the required manual pre-upgrade checks. Refer to Section , “Running Manual Pre- and Post-Upgrade Checks in Combination with Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader” for instructions.

    3. Log in to My Oracle Support and download the required Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software update.

      You can find the update by searching for the product name “Oracle Private Cloud Appliance”, or for the Patch or Bug Number associated with the update you need.

      Caution

      Read the information and follow the instructions in the file very carefully. It is crucial for a successful Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software update and Oracle VM upgrade.

    4. Make the update, a zipped ISO, available on an HTTP or FTP server that is reachable from your Oracle Private Cloud Appliance. Alternatively, if upgrade time is a major concern, you can download the ISO file to the local file system on both management nodes. This reduces the upgrade time for the management nodes, but has no effect on the time required to upgrade the compute nodes or the Oracle VM database.

      The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader downloads the ISO from the specified location and unpacks it on the management node automatically at runtime.

    5. Using SSH and an account with superuser privileges, log in to the active management node through its individually assigned IP address, not the shared virtual IP.

      Note

      During the upgrade process, the interface with the shared virtual IP address is shut down. Therefore, you must log in using the individually assigned IP address of the management node.

    6. From the active management node, run the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader in verify-only mode. The target of the command must be the stand-by management node.

      Note

      The console output below is an example. You may see a different output, depending on the specific architecture and configuration of your appliance.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca-check-master NODE: MASTER: True root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca_upgrader -V -t management -c ovcamn06r1 -g \ -l http:///arenaqq.us PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us for more details. Beginning PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Validate the Image Provided 1/44 Internal ZFSSA Available Space Check 2/44 MN Disk and Shared Storage Space Check 3/44 [] Oracle VM Minimum Version Check 41/44 OS Check 42/44 OSA Disabled Check 43/44 ZFSSA Network Configuration Check 44/44 PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks completed after 0 minutes PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Passed Validate the Image Provided Passed Internal ZFSSA Available Space Check Passed [] OS Check Passed Password Check Passed OSA Disabled Check Passed Overall Status Passed
    7. As the verification process runs, check the console output for test progress. When all pre-checks have been completed, a summary is displayed. A complete overview of the verification process is saved in the file .

      Some pre-checks may result in a warning. These warnings are unlikely to cause issues, and therefore do not prevent you from executing the upgrade, but they do indicate a situation that should be investigated. When an upgrade command is issued, warnings do cause the administrator to be prompted whether to proceed with the upgrade, or quit and investigate the warnings first.

    8. If pre-checks have failed, consult the log file for details. Fix the reported problems, then execute the verify command again.

      Note

      If errors related to SSL certificates are reported, check whether these have been re-generated using . This can cause inconsistencies between the information stored in the Wallet and the actual location of your certificate. For detailed information and instructions to resolve the issue, refer to the support note with Doc ID

    9. Repeat this process until no more pre-check failures are reported. When the system passes all pre-checks, it is ready for the Controller Software update.

     Executing a Controller Software Update

    During a Controller Software update, the virtualized environment does not accept any management operations. Ensure the storage network update has been completed, then upgrade the management node cluster, followed by the firmware upgrade on rack components, and finally, upgrade the compute nodes in phases. When you have planned all these upgrade tasks, and when you have successfully completed the upgrade readiness verification, your environment is ready for a Controller Software update and any additional upgrades.

    No upgrade procedure can be executed without completing the pre-checks. Therefore, the upgrade command first executes the same steps as in Section , “Verifying Upgrade Readiness”. After successful verification, the upgrade steps are started.

    Note

    The console output shown throughout this section is an example. You may see a different output, depending on the specific architecture and configuration of your appliance.

    Note

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader cannot be stopped by means of a keyboard interrupt or by closing the terminal session.

    After a keyboard interrupt () the Upgrader continues the current phase of the process. If pre-checks are in progress, they are all completed, but the upgrade phase does not start automatically after successful completion of all pre-checks. If the upgrade phase is in progress at the time of the keyboard interrupt, it continues until upgrade either completes successfully or fails.

    If the terminal session is closed, the Upgrader continues as a background process.

    If the Upgrader process needs to be terminated, enter this command: .

    Upgrading the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software

    1. Using SSH and an account with superuser privileges, log in to the active management node through its individually assigned IP address, not the shared virtual IP.

      Note

      During the upgrade process, the interface with the shared virtual IP address is shut down. Therefore, you must log in using the individually assigned IP address of the management node.

      NO MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS DURING UPGRADE

      Under no circumstances should you perform any management operations – through the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Dashboard or CLI, or Oracle VM Manager – while the Upgrader process is running, and until both management nodes have been successfully upgraded through the Upgrader.

    2. From the active management node, run the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader with the required upgrade parameters. The target of the command must be the stand-by management node.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca-check-master NODE: MASTER: True root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca_upgrader -U -t management -c ovcamn06r1 -g \ -l http:///arenaqq.us PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us for more details. Beginning PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks [] *********************************************************************** Warning: The management precheck completed with warnings. It is safe to continue with the management upgrade from this point or the upgrade can be halted to investigate the warnings. ************************************************************************ Do you want to continue? [y/n]: y

      After successfully completing the pre-checks, the Upgrader initiates the Controller Software update on the other management node. If errors occur during the upgrade phase, tasks are rolled back and the system is returned to its original state from before the upgrade command.

      Rollback works for errors that occur during these steps:

      Table  Steps That Support Upgrader Rollback

      Upgrading From Release

      Upgrading From Release

      • setting up the PXE directories

      • disabling the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance backups

      • downloading the ISO

      • generating PXE and Kickstart files

      • taking an Oracle VM backup

      • breaking the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance HA model

      • downloading the ISO

      • setting up the YUM repository

      • taking an Oracle VM backup

      • breaking the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance HA model


      Beginning PCA Management Node upgrade for ovcamn06r1 Setup PXE Directories 1/19 Disable PCA Backups 2/19 Download ISO 3/19 Generate PXE and Kickstart Files 4/19 Take OVM Backup 5/19 PCA Management Node upgrade of ovcamn06r1 completed after 83 minutes Beginning PCA Post-Upgrade Checks OVM Manager Cache Size Check 1/1 PCA Post-Upgrade Checks completed after 1 minutes PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Passed Validate the Image Provided Passed Rack Type Check Passed Internal ZFS 2T Space Check Passed [] PCA Management Node Upgrade Passed Setup PXE Directories Passed Passed [] Restore PCA Backups Passed Upgrade is complete Passed [] PCA Post-Upgrade Checks Passed OVM Manager Cache Size Check Passed Overall Status Passed PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Passed PCA Management Node Upgrade Passed PCA Post-Upgrade Checks Passed

      Tip

      When the ISO is copied to the local file system of both management nodes, the management node upgrade time is shortened. The duration of the entire upgrade process depends heavily on the size of the environment: the number of compute nodes and their configuration, the size of the Oracle VM database, etc, and can take from to several hours.

      If you choose to copy the ISO locally, replace the location URL in the pca_upgrader command with .

    3. Monitor the progress of the upgrade tasks. The console output provides a summary of each executed task. If you need more details on a task, or if an error occurs, consult the log file. You can track the logging activity in a separate console window by entering the command tail -f /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us.

      Note

      Once the upgrade tasks have started, it is no longer possible to perform a rollback to the previous state.

      # tail -f /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us

      When the upgrade tasks have been completed successfully, the active management node is rebooted, and the upgraded management node assumes the active role. The new active management node's operating system is now up-to-date, and it runs the new Controller Software version and upgraded Oracle VM Manager installation.

      Tip

      Rebooting the management node is expected to take up to 10 minutes.

      To monitor the reboot process and make sure the node comes back online as expected, log in to the rebooting management node ILOM.

      Broadcast message from root@ovcamn05r1 (pts/0) (Fri May 7 ): Management Node upgrade succeeded. The master manager will be rebooted to initiate failover in one minute.

      Caution

      Do not remove any files created during the upgrade process until completion of the second management node upgrade.

    4. Log into the upgraded management node, which has now become the active management node. Use its individually assigned IP address, not the shared virtual IP.

      [root@ovcamn06r1 ~]# pca-check-master NODE: MASTER: True [root@ovcamn06r1 ~]# head /etc/ovca-info ==== Begin build info ==== date: release: build: === Begin compute node info === compute_ovm_server_version: compute_ovm_server_build: compute_rpms_added: arenaqq.us arenaqq.us

      NO MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS DURING UPGRADE

      Under no circumstances should you perform any management operations – through the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Dashboard or CLI, or Oracle VM Manager – while the Upgrader process is running, and until both management nodes have been successfully upgraded through the Upgrader.

    5. From the new active management node, run the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader command again. The target of the command must be the stand-by management node, which is the original active management node from where you executed the command for the first run.

      root@ovcamn06r1 ~]# pca_upgrader -U -t management -c ovcamn05r1 -g \ -l http:///arenaqq.us PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader_arenaqq.us for more details. Beginning PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks [] *********************************************************************** Warning: The management precheck completed with warnings. It is safe to continue with the management upgrade from this point or the upgrade can be halted to investigate the warnings. ************************************************************************ Do you want to continue? [y/n]: y Beginning PCA Management Node upgrade for ovcamn05r1 [] Overall Status Passed PCA Management Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Passed PCA Management Node Upgrade Passed PCA Post-Upgrade Checks Passed Broadcast message from root@ovcamn05r1 (pts/3) (Mon Apr 19 ): Management Node upgrade succeeded. The master manager will be rebooted to initiate failover in one minute.

      The upgrade steps are executed the same way as during the first run. When the second management node is rebooted, the process is complete. At this point, both management nodes run the updated Oracle Linux operating system, Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software, and Oracle VM Manager. The high-availability cluster configuration of the management nodes is restored, and all Oracle Private Cloud Appliance and Oracle VM Manager management functionality is operational again. However, do not perform any management operations until you have completed the required manual post-upgrade checks.

    6. Perform the required manual post-upgrade checks on management nodes and compute nodes. Refer to Section , “Running Manual Pre- and Post-Upgrade Checks in Combination with Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader” for instructions.

     Upgrading Component Firmware

    All the software components in a given Oracle Private Cloud Appliance release are designed to work together. As a general rule, no individual appliance component should be upgraded. If a firmware upgrade is required for one or more components, the correct version is distributed inside the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance file you downloaded from My Oracle Support. When the image file is unpacked on the internal shared storage, the firmwares are located in this directory: .

    Warning

    Do not perform any compute node provisioning operations during firmware upgrades.

    Caution

    For certain services it is necessary to upgrade the Hardware Management Pack after a Controller Software update. For additional information, refer to "Some Services Require an Upgrade of Hardware Management Pack" in the Known Limitations and Workarounds section of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes.

    If a specific or additional procedure to upgrade the firmware of an Oracle Private Cloud Appliance hardware component is available, it appears in this section. For components not listed here, you may follow the instructions provided in the product documentation of the subcomponent. An overview of the documentation for appliance components can be found in the Preface of this book and on the index page of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Documentation Library.

    To improve Oracle Private Cloud Appliance supportability, reliability and security, Oracle has introduced a standardized approach to component firmware. The general rule remains unchanged: components and their respective firmware are designed to work together, and therefore should not be upgraded separately. However, the firmware upgrades, which are provided as part of the file of a given controller software release, are no longer optional.

    As part of the test process prior to a software release, combinations of component firmware are tested on all applicable hardware platforms. This allows Oracle to deliver a fully qualified set of firmware for the appliance as a whole, corresponding to a software release. In order to maintain their Oracle Private Cloud Appliance in a qualified state, customers who upgrade to a particular software release, are expected to also install all the qualified firmware upgrades delivered as part of the controller software.

    The firmware versions that have been qualified by Oracle for a given release are listed in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes for that release. Please refer to the Release Notes for the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software release running on your system, and open the chapter Firmware Qualification.

    Note that the file names shown in the procedures below may not exactly match the file names in the image on your system.

    Interim Firmware Patches

    Oracle periodically releases firmware patches for many products, for example to limit security vulnerabilities. It may occur that an important firmware patch is released for a component of Oracle Private Cloud Appliance outside of the normal Controller Software release schedule. When this occurs, the patches go through the same testing as all other appliance firmware, but they are not added to the qualified firmware list or the installation for the affected Controller Software release.

    After thorough testing, important firmware patches that cannot be included in the Controller Software image are made available to Oracle Private Cloud Appliance users through My Oracle Support.

     Install the Current Firmware on the Management Nodes

    To avoid compatibility issues with newer Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software and Oracle VM upgrades, you should always install the server ILOM firmware included in the ISO image of the current Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software release. When the ISO image is unpacked on the appliance internal storage, the firmware directory can be reached from the management nodes at this location: .

    Installing the Current Firmware on the Management Nodes

    1. Log in to the stand-by management node as root and extract the management node firmware from the directory.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# cd /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/compute/X_FIRMWARE/ [root@ovcamn05r1 X_FIRMWARE]# unzip p__arenaqq.us
    2. Upgrade the firmware using the command. For example:

      -> load -source sftp://root@/nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/compute/X_FIRMWARE/ \ Oracle_Server_XFIRMWARE_PACK/Firmware/service-processor/ILOM--ORACLE_SERVER_arenaqq.us
    3. Respond yes load the file, and to perserve the existing SP and BIOS configurations, then respond no to delay the BIOS upgrade, which will trigger the management node reboot.

      The reboot should take about 10 minutes.

    4. If the prechecks indicate you need to update the firmware on your RAID card, do so now.

      Navigate to the location of the extracted firmware and install the card firmware. For example:

      # cd /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/compute/X_FIRMWARE/ \ Oracle_Server_XFIRMWARE_PACK/Firmware/SASi # fwupdate update controller -x arenaqq.us
    5. Once the stand-by management node comes back online, reboot the active management node and initiate failover to the newly-updated management node.

    6. Log in to the newly-updated management node and run the command to confirm it is now the active node.

    7. Now that one management node is upgraded and has assumed the active role, repeat this procedure to upgrade the firmware on the other management node.

     Upgrading the Operating Software on the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance

    The instructions in this section are specific for a component firmware upgrade as part of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

    Caution

    During this procedure, the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance services on the management nodes must be halted for a period of time. Plan this upgrade carefully, so that no compute node provisioning, Oracle Private Cloud Appliance configuration changes, or Oracle VM Manager operations are taking place at the same time.

    Warning

    The statement below regarding the two-phased procedure does not apply to X or newer systems. The Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance ZS comes with a more recent firmware version that is not affected by the issue described.

    If the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance is running a firmware version older than , an intermediate upgrade to version is required. Version can then be upgraded to the intended newer version. For additional information, refer to "Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Firmware Upgrade Requires A Two-Phased Procedure" in the Known Limitations and Workarounds section of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes.

    Note

    Detailed information about software upgrades can be found in the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Customer Service Manual (document ID: F). Refer to the section “Upgrading the Software”.

    The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance internal ZFS Storage Appliance contains two clustered controllers in an active/passive configuration. You may disregard the upgrade information for standalone controllers.

    Upgrading the ZFS Storage Appliance Operating Software

    1. Before initiating the upgrade on the storage controllers, follow the preparation instructions in the Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance Customer Service Manual. Refer to the section entitled “Preparing for a Software Upgrade”.

    2. Log on to the active management node using SSH and an account with superuser privileges.

    3. If you are upgrading a ZFS Storage Appliance running firmware version or newer, skip this step and proceed to the next step.

