Jessica (Londrina, 18, Brazil)'s comments from Baao Camarines Sur Philippines Showing 1-20 of 25

Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌

Abaqus, 2017, Deassault Systems. ❌ AERMOD (Providence Software), 18081, Providence. ❌ AutoDesk AutoCad, 2019, AutoDesk, Inc. ✓. Yes, Yes, Nov 4. Harbor in June 2017 and held in flow through seawater planulae were collected on June 23rd and used for a 48 hour study from June 23rd Cross Mark. Established in August of 2005, the KapCC STEM program aims to of Porites sp. were collected from Honolulu Harbor in June 2017 and held.

Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ - the

Pueo o ku pages v5

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SPRING 2018

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics

K API‘OLANI COMMUNIT Y COLLEGE Board of Student Publications


About Pueo O Kū

Submission Process

Pueo o Kū STEM journal is a biannual publication featuring the undergraduate research writing of Kapi‘olani Community College's Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) and Health Sciences programs. Pueo o Kū is published by the Board of Student Publication at Kapi‘olani Community College University of Hawai‘i and highlights the noteworthy student research pioneered on the Kapi‘olani Community College campus.

Students interested in submitting their work to Pueo o Kū STEM journal, were able to do so online by visiting the Board of Student Publications website and filling out the general online submission form.

Established in August of 2005, the KapCC STEM program aims to improve the quality of education in the fields of STEM through various initiatives, including undergraduate research projects, peer mentoring and summer bridge programs. This effort has initiated an increased number of KapCC students transferring to four-year degree programs and is the educational foundation preparing students for careers in STEM disciplines.

Publication

Submission Criteria All submissions for Pueo O Ku 2018 publication were produced at KapCC during the following semesters: Spring 2016, Summer 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Summer 2017, and Fall 2017. Featuring coursework in the STEM and Health Science fields submitted by the respective student author must be submitted digitally as a project poster formatted in .ppt or .pptx only (File size should not exceed 8 MB). High resolution images were recommended. Students were able to submit more than one work as it applied to the submission criteria. All submitted work was peer reviewed by the formed peer review committee.

STEM Outreach Coordinator

Supervisor

Keōmailani S. Eaton

Cheri Souza

Peer Review Committee

Art Director

Katie Gipson, ‘Alohi Madrona, Leah McCabe, Ronnie Kauanoe & Jordan Li

Allyson Villanueva

Cover Artist

KAPI‘OLANI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Publisher Board of Student Publications

Andrew Chang ©Kapi‘olani Community College, The University of Hawai‘i is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution and is committed to a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of race, sex, age, religion, color, national origin, ancestry, disability, marital status ,arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or status as a covered veteran.


Mahalo to you for reading this edition of Pueo O Kū STEM Journal. In this edition you will uncover the shared passion for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) research. E lawe i ke a‘o a mālama, a ‘oi mau ka na‘auao is a proverbial Hawaiian saying which simply means, He/She who takes their knowledge and applies it, increases their knowledge. The STEM student experience is a learning process by which our students apply their knowledge through research. Research allows our STEM students to employ their knowledge in a way that is meaningful, useful and relevant to themselves and their community. Through research, students engage in the process of growth; they identify their own strengths, analyze their needs and pursue the appropriate course of action. In these pages, you will find STEM student research that stretched from ma uka (mountain side) to ma kai (ocean side). Similarly, we wanted the art of this edition of Pueo O Kū to mirror the work of our students. The ma uka to ma kai theme was represented using Native Hawaiian motifs created by KapCC STEM student Andrew Chang. We hope you learn, enjoy and embrace the passion for research expressed in these pages. Me Ke Aloha, Keōmailani S. Eaton STEM Coordinator and Native Hawaiian Outreach


Table of Contents Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES A Sublethal Study of Zinc Oxide & Titainium Dioxide on Porites Sp. Planulae Settlement

06

Tina Huynh-Nguyen Faculty Advisor: Mackenzie Manning, M.S., Mentor: Narrissa Spies

How to Get More Nutrition into Urban/Poor Communities

08

Jana Julian Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated in Vitro from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Device in Vivo

11

Jessie Mattosi Faculty Advisor: Mike Ross

Investigating Levels of Arsenic Found in Brown Rice to Determine Toxicity

13

Portia Yee, Yuree Ku, Kayla Valera, and Kristen Mikami Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Sequencing of Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites Directed Against Bacterial Pathogens

15

Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, and Alan Garcia Faculty Advisor: Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D and John Berestecky, Ph.D

Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody

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Nghi Dam Faculty Advisor: John Berestecky, Ph.D