      If you are upgrading a ZFS Storage Appliance running a firmware version older than , unzip the firmware package included in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software image.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# mkdir /nfs/shared_storage/yum/ak [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# cd /nfs/shared_storage/yum/ak [root@ovcamn05r1 ak]# unzip /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/storage/AK_NAS/p__arenaqq.us Archive: /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/storage/AK_NAS/p__arenaqq.us extracting: arenaqq.us inflating: OS_arenaqq.us
    4. Select the appropriate software update package:

      Caution

      The procedure shows the upgrade to version IDR. For an upgrade to version , substitute the file name in the commands as shown here.

      • Version IDR -

      • Version -

      Download the software update package to both storage controllers. Their management IP addresses are and

      1. Log on to one of the storage controllers using SSH and an account with superuser privileges.

        [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# ssh root@ Password: ovcasn01r1:>
      2. Enter the following series of commands to download the software update package from the shared storage directory to the controller.

        ovcasn01r1:> maintenance system updates ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates> download ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates download (uncommitted)> \ set url=http:///storage//FW_Updates/release_folders//zfs//arenaqq.us url = http:///storage//FW_Updates/release_folders//zfs//arenaqq.us ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates download (uncommitted)> commit Transferred G of G (%) done Unpacking done
      3. Wait for the package to fully download and unpack before proceeding.

      4. Repeat these steps for the second storage controller.

    5. Check the storage cluster configuration and make sure you are logged on to the standby controller.

      ovcasn02r1:> configuration cluster show Properties: state = AKCS_STRIPPED description = Ready (waiting for failback) peer_asn = 80efcaaa-8cfb3c8af3b peer_hostname = ovcasn01r1 peer_state = AKCS_OWNER peer_description = Active (takeover completed) Children: resources => Configure resources
    6. Always upgrade the operating software first on the standby controller.

      1. Display the available operating software versions and select the version you downloaded.

        ovcasn02r1:> maintenance system updates ovcasn02r1:maintenance system updates> ls Updates: UPDATE RELEASE DATE STATUS ak-nas@, previous ak-nas@, previous ak-nas@, current ak-nas@, waiting * ak-nas@, waiting [*] : Interim Diagnostics and Relief (IDR) Deferred updates: The appliance is currently configured as part of a cluster. The cluster peer may have shared resources for which deferred updates are available. After all updates are completed, check both cluster peers for any deferred updates. ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates> select ak-nas@,
      2. Run health checks on the system before you upgrade.

        ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates ak-nas@,> check You have requested to run checks associated with waiting upgrade media. This will execute the same set of checks as will be performed as part of any upgrade attempt to this media, and will highlight conditions that would prevent successful upgrade. No actual upgrade will be attempted, and the checks performed are of static system state and non-invasive. Do you wish to continue? Are you sure? (Y/N) y Healthcheck running - Healthcheck completed. There are no issues at this time which would cause an upgrade to this media to be aborted.
      3. Launch the upgrade process with the selected software version.

        ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates ak-nas@,> upgrade The system is currently running an IDR. You might negate the fix provided with the current IDR. You may still continue. This procedure will consume several minutes and requires a system reboot upon successful update, but can be aborted at any time prior to reboot. A health check will validate system readiness before an update is attempted, and may also be executed independently by clicking the Check button. Are you sure? (Y/N) y Updating from ak/nas@, Loading media metadata done. Selecting alternate product SUNW,maguroZ7 Installing Oracle ZFS Storage ZS , pkg://arenaqq.us,maguroZ7@,TZ Creating system/ak-nas_ done. Creating system/ak-nas_/install done. Creating system/ak-nas_/boot done. Creating system/ak-nas_/root done. Creating system/ak-nas_/install/svc done. Creating system/ak-nas_/install/var done. Creating system/ak-nas_/install/home done. Creating system/ak-nas_/install/stash done. Creating system/ak-nas_/wiki done. Extracting os image done. Customizing Solaris done. Creating driver_arenaqq.usum done. Updating vfstab done. Generating usr/man windex done. Generating usr/gnu/share/man windex done. Generating usr/perl5/man windex done. Preserving ssh keys done. Configuring smf(5) done. Extracting appliance kit Creating private passwd and shadow files done. Creating private smbshadow file done. Creating product symlink done. Registering update job eb3ad7cbb8b8d3e8a done. Creating install profile done. Assigning appliance serial number 8ac3f3ebd2b-ee33fc76c0f4 Determining chassis serial number XD Setting appliance product string SUNW,maguroZ7 Setting appliance product class nas Setting install timestamp done. Setting virtualization status done. Saving SSL keys done. Updating phone-home key done. Saving currently running profile done. Installing firmware done. Installing device links done. Installing device files done. Updating device links done. Updating /etc done. Creating /.domainroot done. Installing boot amd64/unix done. Assembling etc/system.d done. Creating factory reset boot archive done. Generating GRUB2 configuration done. Installing GRUB2 configuration done. Snapshotting zfs filesystems done. Installation complete - unmounting datasets Creating boot archive done. done Update completed; rebooting. Connection to closed.
      4. Update the Oracle ILOM version on the controller.

        ovcasn01r1:> maintenance system reboot Upgrading both the Service Processor and host firmware and rebooting. This process will take several minutes. During this process the service processor will reboot and access to the console via the Net MGMT port will be interrupted. After the service processor upgrade is complete the host will power down for five to ten minutes in order to apply the new host firmware. When the host firmware upgrade is complete the host will power on and boot automatically. DO NOT INTERRUPT THIS PROCESS. Are you sure? (Y/N) y Connection to closed.
      5. At the end of the upgrade, when the controller has fully rebooted and rejoined the cluster, log back in and check the cluster configuration. The upgraded controller must still be in the state "Ready (waiting for failback)".

        ovcasn01r1:> configuration version show Appliance Name: ovcasn01r1 Appliance Product: Oracle ZFS Storage ZS Appliance Type: Sun ZFS Storage Appliance Version: , First Installed: Sun Mar 03 GMT+ (UTC) Last Updated: Fri Apr 23 GMT+ (UTC) Last Booted: Fri Apr 23 GMT+ (UTC) Appliance Serial Number: a3xxxxx-1xx0x-bxxdefg Chassis Serial Number: 1XXXXXXX Software Part Number: Oracle Vendor Product ID: ORACLE-ZFS-ZS Browser Name: aksh Browser Details: aksh HTTP Server: Apache/ (Unix) SSL Version: OpenSSL u-fips 20 Dec Appliance Kit: ak/SUNW,maguroZ7@, Release Name: OS Operating System: SunOS bit BIOS: American Megatrends Inc. (BIOS) (BIOS) Service Processor: r ovcasn01r1:>
    7. From the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance active management node, stop the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance services.

      Caution

      You must perform this step if you are upgrading to Controller Software versions , , or Is not required when upgrading to Controller Software version or later. Executing the storage controller operating software upgrade while the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance services are running, will result in errors and possible downtime.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# service ovca stop
    8. Upgrade the operating software on the second storage controller.

      1. Check the storage cluster configuration. Make sure you are logged on to the active controller.

        ovcasn01r1:> configuration cluster show Properties: state = AKCS_OWNER description = Active (takeover completed) peer_asn = 34eaae-6ce1-e26c-cc38c2af peer_hostname = ovcasn02r1 peer_state = AKCS_STRIPPED peer_description = Ready (waiting for failback)
      2. Display the available operating software versions and select the version you downloaded.

        ovcasn01r1:> maintenance system updates ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates> show Updates: UPDATE RELEASE DATE RELEASE NAME STATUS ak-nas@, OS previous ak-nas@, OS current ak-nas@, OS waiting ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates> select ak-nas@,
      3. Launch the upgrade process with the selected software version.

        ovcasn01r1:maintenance system updates> upgrade This procedure will consume several minutes and requires a system reboot upon successful update, but can be aborted with [Control-C] at any time prior to reboot. A health check will validate system readiness before an update is attempted, and may also be executed independently using the check command. Are you sure? (Y/N) Y
      4. At the end of the upgrade, when the controller has fully rebooted and rejoined the cluster, log back in and check the cluster configuration.

        ovcasn01r1:> configuration cluster show Properties: state = AKCS_STRIPPED description = Ready (waiting for failback) peer_asn = 34eaae-6ce1-e26c-cc38c2af peer_hostname = ovcasn02r1 peer_state = AKCS_OWNER peer_description = Active (takeover completed)

        The last upgraded controller must now be in the state "Ready (waiting for failback)". The controller that was upgraded first, took over the active role during the upgrade and reboot of the second controller, which held the active role originally.

    9. Now that both controllers have been upgraded, verify that all disks are online.

      ovcasn01r1:> maintenance hardware show [] NAME STATE MANUFACTURER MODEL SERIAL RPM TYPE chassis NMQ ok Oracle Oracle Storage DEC NMQ hdd disk HDD 0 ok WDC WAORAT N3VKLT 9JG3VKLT data disk HDD 1 ok WDC WAORAT N5K85T 9JG5K85T data disk HDD 2 ok WDC WAORAT N5MPXT 9JG5MPXT data disk HDD 3 ok WDC WAORAT N5L08T 9JG5L08T data disk HDD 4 ok WDC WAORAT N42KNT 9JG42KNT data []
    10. Initiate an Oracle Private Cloud Appliance management node failover and wait until all services are restored on the other management node. This helps prevent connection issues between Oracle VM and the ZFS storage.

      1. Log on to the active management node using SSH and an account with superuser privileges.

      2. Reboot the active management node.

        [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca-check-master NODE: MASTER: True [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# shutdown -r now
      3. Log on to the other management node and wait until the necessary services are running.

        Note

        Enter this command at the prompt: tail -f /var/log/messages. The log messages should indicate when the management node takes over the active role.

        Verify the status of the services:

        [root@ovcamn06r1 ~]# service ovca status Checking Oracle Fabric Manager: Running MySQL running () [ OK ] Oracle VM Manager is running Oracle VM Manager CLI is running tinyproxy (pid ) is running dhcpd (pid ) is running snmptrapd (pid ) is running log server (pid ) is running remaster server (pid ) is running http server (pid ) is running taskmonitor server (pid ) is running xmlrpc server (pid ) is running nodestate server (pid ) is running sync server (pid ) is running monitor server (pid ) is running
    11. When the storage controller cluster has been upgraded, remove the shared storage directory you created to make the unzipped package available.

      # cd /nfs/shared_storage/yum/ak # ls ak-nas@,arenaqq.us OS_arenaqq.us # rm ak-nas@,arenaqq.us OS_arenaqq.us rm: remove regular file `arenaqq.us'? yes rm: remove regular file `OS_arenaqq.us'? yes # cd .. # rmdir ak

     Upgrading the Cisco Switch Firmware

    The instructions in this section are specific for a component firmware upgrade as part of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance. The Cisco switches require two upgrade procedures: upgrading the Cisco NX-OS software and upgrading the electronic programmable logic device (EPLD). Perform both procedures on each of the switches.

    Caution

    When upgrading to Controller Software release , it is critical that you perform the upgrade operations in the correct order. This means the Cisco switch firmware must be upgraded after the management node upgrade, but before the storage network upgrade.

    Do not make any spine switch configuration changes until all the upgrade operations have been completed, otherwise you could lose access to the storage network. See the "Loading Incompatible Spine Switch Configuration Causes Storage Network Outage" topic in the Known Limitations and Workarounds section of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes.

    Upgrading the Cisco NX-OS Software of all Cisco Leaf, Spine, and Management Switches

    1. Log on to the active management node using SSH and an account with superuser privileges.

    2. Verify that the new Cisco NX-OS software image is available on the appliance shared storage. During the Controller Software update, the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader copies the file to this location:

      /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet/Cisco/nxosIbin
    3. Log on as admin to the switch you wish to upgrade.

      root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# ssh admin@ovcasw15r1 User Access Verification Password: ovcasw15r1#

      Please upgrade the switches, one at a time, in this order:

      1. Leaf Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw15r1, ovcasw16r1

      2. Spine Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw22r1, ovcasw23r1

      3. Management Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch: ovcasw21r1

    4. Copy the Cisco NX-OS software file to the bootflash location on the switch.

      The copy command for the management switch ovcasw21r1 is slightly different. Select the appropriate option.

      • Leaf and Spine switches:

        ovcasw15r1# copy scp://root@//nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet \ /Cisco/nxosIbin bootflash:nxosIbin vrf root@'s password: nxosIbin % MB MB/s Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.
      • Management switch:

        ovcasw21r1# copy scp://root@//nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet \ /Cisco/nxosIbin bootflash:nxosIbin vrf root@'s password: nxosIbin % MB MB/s Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.
    5. Verify the impact of the software upgrade.

      ovcasw15r1# show install all impact nxos bootflash:nxosIbin Installer will perform impact only check. Please wait. Verifying image bootflash:/nxosIbin for boot variable "nxos". [####################] % -- SUCCESS Verifying image type. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Preparing "nxos" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Preparing "bios" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Performing module support checks. Notifying services about system upgrade. Compatibility check is done: Module bootable Impact Install-type Reason 1 yes disruptive reset default upgrade is not hitless Images will be upgraded according to following table: Module Image Running-Version(pri:alt) New-Version Upg-Required 1 nxos (3)I7(7) (3)I7(8) yes 1 bios v(06/12/):v(09/08/) v(06/12/) no
    6. Save the current running configuration as the startup configuration.

      ovcasw15r1# copy running-config startup-config [########################################] % Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.
    7. Install the Cisco NX-OS software that was copied to the bootflash location. When prompted about the disruptive upgrade, enter y to continue with the installation.

      ovcasw15r1# install all nxos bootflash:nxosIbin Installer will perform compatibility check first. Please wait. Installer is forced disruptive Verifying image bootflash:/nxosIbin for boot variable "nxos". [####################] % -- SUCCESS Verifying image type. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Preparing "nxos" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Preparing "bios" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Performing module support checks. Notifying services about system upgrade. Compatibility check is done: Module bootable Impact Install-type Reason 1 yes disruptive reset default upgrade is not hitless Images will be upgraded according to following table: Module Image Running-Version(pri:alt) New-Version Upg-Required 1 nxos (3)I7(7) (3)I7(8) yes 1 bios v(06/12/):v(09/08/) v(06/12/) no Switch will be reloaded for disruptive upgrade. Do you want to continue with the installation (y/n)? [n] y Install is in progress, please wait. Performing runtime checks. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Setting boot variables. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Performing configuration copy. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Module 1: Refreshing compact flash and upgrading bios/loader/bootrom. Warning: please do not remove or power off the module at this time. [####################] % -- SUCCESS Finishing the upgrade, switch will reboot in 10 seconds.
    8. After switch reboot, confirm the install succeeded.

      ovcasw15r1# show install all status This is the log of last installation. Verifying image bootflash:/nxosIbin for boot variable "nxos". -- SUCCESS Verifying image type. -- SUCCESS Preparing "nxos" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. -- SUCCESS Preparing "bios" version info using image bootflash:/nxosIbin. -- SUCCESS Performing module support checks. -- SUCCESS Notifying services about system upgrade. -- SUCCESS Compatibility check is done: Module bootable Impact Install-type Reason 1 yes disruptive reset default upgrade is not hitless Images will be upgraded according to following table: Module Image Running-Version(pri:alt) New-Version Upg-Required 1 nxos (3)I7(7) (3)I7(8) yes 1 bios v(06/12/):v(09/08/) v(06/12/) no Switch will be reloaded for disruptive upgrade. Install is in progress, please wait. Performing runtime checks. -- SUCCESS Setting boot variables. -- SUCCESS Performing configuration copy. -- SUCCESS Module 1: Refreshing compact flash and upgrading bios/loader/bootrom. Warning: please do not remove or power off the module at this time. -- SUCCESS Finishing the upgrade, switch will reboot in 10 seconds.
    9. Verify that the correct software version is active on the switch.

      ovcasw15r1# show version Cisco Nexus Operating System (NX-OS) Software TAC support: arenaqq.us Copyright (C) , Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. [] Software BIOS: version NXOS: version (3)I7(8) BIOS compile time: 06/12/ NXOS image file is: bootflash:///nxosIbin NXOS compile time: 3/3/ [03/04/ ] [] ovcasw15r1#
    10. Verify the VPC status.

      Note

      This step does not apply to the appliance internal management network switch (Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch). Proceed to the next step.

      Use the command shown below. The output values should match this example.

      ovcasw15r1# show vpc brief Legend: (*) - local vPC is down, forwarding via vPC peer-link vPC domain id : 2 Peer status : peer adjacency formed ok < verify this field vPC keep-alive status : peer is alive < verify this field Configuration consistency status : success < verify this field Per-vlan consistency status : success < verify this field Type-2 consistency status : success < verify this field vPC role : primary, operational secondary Number of vPCs configured : 27 Peer Gateway : Enabled Dual-active excluded VLANs : - Graceful Consistency Check : Enabled Auto-recovery status : Disabled Delay-restore status : Timer is off.(timeout = 30s) Delay-restore SVI status : Timer is off.(timeout = 10s) Operational Layer3 Peer-router : Enabled
    11. Log out of the switch. The firmware has been upgraded successfully.

    12. Proceed to the next Cisco switch in the appliance. Upgrade the switches, one at a time, in this order:

      1. Leaf Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw15r1, ovcasw16r1

      2. Spine Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw22r1, ovcasw23r1

      3. Management Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch: ovcasw21r1

        Note

        During the upgrade of switch software on the management switch, there will be network disruption between compute nodes, management nodes, the storage node, and Leaf and Spine switch management connections. This occurs due to the reboot of the switch as part of the upgrade process.

      Caution

      Once an upgrade to Controller Software release or later is complete on the spine switches, do not attempt to reload a spine switch backup from a prior software release. This could cause the management nodes to lose access to the storage network.

    Upgrading the Electronic Programmable Logic Device (EPLD) of all Cisco Leaf, Spine, and Management Switches

    The instructions in this section are specific for a component firmware upgrade as part of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

    1. Log on to the active management node using SSH and an account with superuser privileges.

    2. Verify that the new Cisco NX-OS EPLD firmware image is available on the appliance shared storage. During the Controller Software update, the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader copies the file to this location:

      /nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet/Cisco/nepldIimg
    3. Log on as admin to the switch you wish to upgrade.

      root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# ssh admin@ovcasw15r1 User Access Verification Password: ovcasw15r1#

      Please upgrade the switches, one at a time, in this order:

      1. Leaf Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw15r1, ovcasw16r1

      2. Spine Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw22r1, ovcasw23r1

      3. Management Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch: ovcasw21r1

    4. Copy the firmware file to the bootflash location on the switch.

      The copy command for the management switch ovcasw21r1 is slightly different. Select the appropriate option.

      • Leaf and Spine switches:

        ovcasw15r1# copy scp://root@//nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet \ /Cisco/nepldIimg bootflash:nepldIimg vrf root@'s password: nepldIimg % MB MB/s Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.
      • Management switch:

        ovcasw21r1# copy scp://root@//nfs/shared_storage/mgmt_image/firmware/ethernet \ /Cisco/nepldIimg bootflash:nepldIimg vrf root@'s password: nepldIimg % MB MB/s Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.
    5. Verify the impact of the EPLD upgrade.

      ovcasw15r1# show install all impact epld bootflash:nepldIimg Retrieving EPLD versions Please wait. Images will be upgraded according to following table: Module Type EPLD Running-Version New-Version Upg-Required 1 SUP MI FPGA 0x04 0x05 Yes 1 SUP IO FPGA 0x09 0x11 Yes Compatibility check: Module Type Upgradable Impact Reason 1 SUP Yes disruptive Module Upgradable
    6. Save the current running configuration as the startup configuration.

      ovcasw15r1# copy running-config startup-config [########################################] % Copy complete, now saving to disk (please wait) Copy complete.

      Note

      You must upgrade the primary and golden regions of the FPGA, however only one upgrade is allowed per reload to avoid programming errors. The next steps describe upgrading both regions of the FPGA.

    7. Install the Cisco EPLD software that was copied to the bootflash location to the primary region of the FPGA. When prompted about the switch reload, enter y to continue with the installation.

      ovcasw15r1# install epld bootflash:nepldIimg module 1 Digital signature verification is successful Compatibility check: Module Type Upgradable Impact Reason 1 SUP Yes disruptive Module Upgradable Retrieving EPLD versions Please wait. Images will be upgraded according to following table: Module Type EPLD Running-Version New-Version Upg-Required 1 SUP MI FPGA 0x04 0x05 No 1 SUP IO FPGA 0x09 0x11 Yes The above modules require upgrade. The switch will be reloaded at the end of the upgrade Do you want to continue (y/n) ? [n] y Proceeding to upgrade Modules. Starting Module 1 EPLD Upgrade Module 1 : IO FPGA [Programming] : % ( 64 of 64 sectors) Module 1 EPLD upgrade is successful. Module Type Upgrade-Result 1 SUP Success EPLDs upgraded. Module 1 EPLD upgrade is successful. Reseting Active SUP (Module 1) FPGAs. Please wait

      Caution

      Do not interrupt, power cycle, or reload the switch during the upgrade.

    8. The switch reloads automatically and boots from the backup FPGA. Confirm the primary module upgrade succeeded.

      ovcasw15r1# show version module 1 epld EPLD Device Version MI FPGA 0x5 IO FPGA 0x9

      At this point, the version is upgraded, but the version is not upgraded.

    9. Install the Cisco EPLD software that was copied to the bootflash location to the golden region of the FPGA. When prompted about the switch reload, enter y to continue with the installation.

      ovcasw15r1# install epld bootflash:nepldIimg module 1 golden Digital signature verification is successful Compatibility check: Module Type Upgradable Impact Reason 1 SUP Yes disruptive Module Upgradable Retrieving EPLD versions Please wait. The above modules require upgrade. The switch will be reloaded at the end of the upgrade Do you want to continue (y/n) ? [n] y Proceeding to upgrade Modules. Starting Module 1 EPLD Upgrade Module 1 : MI FPGA [Programming] : % ( 64 of 64 sectors) Module 1 : IO FPGA [Programming] : % ( 64 of 64 sectors) Module 1 EPLD upgrade is successful. Module Type Upgrade-Result 1 SUP Success EPLDs upgraded. Module 1 EPLD upgrade is successful. Reseting Active SUP (Module 1) FPGAs. Please wait

      Caution

      Do not interrupt, power cycle, or reload the switch during the upgrade.

    10. The switch reloads automatically and boots from the backup FPGA. Confirm the both upgrades succeeded.

      ovcasw15r1# show version module 1 epld EPLD Device Version MI FPGA 0x5 IO FPGA 0x11
    11. Verify the VPC status.

      Note

      This step does not apply to the appliance internal management network switch (Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch). Proceed to the next step.

      Use the command shown below. The output values should match this example.

      ovcasw15r1# show vpc brief Legend: (*) - local vPC is down, forwarding via vPC peer-link vPC domain id : 2 Peer status : peer adjacency formed ok < verify this field vPC keep-alive status : peer is alive < verify this field Configuration consistency status : success < verify this field Per-vlan consistency status : success < verify this field Type-2 consistency status : success < verify this field vPC role : primary, operational secondary Number of vPCs configured : 27 Peer Gateway : Enabled Dual-active excluded VLANs : - Graceful Consistency Check : Enabled Auto-recovery status : Disabled Delay-restore status : Timer is off.(timeout = 30s) Delay-restore SVI status : Timer is off.(timeout = 10s) Operational Layer3 Peer-router : Enabled
    12. Log out of the switch. The firmware has been upgraded successfully.

    13. Proceed to the next Cisco switch in the appliance. Upgrade the switches, one at a time, in this order:

      1. Leaf Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw15r1, ovcasw16r1

      2. Spine Cisco Nexus C-FX2 Switches: ovcasw22r1, ovcasw23r1

      3. Management Cisco Nexus GC-FXP Switch: ovcasw21r1

        Note

        During the upgrade of switch software on the management switch, there will be network disruption between compute nodes, management nodes, the storage node, and Leaf and Spine switch management connections. This occurs due to the reboot of the switch as part of the upgrade process.

     Install the Current Firmware on All Compute Nodes

    Always install the server ILOM and component firmware included in the ISO image of the current Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software release. When the ISO image is unpacked on the appliance internal storage, the firmware directory can be reached from the management nodes at this location: .

    For firmware upgrade instructions, refer to the Administration Guide of the server series installed in your appliance rack. Supported firmware versions are listed in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes.

    The following task map outlines the steps you should consider as you update compute node firmware.

    Table  Compute Node Firmware Upgrade Task Map

    Component

    Resources

    Migrate any VMs off of the compute nodes

    See Migrate or Move Virtual Machines

    Update CX5 card firmware

    For general card update instructions, see: Oracle Support Document

    • For Oracle Server X CX5 upgrades use the file.

    • For Oracle Server X CX5 upgrades use the file. For more information refer to the Read Me file at .

      NOTE: Do not upgrade to the Mellanox firmware provided in . That file contains an outdated CX5 firmware version.

    Update RAID Controller firmware

    For general card update instructions, see: Oracle Support Document

    For Oracle Server X, the RAID firmware is upgraded when the ILOM/BIOS is upgraded, so no further action is necessary.

    Update server ILOM/BIOS firmware

    For general ILOM/BIOS firmware update instructions, see: Updating System Firmware Using Oracle ILOM

    Proceed to Upgrading the Compute Node Software

    Section , “Upgrading the Compute Node Software”


     Upgrading the Compute Node Software

    Starting with Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Sofware release , the compute node upgrade procedure has been revamped and includes reprovisioning the servers to upgrade both the operating system and the Oracle VM virtualization platform using the tool.

    Caution

    Do not make any management changes during the entire compute node upgrade procedure.

    Note

    Prior to this release, compute nodes were updated using the command. This update method is no longer supported.

    To successfully upgrade a compute node the tool performs several pre-checks to ensure the node is ready for upgrade. After succesfully completing the pre-checks, the upgrader proceeds to these tasks:

    1. Backs up the compute node configuration information: including network, repository, and storage information. Backups are stored here:

    2. Reprovisions the compute node with the latest operating system and Oracle VM Server version.

    3. Restores the compute node configuration information.

    Essentially, the upgrade process involves a complete re-imaging of the compute node to reinstall the latest operating system and Oracle VM server versions, and this process can take around an hour. Any other applications installed on your compute nodes will be removed during the upgrade procedure. Make sure to back up any applications you want to restore to the compute nodes after upgrade.

    Upgrading a Compute Node

    Caution

    Execute this procedure on each compute node after the software update on the management nodes has completed successfully. The management node upgrade creates the compute node image required for the following procedure.

    Caution

    If compute nodes are running other packages that are not part of Oracle Private Cloud Appliance, these must be backed up before upgrade.

    Caution

    Do not use the , , and CLI commands during the compute node upgrade procedure.

    1. Make sure that the mangement nodes are updated to the new release.

      You can verify this by logging into the active management node and entering the following command in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance CLI:

      # pca-admin Welcome to PCA! Release: PCA> show version Version Build Date Status: Success

      Leave the console and CLI connection open. You need to run the upgrade command later in this procedure.

    2. Migrate all running virtual machines away from the compute node you want to upgrade.

      Information on migrating virtual machines is provided in the Oracle VM Manager User's Guide section entitled Migrate or Move Virtual Machines.

    3. Remove any Repository Exports on the compute node being upgraded.

      For more information see the Oracle VM Manager User's Guide section entitled Delete Repository Export.

    4. Back up any other installed packages that are not part of Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

      If you have installed any other software on the compute node, back it up now; you will need to restore it once the upgrade is finished. See Section , “Backup Local Customizations”.

    5. From the active management node, run the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader in verify-only mode on the compute node.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca_upgrader -V -t compute -c ovcacn07r1 PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader__07_log for more details. Beginning PCA Compute Node Pre-Upgrade Checks log for more details.

      The upgrader performs several pre-checks. If any pre-check fails, refer to the log file for details on any failures and fix those failures before running the upgrade. Find the compute node log files in this directory on the shared storage: .

      If your pre-checks fail, ensure the compute node local repository is empty. For details, see the Pre-Upgrade Check of Local Repository to Ensure Target Compute Node is Empty section in the Known Limitations and Workarounds.

      If you encounter FC HBA LUN errors, apply the command to resolve the issue. If that does not resolve the issues, see the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes for more information about LUN errors.

    6. From the active management node, run the upgrade for the designated compute node.

      [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# pca_upgrader -U -t compute -c ovcacn07r1 PCA Rack Type: PCA X8_BASE. Please refer to log file /nfs/shared_storage/pca_upgrader/log/pca_upgrader__07_log for more details. Beginning PCA Compute Node Pre-Upgrade Checks Check target Compute Node exists 1/10 Check the provisioning lock is not set 2/10 Check LUN and LUN path counts for FC HBA cards 3/10 Check GRUB customizations 4/10 Check OVCA release on Management Nodes 5/10 Check Compute Node's Tenant matches Server Pool 6/10 Check target Compute Node has no local networks VNICs 7/10 Check no physical disks on target Compute Node have repositories 8/10 Check local repository of target Compute Node is empty 9/10 Check target Compute Node has no VMs 10/10 PCA Compute Node Pre-Upgrade Checks completed after 0 minutes Beginning PCA Compute Node Upgrade Place Compute Upgrade Locks 1/6 Backup Compute Node customizations 2/6 Unpresent repositories from Compute Node 3/6 Upgrade the Compute Node 4/6 Restore Compute Node customizations 5/6 Remove Compute Upgrade Locks 6/6 PCA Compute Node upgrade completed after 42 minutes Beginning PCA Compute Node Post-Upgrade Checks log for more details.
    7. Once the tool completes the upgrade, log in to the Oracle VM Manager and confirm the compute node has been returned to the correct server pool.

    8. Restore any other software that was on the compute node.

    9. Repeat this procedure for each compute node in your Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

    After successful completion of the upgrade, the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance is ready to resume all normal operations.

    Источник: [arenaqq.us]
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    OpenLiberty / arenaqq.us Public

    Collection of Maven plugins and archetypes for managing Open Liberty and WebSphere Liberty servers and applications.

    Build

    Use Maven or later to build the Liberty plugins and archetypes.

    • : builds the plugin and the archetypes.
    • : builds the plugin and the archetypes and runs the integration tests by providing an existing installation.
    • : builds the plugin and archetypes and runs the integration tests by downloading a new server. Set runtime to to run tests using the Open Liberty runtime, or to run tests using the WebSphere Liberty Java EE 7 runtime.

    Plugins

    Liberty Maven Plugin

    The Liberty Maven Plugin provides a number of goals for managing a Liberty server and applications. Maven or later is recommended to use the Liberty Maven Plugin.

    Release differences

    The new capabilities and behavior differences are summarized in the Liberty Maven Plug-in release notes.

    Configuration

    To enable Liberty Maven Plugin in your project add the following to your :

    <project> <build> <plugins> <!-- Enable liberty-maven-plugin --> <plugin> <groupId>arenaqq.us</groupId> <artifactId>liberty-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version></version> <!-- Specify configuration, executions for liberty-maven-plugin --> </plugin> </plugins> </build> </project>

    If you are using a snapshot version of Liberty Maven Plugin then you will also need to add the following plugin repository to your :

    Liberty installation configuration

    The Liberty Maven Plugin must first be configured with the Liberty server installation information. The installation information can be specified as an existing installation directory, a packaged server, or as a Maven artifact. The Liberty Maven Plugin can also download and install a Liberty server from the Liberty repository or other location using the install parameter. By default, the plugin installs the Open Liberty runtime from Maven Central.

    Goals

    The Liberty Maven Plugin provides the following goals.

    GoalDescription
    cleanDeletes every file in the , , or .
    compile-jspCompile JSPs in the src/main/webapp into the target/classes directory
    createCreate a Liberty server.
    debugStart a Liberty server in debug mode.
    deployCopy applications to the Liberty server's dropins or apps directory. If the server instance is running, it will also verify the applications started successfully.
    devStart a Liberty server in dev mode.
    devcStart a Liberty server in dev mode in a container.
    display-urlDisplay the application URL in the default browser.
    dumpDump diagnostic information from the server into an archive.
    install-featureInstall a feature packaged as a Subsystem Archive (esa) to the Liberty runtime.
    install-serverInstalls the Liberty runtime. This goal is implicitly invoked by all the other plugin goals and usually does not need to be executed explicitly.
    java-dumpDump diagnostic information from the server JVM.
    packagePackage a Liberty server.
    prepare-featurePrepare a user feature for installation to the Liberty runtime.
    runStart a Liberty server in the foreground. The run goal implicitly creates the server, installs features referenced by the arenaqq.us file, and deploys the application before starting the Liberty server.
    startStart a Liberty server in the background. The server instance will be automatically created if it does not exist.
    statusCheck a Liberty server status.
    stopStop a Liberty server. The server instance must exist and must be running.
    test-startAllows you to bypass automatically starting the server during the pre-integration-test phase with pom configuration or a Liberty-specific command line argument.
    test-stopAllows you to bypass automatically stopping the server during the post-integration-test phase with pom configuration or a Liberty-specific command line argument.
    undeployUndeploy an application to a Liberty server. The server instance must exist and must be running.
    uninstall-featureUninstall a feature from the Liberty runtime.
    Common Parameters

    Parameters shared by all goals. See common parameters.

    Common Server Parameters

    Additional parameters shared by all server-based goals. See common server parameters.

    Extensions

    Extensions improve the compatibility or user experience of third party libraries used with Liberty. The Liberty Maven Plugin provides the following extensions.

    ExtensionDescription
    configure-arquillian goalIntegrates configuration for the Liberty Managed and Remote Arquillian containers in the Liberty Maven Plugin. Automatically configures required parameters for the Liberty Managed container.
    Spring Boot SupportThe Liberty Maven Plugin provides support for Spring Boot applications, allowing you to install Spring Boot executable JARs directly to the Liberty runtime.

    Packaging types

    liberty-assembly

    The Maven packaging type is used to create a packaged Liberty server Maven artifact out of existing server installation, compressed archive, or another server Maven artifact. Any applications specified as Maven compile dependencies will be automatically packaged with the assembled server. Liberty features can also be installed and packaged with the assembled server. Any application or test code included in the project is automatically compiled and tests run at appropriate unit or integration test phase. Application code is installed as a loose application WAR file if is set to or and is set to .

    The default lifecycle includes:

    PhaseGoal
    pre-cleanliberty:stop
    process-resourcesmaven-resources-plugin:resources
    compilemaven-compiler-plugin:compile
    process-test-resourcesmaven-resources-plugin:testResources
    test-compilemaven-compiler-plugin:testCompile
    testmaven-surefire-plugin:test
    prepare-packageliberty:create, liberty:install-feature
    packageliberty:deploy, liberty:package
    pre-integration-testliberty:test-start
    integration-testmaven-failsafe-plugin:integration-test
    post-integration-testliberty:test-stop
    verifymaven-failsafe-plugin:verify
    installmaven-install-plugin:install
    deploymaven-deploy-plugin:deploy

    Example:

    <project> <groupId>myGroup</groupId> <artifactId>myServer</artifactId> <!-- Create Liberty server assembly --> <packaging>liberty-assembly</packaging> <dependencies> <!-- Package arenaqq.us with server assembly --> <dependency> <groupId>wasdev</groupId> <artifactId>SimpleServlet</artifactId> <version></version> <type>war</type> </dependency> </dependencies> <build> <plugins> <!-- Enable liberty-maven-plugin --> <plugin> <groupId>arenaqq.us</groupId> <artifactId>liberty-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version>[,)</version> <extensions>true</extensions> <configuration> <installDirectory>/opt/ibm/wlp</installDirectory> <serverName>test</serverName> <features> <acceptLicense>true</acceptLicense> <feature>mongodb</feature> </features> <looseApplication>true</looseApplication> <deployPackages>all</deployPackages> </configuration> </plugin> </plugins> </build> </project>

    Archetypes

    By default, all archetypes that specify a Liberty runtime use the latest version of the Open Liberty runtime. You can use a different runtime by setting the and . For example, you can use by setting and .

    The runtime version can also be set dynamically. For example, you can specify version of the runtime by setting .

    Finally, the default Liberty Maven Plugin version is set to be the latest version of the plugin. To specify a different version of the plugin, use the parameter. For example, you could set .

    liberty-plugin-archetype

    The is used to generate a basic multi-module project that builds a simple web application then deploys and tests it on a Liberty server. It also creates a Liberty server package that includes the application.

    Usage

    liberty-archetype-webapp

    The is used to generate a basic single-module project that builds a simple web application then deploys and tests on a Liberty server. It also creates a minified, runnable Liberty server package that includes the application. The generated project includes the parent pom that binds Liberty Maven Plugin goals to the Maven default build lifecycle.

    Usage

    liberty-archetype-ear

    The is used to generate a multi-module project that includes an EJB module, a web application module and an EAR module. In the EAR module, it packages the application in a Java EE 7 Enterprise Archive then deploys and tests on a Liberty server. It also creates a minified, runnable Liberty server package that includes the application EAR file. The generated project includes parent pom that binds Liberty Maven Plugin goals to the Maven default build lifecycle.

    Usage

    Using Archetype Snapshots

    If you are using a snapshot version of or , then you will also need to add the following archetype repository to :

    <settings> <profiles> <profile> <id>archetype-snapshot-repo</id> <properties> <archetypeRepository>arenaqq.us </archetypeRepository> </properties> <repositories> <repository> <id>sonatype-nexus-snapshots</id> <name>Sonatype Nexus Snapshots</name> <url>arenaqq.us </url> <releases> <enabled>false</enabled> </releases> <snapshots> <enabled>true</enabled> </snapshots> </repository> </repositories> <pluginRepositories> <pluginRepository> <id>sonatype-nexus-snapshots</id> <name>Sonatype Nexus Snapshots</name> <url>arenaqq.us </url> <releases> <enabled>false</enabled> </releases> <snapshots> <enabled>true</enabled> </snapshots> </pluginRepository> </pluginRepositories> </profile> </profiles> <activeProfiles> <activeProfile>archetype-snapshot-repo</activeProfile> </activeProfiles> </settings>
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    Linux kernel

    Free and open-source Unix-like operating system kernel

    The Linux kernel is a free and open-source,[10][11]monolithic, modular,[12]multitasking, Unix-likeoperating systemkernel.[13] It was conceived and created in by Linus Torvalds[14] for his ibased PC, and it was soon adopted as the kernel for the GNU operating system,[15] which was created as a free replacement for UNIX.[16] Since then, it has spawned a large number of operating system distributions, commonly also called Linux.

    Linux is deployed on a wide variety of computing systems, such as embedded devices, mobile devices (including its use in the Android operating system), personal computers, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers.[17] It can be tailored for specific architectures and for several usage scenarios using a family of simple commands (that is, without the need of manually editing its source code before compilation);[18][19][20] privileged users can also fine-tune kernel parameters at runtime.[21][22][23] Most of the Linux kernel code is written using the GNU extensions of GCC[24][25] to the standard C programming language and with the use of architecture specific instructions (ISA). This produces a highly optimized executable (vmlinux) with respect to utilization of memory space and task execution times.[26]

    Day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list (LKML). Changes are tracked using the version control system git, which was created by Torvalds as a bespoke replacement for BitKeeper. Linux as a whole is released under the GNU General Public License version 2 only (GPLonly) with an explicit syscall exception (Linux-syscall-note),[4][7][8] but it also contains several files under other compatible licenses.[9]

    History[edit]

    See also: History of Linux and Linux kernel version history

    In AprilLinus Torvalds, at the time a year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki, Finland, started working on some simple ideas for an operating system. He started with a task switcher in Intel assembly language and a terminal driver. On 25 AugustTorvalds posted the following to arenaqq.us, a newsgroup on Usenet:[27]

    I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for () AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash() and gcc(), and things seem to work. This implies that I'll get something practical within a few months [] Yes - it's free of any minix code, and it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT protable [sic] (uses task switching etc), and it probably never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have&#;:-(.

    On 17 SeptemberTorvalds prepared version of Linux and put on the "arenaqq.us" – FTP server of the Finnish University and Research Network (FUNET). It was not even executable since its code still needed Minix for compilation and play.[28]

    On 5 OctoberTorvalds announced the first "official" version of Linux, version [29] At this point, Linux was able to run Bash, GCC, and some other GNU utilities:[29][28]

    [As] I mentioned a month ago, I'm working on a free version of a Minix-lookalike for AT computers. It has finally reached the stage where it's even usable (though may not be depending on what you want), and I am willing to put out the sources for wider distribution. It is just version but I've successfully run bash, gcc, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, gnu-make, gnu-sed, compress, etc. under it.

    After that, many people contributed code to the project, including some developers from the MINIX community. At the time, the GNU Project had created Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives of the components required for a free operating system, but its own kernel, GNU Hurd, was incomplete and unavailable. The Berkeley Software Distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances. Despite the limited functionality of the early versions, Linux rapidly gained developers and users.

    Torvalds assigned version 0 to the kernel to indicate that it was mainly for testing and not intended for productive use.[30] Versionreleased in Decemberwas the first self-hosted Linux, for it could be compiled by a computer running the same kernel.

    When Torvalds released version in Februaryhe adopted the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) over his previous self-drafted license, which had not permitted commercial redistribution.[31] In contrast to Unix, all source files of Linux are freely available, including device drivers.[32] The initial success of Linux was driven by programmers and testers across the world. With the support of the POSIX APIs, through the libC that, whether needed, acts as an entry point to the kernel address space, Linux could run software and applications that had been developed for Unix.[33]

    The Linux kernel supports various hardware architectures, providing a common platform for software, including proprietary software.

    On 19 Januarythe first post to the new newsgroup arenaqq.us was submitted.[34] On 31 Marchthe newsgroup was renamed arenaqq.us.[35] The fact that Linux is a monolithic kernel rather than a microkernel was the topic of a debate between Andrew S. Tanenbaum, the creator of MINIX, and Torvalds.[36] The Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate started in on the Usenet group arenaqq.us as a general discussion about kernel architectures.[37][38]

    Linux version was the first to be capable of running the X Window System.[39] In MarchLinux was released withlines of code.[40] It was the first version suitable for use in production environments.[30]

    It started a versioning system for the kernel with three or four numbers separated by dots where the first represented the major release, the second was the minor release, and the third was the revision.[41] At that time odd-numbered minor releases were for development and tests, whilst even numbered minor releases were for production. The optional fourth digit indicated a set of patches to a revision.[30] Development releases were indicated with -rc ("release candidate") suffix.

    The current version numbering is slightly different from the above. The even vs. odd numbering has been dropped and a specific major version is now indicated by the first two numbers, taken as a whole. While the time-frame is open for the development of the next major, the -rcN suffix is used to identify the n'th release candidate for the next version.[42] For example, the release of Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives version was preceded by seven rcN (from -rc1 to -rc7). Once a stable release is made, its maintenance is passed off to the “stable team". Occasional updates to stable releases are identified by a three numbering scheme (e.g.,).[42]

    After version of the kernel, Torvalds decided that Linux had evolved enough to warrant a new major number, so he released version in June [43][44] The series included 41 releases. The major feature of was support for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) and support for more types of processors.

    Starting with versionLinux is configurable for selecting specific hardware targets and for enabling architecture specific features and optimizations.[33] The make *config family of commands of kbuild are used to enable and configure thousands of options for building ad hoc kernel executables (vmlinux) and loadable modules.[18][19]

    VersionDownload Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, released on 20 January ,[45] improved locking granularity and SMP management, added m68k, PowerPC, Sparc64, Alpha, and other bit platforms support.[46] Furthermore, it added new file systems including Microsoft's NTFS read-only capability.[46] InDownload Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, IBM published its patches to the Linux code for the support of the S/ architecture.[47]

    Versionreleased on 4 January ,[48] contained support for ISAPlug and Play, USB, and PC Cards. Linux added support for the Pentium 4 and Itanium (the latter introduced the ia64 ISA that was jointly developed by Intel and Hewlett-Packard to supersede the older PA-RISC), and for the newer bit MIPS processor.[49] Development for x changed a bit in that more features were made available throughout the duration of the series, including support for Bluetooth, Logical Volume Manager (LVM) version 1, RAID support, InterMezzo and ext3 file systems.

    Version was released on 17 December [50] The development for x changed further towards including new features throughout the duration of the series. Among the changes that have been made in the series are: integration of µClinux into the mainline kernel sources, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, PAE support, support for several new lines of CPUs, integration of Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) into the mainline kernel sources, support for up to 232 users (up from 216), support for up to 229 process IDs (bit only, bit arches still limited to 215),[51] substantially increased the number of device types and the number of devices of each type, improved bit support, support for file systems which support file sizes of up to 16 terabytes, in-kernel preemption, support for the Native POSIX Thread Library (NPTL), User-mode Linux integration into the mainline kernel sources, SELinux integration Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives the mainline kernel sources, InfiniBand support, and considerably more.

    Also notable are the addition of a wide selection of file systems starting with the x releases: now the kernel supports a large number of file systems, some that have been designed for Linux, like ext3, ext4, FUSE, Btrfs,[52] and others that are native of other operating systems like JFS, XFS, Minix, Xenix, Irix, Solaris, System V, Windows and MS-DOS.[53]

    In the stable team was formed as a response to the lack of a kernel tree where people could work on bug fixes, and it would keep updating stable versions.[54] In February the linux-next tree was created to serve as a place where patches aimed to be merged during the next development cycle gathered.[55][56] Several subsystem maintainers also adopted the suffix -next for trees containing code which they mean to submit for inclusion in the next release cycle. As of January&#;[update], the in-development version of Linux is held in an unstable branch named linux-next.[57]

    Linux used to be maintained without the help of an automated source code management system until, indevelopment switched to BitKeeper. It was freely available for Linux developers but it was not free software. Inbecause of efforts to reverse-engineer it, the company which owned the software revoked the support of the Linux community. In response, Torvalds and others wrote Git. The new system was written within weeks, and in two months the first official kernel made using it was released.[58]

    Details on the history of the kernel series can be found in the ChangeLog files on the kernel series source code release area of arenaqq.us[59]

    The 20th anniversary of Linux was celebrated by Torvalds in July with the release of the kernel version.[43] As has been the version number for 8 years, a new uname26 personality that reports 3.x as +x had to be added to the kernel so that old programs would work.[60]

    Version was released on 22 July [61] On 30 MayTorvalds announced that the big change was "NOTHING. Absolutely nothing." and asked, "let's make sure we really make the next release not just an all new shiny number, but a good kernel too."[62] After the expected 6–7 weeks of the development process, it would be released near the 20th anniversary of Linux.

    On 11 DecemberTorvalds decided to reduce kernel complexity by removing support for i processors, making the kernel series the last one still supporting the original processor.[63][64] The same series unified support for the ARM processor.[65]

    Versionreleased on 2 September ,[66] adds many new features such as new O_TMPFILE flag for to reduce temporary file vulnerabilities, experimental AMD Radeon dynamic power management, low-latency network polling, and zswap (compressed swap cache).[67]

    The numbering change from toand from toinvolved no meaningful technical differentiation. The major version number was increased to avoid large minor numbers.[61][68] Stable 3.x.y kernels were released until in February

    In AprilTorvalds released kernel version [43] By FebruaryDownload Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, Linux had received contributions from nearly 12, programmers from more than 1, companies, including some of the world's largest software and hardware vendors.[69] Version of Linux, released in Junecontains over million lines of code contributed by almost 14, programmers.[70]

    A total of 1, developers, of whom are first collaborators, added more thanlines of code to versionbreaking the record previously held by version [71]

    Main article: Usage share of operating systems

    According to the Stack Overflow’s annual Developer Survey ofmore than the 53% of all respondents have developed software for Linux OS and about 27% for Android,[72] although Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives about 25% develop with Linux-based operating systems.[73]

    Most websites run on Linux-based operating systems,[74][75] and all of the world's most powerful supercomputers use some kind of OS based on Linux.[76]

    Linux distributions bundle the kernel with system software (e.g., Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives GNU C Library, systemd, and others Unixutilities and daemons) and a wide selection of application software, but their usage share in desktops is low in comparison to other operating systems.

    Android, which accounts for the majority of the installed base of all operating systems for mobile devices,[77][78][79] is responsible for the rising usage of the Linux kernel,[33] together with its wide use in a large variety of embedded devices.

    Architecture and features[edit]

    See also: vmlinux

    Linux is a monolithic kernel with a modular design (e.g., it can insert and remove loadable Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives modules at runtime), supporting most features once only available in closed source kernels of non-free operating systems. The rest of the article makes use of the UNIX and Unix-like operating systems convention on the official manual pages. The numbers that follow the name of commands, interfaces, and other features, have the purpose of specifying the section (i.e., the type of the OS' component or feature) they belong to (e.g., execve(2) refers to a system call, while exec(3) refers to a userspace library wrapper). The following list and the subsequent sections describe a non-comprehensive overview of Linux architectural design and of some of its noteworthy features.

    • Concurrent computing and (with the availability of enough CPU cores for tasks that are ready to run) even true parallel execution of many processes at once (each of them having one or more threads of execution) on SMP and NUMA architectures.
    • Selection and configuration of hundreds of kernel features and drivers (using one of the make *config family of commands, before running compilation),[20][19][18] modification of kernel parameters before booting (usually by inserting instructions into the lines of the GRUB2 menu), and fine tuning of kernel behavior at run-time (using the sysctl(8) interface to /proc/sys/).[21][22][23]
    • Configuration (again using the make *config commands) and run-time modifications of the policies[80] (via nice(2), setpriority(2), and the family of sched_*(2) syscalls) of the task schedulers that allow preemptive multitasking (both in user mode and, since the series, in kernel mode[81][82]); the Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS) is the default scheduler Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives Linux since and it uses a red-black tree which can search, insert and delete process information (task struct) with O(log n)time complexity, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, where n is the number of runnable tasks.[83][84]
    • Advanced memory management with paged virtual memory.
    • Inter-process communications and synchronization mechanism.
    • A virtual filesystem on top of several concrete filesystems (ext4, Btrfs, XFS, JFS, FAT32, and many more).
    • Configurable I/O schedulers, ioctl(2)[85] syscall that manipulates the underlying device parameters of special files (it is a non standard system call, since arguments, returns, and semantics depends on the device driver in question), support for POSIX asynchronous I/O[86] (however, because they scale poorly with multithreaded applications, a family of Linux specific I/O system calls (io_*(2)[87]) had to be created for the management of asynchronous I/O contexts suitable for concurrently processing).
    • OS-level virtualization (with Linux-VServer), paravirtualization and hardware-assisted virtualization (with KVM or Xen, and using QEMU for hardware emulation);[88][89][90][91][92][93] On the Xen hypervisor, the Linux kernel provides support to build Linux distributions (such as openSuSE Leap and many others) that work as Dom0, that are virtual machine host servers that provide the management environment for the user's virtual machines (DomU).[94]
    • I/O Virtualization with VFIO and SR-IOV. Virtual Function I/O (VFIO) exposes direct device access to user space in a secure memory (IOMMU) protected environment. With VFIO, a VM Guest can directly access hardware devices on the VM Host Server. This technique improves performance, if compared both to Full virtualization and Paravirtualization. However, with VFIO, devices cannot be shared with multiple VM guests. Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV) combines the performance gains of VFIO and the ability to share a device with several VM Guests (but it requires special hardware that must be capable to appear to two or more VM guests as different devices).[95]
    • Security mechanisms for discretionary and mandatory access control (SELinux, AppArmor, POSIX ACLs, and others).[96][97]
    • Several types of layered communication protocols (including the Internet protocol suite).

    Most Device drivers and kernel extensions run in kernel space (ring 0 in many CPUarchitectures), with full access to the hardware. Some exceptions run in user space; notable examples are filesystems based on FUSE/CUSE, and parts of UIO.[98][99] Furthermore, the X Window System and Wayland, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, the windowing system and display server protocols that most people use with Linux, do not run within the kernel. Differently, the actual interfacing with GPUs of graphics cards is an in-kernel subsystem called Direct Rendering Manager (DRM).

    Unlike standard monolithic kernels, device drivers are easily configured as modules, and loaded or unloaded while the system is running and can also be pre-empted under certain conditions in order to handle hardware interrupts correctly and to better support symmetric multiprocessing.[82] By choice, Linux has no stable device driver application binary interface.[]

    Linux typically makes use of memory protection and virtual memory and can also handle non-uniform memory access,[] however the project has absorbed μClinux which also makes it possible to run Linux on microcontrollers without virtual memory.[]

    The hardware is represented in the file hierarchy. User applications interact with device drivers via entries in the /dev or /sys directories.[] Processes information as well are mapped to the file system through the /proc directory.[]

    User mode User applicationsbash, LibreOffice, GIMP, Blender, 0 A.D., Mozilla Firefox,
    System componentsinit daemon:
    OpenRC, runit, systemd
    System daemons:
    polkitd, smbd, sshd, udevd
    Window manager:
    X11, Wayland, SurfaceFlinger (Android)
    Graphics:
    Mesa, AMD Catalyst,
    Other libraries:
    GTK, Qt, EFL, SDL, SFML, FLTK, GNUstep,
    C standard library,Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives,(up to subroutines)
    glibc aims to be fast, musl and uClibc target embedded systems, bionic written for Android, etc. All aim to be POSIX/SUS-compatible.
    Kernel mode Linux kernel,,Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, etc. (about system calls)
    The Linux kernel System Call Interface (SCI, aims to be POSIX/SUS-compatible)[]
    Process scheduling
    subsystem
    IPC
    subsystem
    Memory management
    subsystem
    Virtual files
    subsystem
    Network
    subsystem
    Other components: ALSA, DRI, evdev, klibc, LVM, device mapper, Linux Network Scheduler, Netfilter
    Linux Security Modules: SELinux, TOMOYO, AppArmor, Smack
    Hardware (CPU, main memory, data storage devices, etc.)

    Interfaces[edit]

    Main pages: Linux kernel interfaces and Interfaces of the Linux kernel (Category)

    See also: System call, POSIX, and Single UNIX Specification

    Four interfaces are distinguished: two internal to the kernel, and two between the kernel and userspace.

    Linux is a clone of UNIX, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, and aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance.[] The kernel also provides system calls and other interfaces that are Linux-specific. In order to be included in the official kernel, the code must comply with a set of licensing rules.[4][9]

    The Linux Application binary interface (ABI) between the kernel and the user space has four degrees of stability Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, testing, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, obsolete, removed);[] however, the system calls are expected to never change in order to not break the userspace programs that rely on them.[]

    Loadable kernel modules (LKMs), by design, cannot rely on a stable ABI.[] Therefore they must always be recompiled whenever a new kernel executable is installed in a system, otherwise they will not be loaded. In-tree drivers that are configured to become an integral part of the kernel executable (vmlinux) are statically linked by the building Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives.

    There is also no guarantee of stability of source-level in-kernel API[] and, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, because of this, device drivers code, as well as the code of Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives other kernel subsystem, must be kept updated with kernel evolution. Any developer who makes an API change is required to fix any code that breaks as the result of their change.[]

    Kernel-to-userspace API[edit]

    The set of the Linux kernel API that regards the interfaces exposed to user applications is fundamentally composed of UNIX and Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives system calls.[] A system call is an entry point into the Linux kernel.[] For example, among the Linux-specific ones there is the family of the clone(2) system calls.[] Most extensions must be enabled by defining the macro in a header file or when the user-land code is being compiled.[]

    System calls can only be invoked by using assembly instructions which enable the transition from unprivileged user space to privileged kernel space in ring 0. For this reason, the C standard library (libC) acts as a wrapper to most Linux system calls, by exposing C functions that, only whether it is needed,[] can transparently enter into the kernel which will execute on behalf of the calling process.[] For those system calls not exposed by libC, e.g. the fast userspace mutex (futex),[] the library provides a function called syscall(2) which can be used to explicitly invoke them.[]

    Pseudo filesystems (e.g., the sysfs and procfs filesystems) and special files (e.g.,Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, and many others) constitute another layer of interface to kernel data structures representing hardware or logical (software) devices.[][]

    Kernel-to-userspace ABI[edit]

    Main article: Linux Standard Base

    Because of the differences existing between the hundreds of various implementations of the Linux OS, executable objects, even though they are compiled, assembled, and linked for running on a specific hardware architecture (that is, they use the ISA of the target hardware), often Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives run on different Linux Distributions. This issue is mainly due to distribution-specific configurations and a set of patches applied to the code of the Linux kernel, differences in system libraries, services (daemons), filesystem hierarchies, and environment variables.

    The main standard concerning application and binary compatibility of Linux distributions is the Linux Standard Base (LSB).[][] However, the LSB goes beyond what concerns the Linux kernel, because it also defines the desktop specifications, the X libraries and Qt that have little to do with it.[] The LSB version 5 is built upon several standards and drafts (POSIX, SUS, X/Open, File System Hierarchy (FHS), and others).[]

    The parts of the LSB largely relevant to the kernel are the General ABI (gABI),[] especially the System V ABI[][] and the Executable and Linking Format (ELF),[][] and the Processor Specific ABI (psABI), for example the Core Specification for X[][]

    The standard ABI for how x86_64 user programs invoke system calls is to load the syscall number into the rax register, and the other parameters into rdi, rsi, rdx, r10, r8, and r9, and finally to put the syscall assembly instruction in the code.[][][]

    In-kernel API[edit]

    At XDC, Alex Roon Labs 1.8 Crack + Keygen Free Download [Latest] from AMD announced the unified kernel-mode arenaqq.us proprietary Linux graphic driver, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, libGL-fglrx-glx, will share the same DRMinfrastructure with Mesa 3D. As there is no stable in-kernel ABI, AMD had to constantly adapt the former binary blobused by Catalyst.

    There are several kernel internal APIs utilized between the different subsystems. Some are available only within the kernel subsystems, while a somewhat limited set of in-kernel symbols (i.e., variables, data structures, and functions) is exposed also to dynamically loadable modules (e.g., device drivers loaded on demand) whether they're exported with the EXPORT_SYMBOL() and EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL() macros[][] (the latter reserved to modules released under a GPL-compatible license).[]

    Linux provides in-kernel APIs that manipulate data structures (e.g., linked lists, radix trees,[]red-black trees,[]queues) or perform common routines (e.g., copy data from and to user space, allocate memory, print lines to the system log, and so on) that have remained stable at least since Linux version [][][]

    In-kernel APIs include libraries of low-level common services used by device drivers:

    • SCSI Interfaces and libATA&#;&#; respectively, a peer-to-peer packet based communication protocol for storage devices attached to USB, SATA, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, SAS, Fibre Channel, FireWire, ATAPI device,[] and an Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives library to support [S]ATA host controllers and devices.[]
    • Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) and Kernel Mode Setting (KMS)&#;&#; for interfacing with GPUs and supporting the needs of modern 3D-accelerated video hardware,[] and for setting screen resolution, color depth and refresh rate[]
    • DMA buffers (DMA-BUF)&#;&#; for sharing buffers for hardware direct memory access across multiple device drivers and subsystems[][][]
    • Video4Linux&#;&#; for video capture hardware
    • Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA)&#;&#; for sound cards
    • New API&#;&#; for network interface controllers
    • macand cfg - for wireless network interface controllers[][]

    In-kernel ABI[edit]

    The Linux developers choose not to maintain a stable in-kernel ABI.[] Modules compiled for a specific version of the kernel cannot be loaded into another version Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives being re-compiled, assuming that the source level in-kernel API has remained the same, otherwise also the module code must be modified accordingly.[]

    Processes and threads[edit]

    See also: Process (computing), Thread (computing), and Process management (computing)

    Linux creates processes by means of the clone(2) or by the newer clone3(2)[] system calls. Depending on the given parameters, the new entity can share most or none of the resources of the caller. These syscalls can create new entities ranging from Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives independent processes (each having a special identifier called TGID within the task_struct data structure in kernel space, although that same identifier is called PID in userspace), to new threads of execution within the calling process (by using the CLONE_THREAD parameter). In this latter case the new entity owns the same TGID of the calling process and consequently has also the same PID in userspace.[][]

    If the executable is dynamically linked to shared libraries, a dynamic linker (for ELF objects, it is typically /lib/arenaqq.us2) is used to find and load the needed objects, prepare the program to run and then run it.[]

    The Native POSIX Thread Library, simply known as the NPTL,[] provides the standard POSIX threads interface (pthreads) to userspace[] Whenever a new thread is created using the pthread_create(3) POSIX interface,[] the clone(2) family of system calls must also be given the address of the function that the new thread must jump to. The Linux kernel provides the futex(7) (acronym for "Fast user-space mutexes") mechanisms for fast user-space locking and synchronization;[] the majority of the operations are performed in userspace but it may be necessary to communicate with the kernel using the futex(2) system call.[]

    A very special category of threads is the so-called kernel threads. They must not be confused with the above-mentioned threads of execution of the user's processes. Kernel threads exist only in kernel space and their only purpose is to concurrently run kernel tasks.[]

    Differently, whenever an independent process is created, the syscalls return exactly to the next instruction of the same program, concurrently in parent process and in Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives one (i.e., one program, two processes). Different return values (one per process) enable the program Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives know in which of the two processes it is currently executing. Programs need this information because the child process, a few steps after process duplication, usually invokes the execve(2) system call (possibly via the family of exec(3) wrapper functions in glibC) and replace the program that is currently being run by the calling process with a new program, with newly initialized stack, heap, and&#;(initialized and uninitialized) data segments.[] When it is done, it results in two processes that run two different programs.

    Depending on the effective user id (euid), and on the effective group id (egid), a process running with user zero privileges (root, the system administrator, owns the identifier 0) can perform everything (e.g., Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, kill all the other processes or recursively wipe out whole filesystems), instead non zero user processes cannot. capabilities(7) divides the privileges traditionally associated with superuser into distinct units, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, which can be independently enabled and disabled by the parent process or dropped by the child itself.[]

    Scheduling and preemption[edit]

    See also: Completely Fair Scheduler, Preemption (computing), and Kernel preemption

    The Linux scheduler is modular, in the sense that it enables different scheduling classes and policies.[][] Scheduler classes are plugable scheduler algorithms that can be registered with the base scheduler code. Each class schedules different types of processes. The core code of the scheduler iterates over each class in order of priority and chooses the highest priority scheduler that has a schedulable entity of type struct sched_entity ready to run.[] Entities may be threads, group of threads, and even all the processes of a specific user.

    Linux provides both user preemption as well as full kernel preemption.[] Preemption reduces latency, increases responsiveness,[] and makes Linux more suitable for desktop and real-time applications.

    For normal tasks, by default, the kernel uses the Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS) class, introduced in the version of the kernel.[83] Internally this default-scheduler class is defined in a macro of a C header as. In other POSIX kernels, a similar policy known as allocates CPU timeslices (i.e, it assigns absolute slices of the processor time depending on either predetermined or dynamically computed priority of each process). The Linux CFS does away with absolute timeslices and assigns a fair proportion of CPU time, as a function of parameters like the total number of runnable processes and the time they have already run; this function also takes into account a kind of weight that depends on their relative priorities (nice values).[]

    With user preemption, the kernel scheduler can replace the current process with the execution of a context switch to a different one that therefore acquires the computing resources for running (CPU, memory, and more). It makes it according to the CFS algorithm (in particular, it uses a variable called vruntime for sorting entities and then chooses the one that has the smaller vruntime, - i.e., the schedulable Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives that has had the least share of CPU time), to the active scheduler policy and to the relative priorities.[] With kernel preemption, the kernel can preempt itself when an interrupt handler returns, when kernel tasks block, and whenever a subsystem explicitly calls the schedule() function.

    The kernel also contains two POSIX-compliant[] real-time scheduling classes named (realtime first-in-first-out) and (realtime round-robin), both of which take precedence over the default class.[] An additional scheduling policy known asimplementing the earliest deadline first algorithm (EDF), was added in kernel versionreleased on 30 March [][] takes precedence over all the other scheduling classes.

    The Linux kernel patch enables full preemption of critical sections, interrupt handlers, and "interrupt disable" code sequences.[] Partial integration of the real-time Linux patches brought the above mentioned functionality to the kernel mainline.[] Kernel with includes priority inheritance mechanism to avoid priority inversion problems.[]

    Concurrency and synchronization[edit]

    The kernel has different causes of concurrency (e.g., interrupts, bottom halves, preemption of kernel and users tasks, symmetrical multiprocessing).[] For protecting critical regions (sections of code that must be executed atomically), shared memory locations (like global variables and other data structures with global scope), and regions of memory that are asynchronously modifiable by hardware (e.g., having the C type qualifier), Linux provides a large set of tools. They consist of atomic types (which can only be manipulated by a set of specific operators), Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, spinlocks, semaphores, mutexes,[][] and lockless algorithms (e.g., RCUs).[][][] Most lock-less algorithms are built on top of memory barriers for the purpose of enforcing memory ordering and prevent undesired side effects due to compiler's optimizations.[][][][]

    Interrupts management[edit]

    The management of the interrupts, although it could be seen as a single job, is divided in two separate parts. This split in two is due to the different time constraints and to the synchronization needs of the tasks whose the management is composed of. The first part is made up of an asyncronous interrupt service routine Video Convert Master 11.0.11.36 crack serial keygen in Linux is known as the top half, while the second part is carried out by one of three types of the so-called bottom halves (softirq, tasklets, and work queues).[] Linux interrupts service routines can be nested (i.e., a new IRQ can trap into a high priority ISR that preempts any other lower priority ISRs).

    Memory Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives also: Memory management and Virtual memory

    Memory management in Linux is a complex topic. First of all, the kernel is not pageable (i.e., it is always resident in physical memory and cannot be swapped to the disk). In the kernel there is no memory protection (no SIGSEGV signals, unlike in userspace), Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, therefore memory violations lead to instability and Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives crashes.[]

    Linux implements virtual memory with 4 and 5-levels page tables. As said, only user memory space is always pageable. It maintains information about each page frame of RAM in apposite data Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives (of type struct page) that are populated immediately after boots and that are kept until shutdown, regardless of them being or not associated with virtual pages. Furthermore, it classifies all page frames in zones, according to their architecture dependent constraints and intended use. For example, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives reserved for DMA operations are in ZONE_DMA, pages that are not permanently mapped to virtual addresses are in ZONE_HIGHMEM (in x86_32 architecture this zone is for physical addresses above MB, while x86_64 does not need it because x86_64 can permanently map physical pages that reside in higher addresses), and all that remains (with the exception of other less used classifications) is in ZONE_NORMAL.

    Small chunks of memory can be dynamically allocated via the family of API and freed Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives the appropriate variant of. and are used for large virtually contiguous chunks. alloc_pages() allocates the desired number of entire pages.

    Kernel includes SLAB, SLUB and SLOB allocators as configurable alternatives.[][] SLUB is the newest and it is also the default allocator. It aims for simplicity and efficiency.[] SLUB has been made compatible.[]

    Supported architectures[edit]

    See also: List of Linux-supported computer architectures and Linux-powered device

    TiVoDVR, a consumer device running Linux

    While not originally designed to be portable,[27][] Linux is now one of the most widely ported operating system kernels, running on a diverse range of systems from the ARM architecture to IBM z/Architecturemainframe computers. The first port was performed on the Motorola platform. The modifications to the kernel were so fundamental that Torvalds viewed the Motorola version as a fork and a "Linux-like operating system".[] However, that moved Torvalds to lead a major restructure of the code to facilitate porting to more computing architectures. The first Linux that, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, in a single source tree, had code for more than i alone, supported the DECAlpha AXP bit platform.[][][]

    Linux runs as the main operating system on IBM's Summit; as of October&#;[update], all of the world's fastest supercomputers run some operating system based on the Linux kernel,[17] a big change from when the first Linux supercomputer got added to the list.[]

    Linux has also been ported to various handheld devices such as Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives 3G and iPod.[]

    Supported devices[edit]

    Inthe LKDDb project has been started to build a comprehensive database of hardware and protocols known by Linux kernels.[] The database is built automatically by static analysis of the kernel sources. Later in the Linux Hardware project was launched to automatically collect a database of all tested hardware configurations with the help of users of various Linux distributions.[]

    Live patching[edit]

    Rebootless updates can even be applied to the kernel by using live patching technologies such as Ksplice, kpatch and kGraft. Minimalistic foundations for live kernel patching were merged into the Linux kernel mainline in kernel versionwhich was released on 12 April Those foundations, known as livepatch and based primarily on the kernel's ftrace functionality, form a common core capable of supporting hot patching by both kGraft and kpatch, by providing an application programming interface (API) for kernel modules that contain hot patches and an application binary interface (ABI) for the userspace management utilities. However, the common core included into Linux kernel&#; supports only the x86 architecture and does not provide any mechanisms for ensuring function-level consistency while the hot patches are applied. As of April&#;[update], there is ongoing work on Sony Vegas Pro 18.0.0.527 Crack & License Key Full Free Download kpatch and kGraft to the common live patching core provided by the Linux kernel mainline.[][][]

    Security[edit]

    Kernel bugs present potential security issues. For example, they may allow for privilege escalation or create denial-of-service attack vectors. Over the years, numerous bugs affecting system security were found and fixed.[] New features are frequently implemented to improve the kernel's security.[][]

    Capabilities(7) have already been introduced in the section about the processes and threads. Android makes use of Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives and systemd gives administrators detailed control over the capabilities of processes.[]

    Linux offers a wealth of mechanisms to reduce kernel attack surface and improve security which are collectively known as the Linux Security Modules (LSM).[] They comprise the Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) module, whose code has been originally developed and then released to the public by the NSA,[] and AppArmor[97] among others. SELinux is now actively developed and maintained on GitHub.[96] SELinux and AppArmor provide support to access control security policies, including mandatory access control (MAC), though they profoundly differ in complexity and scope.

    Another security feature is the Seccomp BPF (SECure COMPuting with Berkeley Packet Filters) which works by filtering parameters and reducing the set of system calls available to user-land applications.[]

    Critics have accused kernel developers of covering up security flaws, or at least not announcing them; inLinus Torvalds responded to this with the following:[][]

    I personally consider security bugs to be just "normal bugs". I don't cover them up, but I also don't have any reason what-so-ever to think it's a good idea to track them and announce them as something specialone reason I refuse to bother with the whole security circus is that I think it glorifies—and thus encourages—the wrong behavior. It makes "heroes" out of security people, as if the people who don't just fix normal Disk Drill 4.4.365.0 Crack with Activation Code {Latest} Download aren't as important, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. In fact, all the boring normal bugs are way more important, just because there's[sic] a lot more of them. I don't think some spectacular security hole should be glorified or cared about as being any more "special" than a random spectacular crash due to bad locking.

    Linux distributions typically release security Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives to fix vulnerabilities in the Linux kernel. Many offer iZotope VocalSynth 2.2.0 Crack Full Torrent (macOS) Download support releases that receive security updates for a certain Linux kernel version for an extended period of time.

    Development[edit]

    [edit]

    The community of Linux kernel developers comprises about – members. According to the " State of Linux Kernel Development", a study issued by the Linux Foundation, covering the commits for the releases toabout developers were contributing from about companies on average. The top 30 developers contributed a little more than 16% Call of duty black ops crack serial keygen the code. As of companies, the top contributors are Intel (%) and Red Hat (%), Linaro (%), IBM (%), the second and fifth places are held Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives the 'none' (%) and 'unknown' (%) categories.[]

    Instead of a roadmap, there are technical guidelines, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. Instead of a central resource allocation, there are persons and companies who all have a stake in the further development of the Linux kernel, quite independently from one another: People like Linus Torvalds and I don’t plan the kernel evolution. We don’t sit there and think up the roadmap for the next two years, then assign resources to the various new features. That's because we don’t have any resources. The resources are all owned by the various corporations who use and contribute to Linux, as well as by the various independent contributors out there. It's those people who own the resources who decide

    —&#;Andrew Morton,

    As with many large open-source software projects, developers are required to adhere to the Contributor Covenant, a code of conduct intended to address harassment of minority contributors.[][] Additonally, to prevent offense the use of inclusive terminology within the source code is mandated.[]

    Source code management[edit]

    The Linux development community uses Git to manage the source code. Git users clone the latest version of Torvalds' tree with git-clone(1)[] and keep it up to date using git-pull(1).[][] Contributions are submitted as patches, in the form of text messages on the LKML (and often also on other mailing lists dedicated to particular subsystems), Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. The patches must conform to a set of rules and to a formal language that, among other things, describes which lines of code are to be deleted and what others are to be Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives to the specified files. These patches can be automatically processed so that system administrators can apply them in order to make just some changes to the code or to incrementally upgrade to the next version.[] Linux is distributed also in GNU zip (gzip) and bzip2 formats.

    Submitting code to the kernel[edit]

    A developer who wants to change the Linux kernel starts with developing and testing that change. Depending on how significant the change is and how many subsystems it modifies, the change will either be submitted as Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives single patch or in multiple patches of source code. In case of a single subsystem that is maintained by a single maintainer, these patches are sent as e-mails to the maintainer of the subsystem with the appropriate mailing list in Cc. The maintainer and the readers of the mailing list will review the patches and provide feedback. Once the review process has finished the subsystem maintainer accepts the patches in the relevant Git kernel tree. If the changes to the Linux kernel are bug fixes that are considered important enough, a pull request for the patches will be sent to Torvalds within a few days. Otherwise, a pull request will be sent to Torvalds during the next merge window. The merge window usually lasts two weeks and starts immediately after the release of the previous kernel version.[] The Git kernel source tree names all developers who have contributed to the Linux kernel in the Credits directory and all subsystem maintainers are listed in Maintainers.[]

    Programming language and coding style[edit]

    Linux is written in a special C programming language supported by GCC, a compiler that extends in many ways the C standard, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, for example using inline sections of code written in the assembly language (in GCC's "AT&T-style" syntax) of the target architecture. Since all the code must adhere to the 21 rules comprising the Linux Kernel Coding Style.[][]

    GNU toolchain[edit]

    The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC or GNU cc) is the default compiler for the mainline Linux sources and it is invoked by a utility called make. Then, the GNU Assembler (more often called GAS or GNU as) outputs the object files from the GCC generated assembly code, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. Finally, the GNU Linker (GNU ld) is used to produce a statically linked executable kernel file called vmlinux. Both as and ld are part of GNU Binary Utilities (binutils). The above-mentioned tools are collectively known as the GNU toolchain.

    Compiler compatibility[edit]

    GCC was for a long time the only compiler capable of correctly building Linux. InIntel claimed to have modified the kernel so that its C compiler was also capable of compiling it.[] There was another such reported success inwith a modified version.[][]

    Sinceeffort has been underway to build Linux with Clang, an alternative compiler for the C language;[] as of 12 Aprilthe official kernel could almost be compiled by Clang.[][] The project dedicated to this effort is named LLVMLinux after the LLVM compiler infrastructure upon which Clang is built.[] LLVMLinux does not aim to fork either Linux or the LLVM, therefore it is a meta-project composed of patches that are eventually submitted to the upstream projects. By enabling Linux to be compiled by Clang, developers may benefit from shorter compilation times.[]

    Indevelopers completed upstreaming patches to support building the Linux kernel with Clang in the release, having backported support for X and AArch64 to the, and branches of the stable kernel tree. Google's Pixel 2 shipped with the first Clang built Linux kernel,[] though patches for Pixel (1st generation) did exist.[] saw ChromeOS move to building kernels with Clang by default,[] while Android (operating system) made Clang[] and LLVM's linker LLD[] required for kernel builds in Google moved its production kernel used throughout its datacenters to being built with Clang in [] Today, the ClangBuiltLinux group coordinates fixes to both Linux and LLVM to ensure compatibility, both composed of members from LLVMLinux and having upstreamed patches from LLVMLinux.

    Kernel debugging[edit]

    An example of Linux kernel panic

    Main articles: KGDB, Kernel panic, and Linux kernel oops

    Bugs involving the Linux Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives can be difficult to troubleshoot. This is because of the kernel's interaction with userspace and hardware; and also because they might be caused from a wider range of reasons compared to those of user programs. Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives few examples of the underlying causes are semantic errors in code, misuse of synchronization primitives, and incorrect hardware management.[]

    A report of a non-fatal bug in the kernel is called an "oops"; such deviations from correct behavior of the Linux kernel may allow continued operation with compromised reliability.[]

    A critical and fatal error is reported via the panic() function. It prints a message and then halts the kernel.[]

    One of the most common techniques used to find out bugs in code is debugging by printing. For this purpose Linux provides an in-kernel API called printk() which stores messages in a circular buffer. The syslog(2) system call is used for reading and/or clearing the kernel message ring buffer and for setting the maximum log level of the messages to be sent to the console (i.e., one of the eight KERN_* parameters of printk(), which tell the severity of the condition reported); usually it is invoked via the glibC wrapper klogctl(3).[] Kernel messages are also exported to userland through the /dev/kmsg interface[] (e.g., systemd-journald[][] reads that interface and by default append the messages to /var/log/journal).

    Another fundamental technique for debugging a running kernel is tracing. The ftrace mechanism is a Linux internal tracer; it is used for monitoring and debugging Linux at runtime and it can also analyze user space latencies due to kernel misbehavior.[][][][] Furthermore, ftrace allows users to trace Linux at boot-time.[]

    kprobes and kretprobes can break (like debuggers in userspace) into Linux and non-disruptively collect information.[]kprobes can be inserted into code at (almost) any address, while kretprobes work at function return. uprobes have similar purposes but they also have some differences in usage and implementation.[]

    With KGDB Linux Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives be debugged in much the same way as userspace programs. KGDB requires an additional machine that runs GDB and that is connected to the target to be debugged using a serial cable or Ethernet.[]

    Development model[edit]

    The Linux kernel project integrates new code on a rolling basis. Software checked into the project must work and compile without error. Each kernel subsystem is assigned a maintainer who is responsible for reviewing patches against the kernel code standards and keeps a queue of patches that can be submitted to Linus Torvalds within a merge window of several weeks. Patches are merged by Torvalds into the source code of the prior stable Linux kernel release, creating the -rc release candidate for the next stable kernel. Once the merge window is closed only fixes to the new code in the development release are accepted. The -rc development release of the kernel goes through regression tests and once it is judged to be stable by Torvalds and the kernel subsystem maintainers a new Linux kernel is released and the development process starts all over again.[]

    Developers who feel treated unfairly can report this to the Linux Foundation's Technical Advisory Board.[] In Julythe maintainer of the USB driver Sage Sharp asked Torvalds to address the abusive commentary in the kernel development community. InSharp backed out of Linux kernel development, saying that "The focus on technical excellence, in combination with overloaded maintainers, and people with different cultural and social norms, means that Linux kernel maintainers are often blunt, rude, or brutal to get their job done".[] At the arenaqq.us (LCA) conference indevelopers expressed the view that the culture of the community has gotten much better in the past few years. Daniel Vetter, the maintainer of the Intel drm/i graphics kernel driver, commented that the "rather violent language and discussion" in the kernel community has decreased or disappeared.[]

    Laurent Pinchart asked developers for feedback on their experience with the kernel community at the Embedded Linux Conference Europe. The issues brought up were discussed a few days later at the Maintainers Summit. Concerns over the lack of consistency in how maintainers responded to patches submitted by developers were echoed by Shuah Khan, the maintainer of the kernel self-test framework. Torvalds contended that there would never be consistency in the handling of patches because different kernel subsystems have, over time, adopted different development processes. Therefore, it was agreed upon that each kernel subsystem maintainer would document the rules for patch acceptance.[]

    Mainline Linux[edit]

    The Git tree of Linus Torvalds Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives contains the Linux kernel is referred to as mainline Linux. Every stable kernel release originates from the mainline tree,[] and is frequently published on arenaqq.us Mainline Linux has only solid support for a small subset of the many devices that run Linux. Non-mainline support is provided by independent projects, such as Yocto or Linaro, but in many cases the kernel from the device vendor is needed.[] Using a vendor kernel likely requires a board support package.

    Maintaining a kernel tree outside of mainline Linux has proven to be difficult.[]

    Mainlining refers to the effort of adding support for a Express Burn 10.20 Crack + Registration Code Free 2021 to the mainline kernel,[] while there was formerly only support in a fork or no support at all. This usually includes adding drivers or device tree files. When this is finished, the feature or security fix is considered mainlined.[]

    Linux-like kernel[edit]

    The maintainer of the stable branch, Greg Kroah-Hartman, has applied the term Linux-like to downstream kernel forks by vendors that add millions of lines of code to the mainline kernel.[] InGoogle stated that they wanted to use the mainline Linux kernel in Android so the number of kernel forks would be reduced.[] The term Linux-like has also been applied to the Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset, which does not include the full mainline Linux kernel but a small modified subset of the code.[]

    Linux forks[edit]

    There are certain communities that develop kernels based on the official Linux. Some interesting bits of code from these forks (i.e., a slang term meaning "derived projects") that include Linux-libre, Compute Node Linux, INK, L4Linux, RTLinux, and User-Mode Linux (UML) have been merged into the mainline.[] Some operating systems developed for mobile phones initially used heavily modified versions of Linux, including Google Android, Firefox OS, HP webOS, Nokia Maemo and Jolla Sailfish OS. Inthe Linux community criticised Google for effectively starting its own kernel tree:[][]

    This means that any drivers written for Android hardware platforms, can not get merged into the main kernel tree because they have dependencies on code that only lives in Google's kernel tree, causing it to fail to build in the arenaqq.us tree. Because of this, Google has now prevented a large chunk of hardware drivers and platform code from ever getting merged into the main kernel tree. Effectively creating a kernel branch that a number of different vendors are now relying on.[]

    —&#;Greg Kroah-Hartman,

    Today Android uses a slightly customized Linux[] where changes are implemented in device drivers so that little or no change to the core kernel code is required. Android developers also submit patches to the official Linux that finally can boot the Android operating system. For example, a Nexus 7 can boot and run the mainline Linux.[]

    At a presentation at the Computer History Museum, Linus Torvalds had this to say in response to a question Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives distributions of Linux using precisely the same kernel sources or not:

    They're notwell they are, and they're not, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. There is no single kernel. Every single distribution has their own changes, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. That's been going on since pretty much day one. I don't know if you may remember Yggdrasil was known for having quite extreme changes to the kernel and even today all of the major vendors have their own tweaks because they have some portion of the market they're interested in and quite frankly that's how it should be. Because if everybody expects one person, me, to be able to track everything that's not the point of GPL, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. That's not the point of having an open system. So actually the fact that a distribution decides that something is so important to them that they will add patches for even when it's not in the standard kernel, that's a really good sign for me. So that's for example how something like ReiserFS got added. And the reason why ReiserFS is the first journaling filesystem that was integrated in the standard kernel was not because I love Hans Reiser. It was because SUSE actually started shipping with ReiserFS as their standard kernel, which told me "ok." This is actually in production use. Normal People are doing this. They Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives know something I don't know. So in a very real sense what a lot of distribution houses do, they are part of this "let's make our own branch" and "let's make our changes to this." And because of the GPL, I can take the best portions of them.[]

    —&#;Linus Torvalds,

    [edit]

    There have been several notable conflicts among Linux kernel developers. Examples of such conflicts are:

    • In JulyCon Kolivas announced that he would cease developing for the Linux kernel.[][]
    • In JulyAlan Cox quit his role as the TTY layer maintainer after disagreement with Linus Torvalds.[]
    • In Decemberthere was a discussion between Linux SCSI maintainer James Bottomley and SCST maintainer Vladislav Bolkhovitin about which SCSI target stack should be included in the Linux kernel.[] This made some Linux users upset.[]
    • In JuneTorvalds made it very clear that he did not agree with NVIDIA releasing its drivers as closed.[]
    • In AprilTorvalds banned Kay Sievers from submitting patches to the Linux kernel for failing to deal with bugs that caused systemd to negatively interact with the kernel.[]
    • In OctoberLennart Poettering accused Torvalds of tolerating the rough discussion style on Linux kernel related mailing lists and of being a bad role model.[]
    • In MarchChristoph Hellwig filed a lawsuit against VMware for infringement of the copyright on the Linux kernel.[] Linus Torvalds made it clear that he did not agree with this and similar initiatives by calling lawyers a festering disease.[]

    Prominent Linux kernel developers have been aware of the importance of avoiding conflicts between developers.[] For a long time there was no code of conduct for kernel developers due to opposition by Linus Torvalds.[] However, a Linux Kernel Code of Conflict was introduced on 8 March [] It was replaced on 16 September by a new Code of Conduct based on the Contributor Covenant. This coincided with a public apology by Torvalds and a brief break from kernel development.[][] On 30 Novembercomplying with the Code of Conduct, Jarkko Sakkinen of Intel sent out patches replacing instances of "fuck" appearing in source code comments with suitable versions focused on the word 'hug'.[]

    Codebase[edit]

    As of [update], the release of the Linux kernel had around million lines of code, roughly 14% of the code is part of the "core" (arch, kernel and mm directories) while 60% is drivers.

    Linux is evolution, not intelligent design!

    —&#;Linus Torvalds, [][][]

    Estimated cost to redevelop[edit]

    Redevelopment costs of Linux kernel

    The cost to redevelop the Linux kernel version in a traditional proprietary development setting has been estimated to be US$ million (€M, £M) in prices using the COCOMO person-month estimation model.[] Ina study funded by the European Union put the redevelopment cost of kernel version higher, at €M ($bn, £M).[]

    This topic was revisited in October by Amanda McPherson, Brian Proffitt, and Ron Hale-Evans. Using David A. Wheeler's methodology, they estimated redevelopment of the kernel now costs $bn (part of a total $bn to redevelop Fedora 9).[] Again, Garcia-Garcia and Alonso de Magdaleno from University of Oviedo (Spain) estimate that the value annually added to kernel was about €M between and and €M init would cost also more than €1bn (about $bn as of February ) to develop in the European Union.[]

    As of 7&#;March&#;[update], using then-current LOC (lines of code) of a x Linux kernel and wage numbers with David A. Wheeler's calculations it would cost approximately $3bn (about €bn) to redevelop the Linux kernel as it keeps getting bigger. An updated calculation as of 26&#;September&#;[update], using then-current 20, LOC (lines of code) for the Linux kernel and the current US National average programmer salary of $75, show it would cost approximately $14,, dollars (£11,,) to rewrite the existing code.[]

    Maintenance and long-term support[edit]

    Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives width="" height="">
    Boot messages of a Linux kernel

    The latest kernel version and older kernel versions are maintained separately. Most latest kernel releases were supervised by Linus Torvalds.[] Current versions are released by Greg Kroah-Hartman.[]

    The Linux kernel developer community maintains a stable kernel by applying fixes for software bugs that have been discovered during the development of the subsequent stable kernel. Therefore, arenaqq.us will always list two stable kernels. The next stable Linux kernel is now released only 8 to 12 weeks later. Therefore, the Linux kernel maintainers have designated some stable kernel releases as longterm, these long-term support Linux kernels are updated with bug fixes for two or more years.[] In November there were six longterm Linux kernels:, and [] The full list of releases is at Linux kernel version history.

    Relation with Linux distributions[edit]

    Most Linux users run a kernel supplied by their Linux distribution. Some distributions ship the "vanilla" or "stable" kernels. However, several Linux distribution vendors (such as Red Hat and Debian) maintain another set of Linux kernel branches which are integrated into their products. These are usually updated at a slower pace compared to the "vanilla" branch, and they usually include all fixes from the relevant "stable" branch, but at the same time they can also add support for eFootball PES 2021 Crack + PC Key Download [Multiplayer] or features which had not been released in the "vanilla" version the distribution vendor started basing their branch from.

    Legal aspects[edit]

    GPLv2 licensing terms[edit]

    Initially, Torvalds released Linux under a license which forbade any commercial use.[] This was changed in version by a switch to the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2).[31] This license allows distribution and sale of possibly modified and unmodified versions of Linux but requires that all those copies be released iMyFone Umate Pro 6.0.3.3 With Registration Code [2021] the same license and be accompanied by - or that, on request, free access is given to - the complete corresponding source code.[] Torvalds has described licensing Linux under the GPLv2 as the "best thing I ever did".[]

    The Linux kernel is licensed explicitly only under version 2 of the Edraw Max 9.4.1 full version Archives without offering the licensee the option to choose "any later version", which is a common GPL extension. The official git branch of Torvalds contains documentation that explains the kernel development process to people who want to work with the community and contribute code; it clearly states that "[Any] contributions which are not covered by a [GPLv2] compatible license will not be accepted into the kernel.".[]

    There was considerable debate about how easily the license could be changed to use later GPL versions (including version 3), and whether this change is even desirable.[] Torvalds himself specifically indicated upon the release of version that his own code is released only under version 2.[] However, the terms Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives the GPL state that if no version is specified, then any version may be used,[] and Alan Cox pointed out that very few other Linux contributors had specified a particular version of the GPL.[]

    In Septembera survey of 29 key kernel programmers indicated that 28 preferred GPLv2 to the then-current GPLv3 draft. Torvalds commented, need for speed hot pursuit think a number of outsiders believed that I personally was just the odd man out because I've been so publicly not a huge fan of the GPLv3."[] This group of high-profile kernel developers, including Torvalds, Greg Kroah-Hartman and Andrew Morton, commented on mass media about their objections to the GPLv3.[] They referred to clauses regarding DRM/tivoization, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, patents, "additional restrictions" and warned a Balkanisation of the "Open Source Universe" by the GPLv3.[][] Linus Torvalds, who decided not to adopt the GPLv3 for the Linux kernel, reiterated his criticism even years later.[]

    Loadable kernel modules[edit]

    It is debated whether some loadable kernel modules (LKMs) are to be considered derivative works under copyright law, and thereby whether or not they fall under the terms of the GPL.

    In accordance with the license rules, LKMs using only a public subset of the kernel interfaces[][] are non-derived works, thus Linux gives system administrators the mechanisms to load out-of-tree binary objects into the kernel address space.[9]

    There are some out-of-tree loadable modules that make legitimate use of the dma_buf kernel feature.[] GPL compliant code can certainly use it. However, a different possible use case would be Nvidia Optimus that pairs a fast GPU with an Intel integrated GPU, where the Nvidia GPU writes into the Intel framebuffer when it is active. But, Nvidia cannot use this infrastructure because it necessitates bypassing a rule that can only be used by LKMs that are also GPL.[]Alan Cox replied on LKML, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, rejecting a request from one of their engineers to remove this technical enforcement from the API.[] Torvalds clearly stated on the LKML that "[I] claim that binary-only kernel modules ARE derivative "by default"'".[]

    On the other hand, Torvalds has also said that "[one] gray area in particular is something like a driver that was originally written for another operating system (i.e., clearly not a derived work of Linux in origin). THAT is a gray area, and _that_ is the area where I personally believe that some modules may be considered to not be derived works simply because they weren't designed for Linux and don't depend on any special Linux behaviour".[]Proprietary graphics drivers, in particular, are heavily discussed.

    Firmware binary blobs[edit]

    The official kernel, that is the Linus git branch at the arenaqq.us repository, does not contain any kind of proprietary code;[4][9] however Linux can search the filesystems to locate proprietary firmware, drivers, and other executable modules (collectively known as "binary blobs"), then it can load and link them into the kernel space.[] Whenever proprietary modules are loaded into Linux, the kernel marks itself as being "tainted",[] and therefore bug reports from tainted kernels will often be ignored by developers.

    When it is needed (e.g., for accessing boot devices or for speed) firmware can be built-in to the kernel, this means building the firmware into vmlinux; Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives this is not always a viable option for technical or legal issues (e.g., it is not permitted to firmware that is non-GPL compatible).[]

    Trademark[edit]

    See also: Linux: Copyright, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, trademark, and naming

    Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, the European Union, and some other countries.[][] A legal battle over the trademark began inwhen William Della Croce, a lawyer who was never involved in the development of Linux, started requesting licensing fees for the use of the word Linux. After it was proven that the word was in common use long before Della Croce's claimed first use, the trademark was awarded to Torvalds.[][][]

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    1. ^As a whole, Linux source is provided under the terms of the GPLonly license with an explicit syscall exception.[7][8] Aside from that, individual files can be provided under a different license which is required to be compatible with the GPLonly license (i.e., the GPL variants) or a dual license (e.g., one of the compatible GPL variants and a permissive license like BSD, MIT etc.)[9]

    References[edit]

    Источник: [arenaqq.us]

    OpenLiberty / arenaqq.us Public

    Collection of Maven plugins and archetypes for managing Open Liberty and WebSphere Liberty servers and applications.

    Build

    Use Maven or later to build the Liberty plugins and archetypes.

    • : builds the plugin and the archetypes.
    • : builds the plugin and the archetypes and runs the integration tests by providing an existing installation.
    • : builds the plugin and archetypes and runs the integration tests by downloading a new server. Set runtime to to run tests using the Open Liberty runtime, or to run tests using the WebSphere Liberty Java EE 7 runtime.

    Plugins

    Liberty Maven Plugin

    The Liberty Maven Plugin provides a number of goals for managing a Liberty server and applications. Maven or later is recommended to use the Liberty Maven Plugin.

    Release differences

    The new capabilities and behavior differences are summarized in the Liberty Maven Plug-in release notes.

    Configuration

    To enable Liberty Maven Plugin in your project add the following to your :

    <project> <build> <plugins> <!-- Enable liberty-maven-plugin --> <plugin> <groupId>arenaqq.us</groupId> <artifactId>liberty-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version></version> <!-- Specify configuration, executions for liberty-maven-plugin --> </plugin> </plugins> </build> </project>

    If you are using a snapshot version of Liberty Maven Plugin then you will also need to add the following plugin repository to your :

    Liberty installation configuration

    The Liberty Maven Plugin must first be configured with the Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives server installation information. The installation information can be specified as an existing installation directory, a packaged server, or as a Maven artifact. The Liberty Maven Plugin can also download and install a Liberty server from the Liberty repository or other location using the install parameter. By default, the plugin installs the Open Liberty runtime from Maven Central.

    Goals

    The Liberty Maven Plugin provides the following goals.

    GoalDescription
    cleanDeletes every file in the, or .
    compile-jspCompile JSPs in the src/main/webapp into the target/classes directory
    createCreate a Liberty server.
    debugStart a Liberty server in debug mode.
    deployCopy applications to the Liberty server's dropins or apps directory. If the server instance is running, it will also verify the applications started successfully.
    devStart a Liberty server in dev mode.
    devcStart a Liberty server in dev mode in a container.
    display-urlDisplay the application URL in the default browser.
    dumpDump diagnostic information from the server into an archive.
    install-featureInstall a feature packaged as a Subsystem Archive (esa) to the Liberty runtime.
    install-serverInstalls the Liberty runtime. This goal is implicitly invoked Halo 4 The Master Chief Collection Cracked [RePack] all the other plugin goals and usually does not need to be executed explicitly.
    java-dumpDump diagnostic information from the server JVM.
    packagePackage a Liberty server.
    prepare-featurePrepare a user feature for installation to the Liberty runtime.
    runStart a Liberty server in the foreground. The run goal implicitly creates the server, installs features referenced by the arenaqq.us file, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, and deploys the application before starting the Liberty server.
    startStart a Liberty server in the background. The server instance will be automatically created if it does not exist.
    statusCheck a Liberty server status.
    stopStop a Liberty server. The server instance must exist and must be running.
    test-startAllows you to bypass automatically starting the server during the pre-integration-test phase with pom configuration or a Liberty-specific command line argument.
    test-stopAllows you to bypass automatically stopping the server during the post-integration-test phase with pom configuration or a Liberty-specific command line argument.
    undeployUndeploy an application to a Liberty server. The server instance must exist and must be running.
    uninstall-featureUninstall a feature from the Liberty runtime.
    Common Parameters

    Parameters shared by all goals. See common parameters.

    Common Server Parameters

    Additional parameters shared by all server-based goals. See common server parameters.

    Extensions

    Extensions improve the compatibility or user experience of third party libraries used with Liberty. The Liberty Maven Plugin provides the following extensions.

    ExtensionDescription
    configure-arquillian goalIntegrates configuration for the Liberty Managed and Remote Arquillian containers in the Liberty Maven Plugin. Automatically configures required parameters for the Liberty Managed container.
    Spring Boot SupportThe Liberty Maven Plugin provides support for Spring Boot applications, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives you to install Spring Boot executable JARs directly to the Liberty runtime.

    Packaging types

    liberty-assembly

    The Maven packaging type is used to create a packaged Liberty server Maven artifact out of existing server installation, compressed archive, or another server Maven artifact. Any applications specified as Maven compile dependencies will be automatically packaged with the assembled server. Liberty features can also be installed and packaged with the assembled server. Any application or Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives code included in the project is automatically compiled and tests run at appropriate unit or integration test phase. Application code is installed as a loose application WAR file if is set to or and is set to .

    The default lifecycle includes:

    PhaseGoal
    pre-cleanliberty:stop
    process-resourcesmaven-resources-plugin:resources
    compilemaven-compiler-plugin:compile
    process-test-resourcesmaven-resources-plugin:testResources
    test-compilemaven-compiler-plugin:testCompile
    testmaven-surefire-plugin:test
    prepare-packageliberty:create, liberty:install-feature
    packageliberty:deploy, liberty:package
    pre-integration-testliberty:test-start
    integration-testmaven-failsafe-plugin:integration-test
    post-integration-testliberty:test-stop
    verifymaven-failsafe-plugin:verify
    installmaven-install-plugin:install
    deploymaven-deploy-plugin:deploy

    Example:

    <project> <groupId>myGroup</groupId> <artifactId>myServer</artifactId> <!-- Create Liberty server assembly --> <packaging>liberty-assembly</packaging> <dependencies> <!-- Package arenaqq.us with server assembly --> <dependency> <groupId>wasdev</groupId> <artifactId>SimpleServlet</artifactId> <version></version> <type>war</type> </dependency> </dependencies> <build> <plugins> <!-- Enable liberty-maven-plugin --> <plugin> <groupId>arenaqq.us</groupId> <artifactId>liberty-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version>[,)</version> <extensions>true</extensions> <configuration> <installDirectory>/opt/ibm/wlp</installDirectory> <serverName>test</serverName> <features> <acceptLicense>true</acceptLicense> <feature>mongodb</feature> </features> <looseApplication>true</looseApplication> <deployPackages>all</deployPackages> </configuration> </plugin> </plugins> </build> </project>

    Archetypes

    By default, all archetypes that specify a Liberty runtime use the latest version of the Open Liberty runtime. You can use a different runtime by setting the and. For example, you can use by setting and .

    The runtime version can also be set dynamically. For example, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, you can specify version of the runtime by setting .

    Finally, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, the default Liberty Maven Plugin version is set to be the latest version of the plugin. To specify a different version of the plugin, use the parameter. For example, you could set .

    liberty-plugin-archetype

    The is used to generate a basic multi-module project that builds a simple web application then deploys and tests it on a Liberty server. It also creates a Liberty server package that includes the application.

    Usage

    liberty-archetype-webapp

    The is used to generate a basic single-module project that builds Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives simple web application then deploys and A Plus File Protection v2.6 crack serial keygen on a Liberty Football Manager 2021 Cracked PC [RePack]. It also creates a minified, runnable Liberty server package that includes the application. The generated project includes the parent pom that binds Liberty Maven Plugin goals to the Maven default build lifecycle.

    Usage

    liberty-archetype-ear

    The is used to generate a multi-module project that includes an EJB module, a web application module and an EAR module. In the EAR module, it packages the application in a Java EE 7 Enterprise Archive then deploys and tests on a Liberty server. It also creates a minified, runnable Liberty server package that includes the application EAR file. The generated project includes parent pom that binds Liberty Maven Plugin goals to the Maven default build lifecycle.

    Usage

    Using Archetype Snapshots

    If you are using a snapshot version of orthen you will also need to add the following archetype repository to :

    <settings> <profiles> <profile> <id>archetype-snapshot-repo</id> <properties> <archetypeRepository>arenaqq.us </archetypeRepository> </properties> <repositories> <repository> <id>sonatype-nexus-snapshots</id> <name>Sonatype Nexus Snapshots</name> <url>arenaqq.us </url> <releases> <enabled>false</enabled> </releases> <snapshots> <enabled>true</enabled> </snapshots> </repository> </repositories> <pluginRepositories> <pluginRepository> <id>sonatype-nexus-snapshots</id> <name>Sonatype Nexus Snapshots</name> <url>arenaqq.us </url> <releases> <enabled>false</enabled> </releases> <snapshots> <enabled>true</enabled> </snapshots> </pluginRepository> </pluginRepositories> </profile> </profiles> <activeProfiles> <activeProfile>archetype-snapshot-repo</activeProfile> </activeProfiles> </settings>
    Источник: [arenaqq.us]
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    Chapter 3 Updating Oracle Private Cloud Appliance

    Due to the nature of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance – where the term appliance is key – an update is a delicate and complicated procedure that deals with different hardware and software components at the same time. It is virtually impossible to automate the entire process, and more importantly it would be undesirable to take the appliance and the virtual environment it hosts out of service entirely for updating, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. Instead, updates can be executed in phases and scheduled for minimal downtime. The following table describes the sequence to perform Oracle Private Cloud Appliance updates.

    For additional information about using the Upgrader Tool with software releasesee the support note Upgrader Tool - Prechecks and Postchecks (Doc ID ).

    Table  Sequential Break-Down of an Appliance Update

    Order

    Component

    Description

    1.

    storage Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives update

    You must perform this update before you move to controller software version You can skip this step if you have already performed this update on your system, or if your system was shipped from the factory with software pre-installed. See Section , “Upgrading the Storage Network”.

    2.

    management nodes software

    Install updated management software on both management nodes ( and ). See Section , “Upgrading the Management Node Controller Software”.

    3.

    all firmware, in this order

    1. management node firmware

    2. compute node firmware

    3. internal ZFS storage firmware

    4. switch firmware

      • Firmware for Cisco leaf, spine, and management switches

      • EPLD image for Cisco leaf, spine, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, and management switches

    Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives Section , “Upgrading Component Firmware”.

    4.

    compute node software updates

    See Section , “Upgrading the Compute Node Software”


     Before You Start Updating

    Please read and observe the critical information in this section before you begin any procedure to update your Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

    All the software included in a given release of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software is tested to work together and should be treated as one package. Consequently, no appliance component should be updated individually, unless Oracle provides specific instructions to do so. All Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software releases are downloaded as a single large file, which includes the items listed above.

    Do not install any additional packages on your system besides those included in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance file, or packages recommended by your Oracle representative.

    Note

    The appliance update process must always be initiated from the active management node.

    To Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives supported firmware versions for all releases of Oracle Private Cloud Appliance, see support note Doc ID

     Warnings and Cautions

    Read and understand these warnings and cautions before you start the appliance update procedure. They help you avoid operational issues including data loss and significant downtime.

    Minimum Release

    In this version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Administrator's Guide, it is assumed that your system is currently running Controller Software release prior to this software update.

    If your system is currently running an earlier version, please refer to the Update chapter of the Administrator's Guide for Release Follow the appropriate procedures and make sure that your appliance configuration is valid for the release update before you continue.

    No Critical Operations

    When updating the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software, make sure that no provisioning operations occur and Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives any externally scheduled backups are suspended. Such operations could cause a software update or component firmware upgrade to fail and lead to system downtime.

    YUM Disabled

    On Oracle Private Cloud Appliance management nodes the YUM repositories have been intentionally disabled and should not be enabled by the customer. Updates and upgrades of the management node operating system and software components must only be applied through the update mechanism described in the documentation.

    Firmware Policy

    To ensure that your Oracle Private Cloud Appliance configuration remains in a qualified state, take the required firmware upgrades into account when planning the controller software update. For more information, refer to Section , “Firmware Policy”.

    No Backup

    During controller software updates, backup operations must be prevented. The Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Upgrader disables and blocks backups.

    CA Certificate and Keystore

    If you have generated custom keys using in a previous version of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software, you must regenerate the keys prior to updating the Controller Software. For instructions, refer to the support note with Doc ID See also Section , “Creating a Keystore”.

    Proxy Settings

    If direct public access is not available within your data center and you make use of proxy servers to facilitate HTTP, HTTPS and FTP traffic, it may be necessary to edit the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance system properties, using the CLI on each management node, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives, to ensure that the correct proxy settings are specified for a download to succeed from the Internet. This depends on the network location from where the download is Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. See Section , “Adding Eiyuu Senki World Conquest Pc Game + Crack Torrent Free 2021 Settings for Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Updates” for more information.

    Custom LUNs on Internal Storage

    If the internal ZFS Storage Appliance contains customer-created LUNs, make sure they are not mapped to the default initiator group. See

    See “Customer Created LUNs Are Mapped to the Wrong Initiator Group” within the Known Limitations and Workarounds section of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Release Notes.

    Oracle VM Availability During Update to Release x

    When updating the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance Controller Software to Release x, Oracle VM Manager is unavailable for the entire duration of the update, Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives. The virtualized environment remains functional, but configuration changes and other management operations are not possible.

    Compute Node Upgrade ONLY Through Oracle Private Cloud Appliance

    Compute nodes cannot be upgraded to the appropriate Oracle VM Server Release x with the Oracle VM Manager web UI. You must upgrade them using the pca_upgrader tool within the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance.

    To perform this upgrade procedure, follow the specific instructions in Section , “Upgrading the Compute Node Software”.

    Do Not Override Oracle VM Global Update Settings

    As stated in Section , “Guidelines”, at the start of Chapter 5, Managing the Oracle VM Virtual Infrastructure, the settings of the default server pool and custom tenant groups must not be modified through Oracle VM Manager. For compute node upgrade specifically, it is critical that the server pool option "Override Global Server Update Group" remains deselected. The compute node update process must use the repository defined globally, and overriding this will cause the update to fail.

    Post-Update Synchronization

    Once you have confirmed that the Download Nexus vst 3.3.4 Archives process has completed, it is advised that you wait a further 30 minutes before starting another compute node or management node software update. This allows the necessary synchronization tasks to complete.

    If Patcher Archives - Download Pro Crack Software ignore the recommended delay between these update procedures there could be issues with further updating as a result of interference between existing and new tasks.

     Backup Local Customizations

    An update of the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software stack may involve a complete re-imaging of the management nodes. Any customer-installed agents or customizations are overwritten in the process. Before applying new appliance software, back up all local customizations and prepare to re-apply them after the update has completed successfully.

    Oracle Enterprise Manager Plug-in Users

    If you use Oracle Enterprise Manager and the Oracle Enterprise Manager Plug-in to monitor your Oracle Private Cloud Appliance environment, always back up the oraInventory Agent data to before updating the controller software.

    For detailed instructions, refer to the Agent Recovery section in the Oracle Enterprise Manager Plug-in documentation.

    Auto Service Request (ASR) Users

    If you use Auto Service Request (ASR) in the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance environment, backup your ASR configuration accoring to the ASR Backup and Restore section in the Oracle Auto Service Request ASR Manager User's Guide for Linux and Solaris.

    You can restore the data after the Oracle Private Cloud Appliance software update is complete.

     Determine Firmware Versions

    Use the following commands to determine the current version of firmware installed on a component.

    1. Using an account with superuser privileges, log in to the component.

      For Cisco switches you must log in as.

    2. Use the appropriate command to find the current firmware version of each component.

      • compute/management nodes

        → fwupdate list all

        To find the CX5 card firmware version, query the PCI bus:

        [root@ovcamn05r1 ~]# lspci Powered by Wordpress

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