Protective Effects of Antioxidants in UV-Induced Apoptosis

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Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, Matthew Tuthill, and Katherine Souza Faculty Advisors: John Berestecky, Ph.D & Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D

PRE-ENGINEERING Ahupua‘a of Waikīkī & the Famous Beaches Within

21

Feng-Jui Kuo Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D

Design and Fabrication of a Peristaltic Pump to Displace Viscous Liquid in Precise Increments

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Armani Aveina, Kevin Lee, and Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland, M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai

Exploring the History Around the Centroid of My Ahupua‘a

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David Chuang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate & Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars Christopher Blake, Jeff Chen, and Jordan Li Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

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Investigation of Shear Strength of Common and Uncommon Structural Foundations

29

Kyle Aukai, Siobhan Mercado, and Alan Tupou Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Kuapa Pond of Maunalua: A Center on Edge

31

Mikayla Carias Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Measuring & Calculating the Centroid of the Waimānalo Ahupua‘a with a Physics Approach

33

Steven Washino Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Modularization of an Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle for Varying Scientific Experiments

35

Yuuma Yamamoto , Chris Blake, and Joni Hashizume Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai

The Approximation of the Centroid of the Kalihi Apuhua‘a

37

Brendan Cha Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

The Analysis and Significance of the Centroid About the Ahupua‘a: Waikīkī

39

Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Quantifying Magnetic Properties in Order to Assess the Viability of an Earth-Magnet Powered Railway

41

Mahealani Kini, Matthew Kohatsu, Cassidy Siegrist Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

PHYSICAL SCIENCES Biodiesel Production

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Travis Sherman Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D

Creating Biodiesel: From Your Kitchen to Your Car

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Jaelynn Lopez, Mia Melamed, Sita Om, and Louisa Yang Faculty Mentor: Kathleen Ogata

Flight Time: Earth To Mars

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Leiolani Malagon-Leon Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins

How fo' Solve one Atwood System in Pidgin

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Jusden Keliikuli Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins

Process of Determining Curie Temperatures of Multiferroic Materials

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Aaron Pacheco Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

Temperature Gradient Monitor for the ProtoDUNE

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Leah McCabe Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

Waves in a Flute

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Clare Ann Ronquillo Faculty Advisor: Jacob Tyler, M.S.

Using Parallel Processes and Numerical Methods Applied to the Planetary Landing Problem

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Jonathan Wallen Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

STUDENT REFLECTIONS

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A Sublethal Study of Zinc Oxide & Titainium Dioxide on Porites Sp. Planulae Settlement Tina Huynh-Nguyen Mentor: Narrissa Spies, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Honolulu, HI Faculty Advisor: Mackenzie Manning, M.S. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M AT E R I A L S A N D M ET H O D S

Recreational beach users are mindful to use sunscreen for UV protection when visiting the reefs. However, some sunscreens contain chemicals that have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in rats and other organisms (Christiansen et al., 2012). Oxybenzone is a popular active ingredient in sunscreens and has been shown to negatively affect coral larvae as an endocrine disruptor that induces ossification of the planulae, causing the planulae to encase in its own skeleton (C. A. Downs et al., 2015). In response to the possibly harmful effects of these chemicals on both humans and coral reef ecosystems, a new market of “reef safe” products that have mineral based active ingredients has been introduced to consumers. These products contain mineral ingredients like zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) that act as a physical barrier to block out UV rays. To date, there is little research on possible effects of these active ingredients on coral reefs. This study investigated the effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on Porites sp. coral planulae settlement.

Planulae Collection Colonies of Porites sp. were collected from Honolulu Harbor in June 2017 and held in flow through seawater tanks at Kewalo Marine Laboratory. Asexually reproduced planulae were collected on June 23rd and used for a 48 hour study from June 23rd to June 24th of 2017 Stock Solution 1.5%, 3%, 6% and 12% concentrations of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide were made with filtered sea water Six replicates of 5mL of each concentration were aliquoted into 16.8mL wells containing a small biofilm pieces to encourage settlement, and ten planulae were added to each well. Three replicates of positive (biofilm and no minerals) and negative (no biofilm and no minerals) controls each containing 5mL of filtered sea water and ten planulae were compared to treatments

L A B S T U DY R E S U LT S Lab Study • After 48 hours, an average of 28.33% of planulae settled in positive controls and 0% settled in negative controls • Statistically significant decreases (p< 0.05) in planulae settlement were observed when exposed to 12% and 1.50% zinc oxide compared to positive controls • All concentrations of titanium dioxide showed significant decreases in planulae settlement compared to positive controls (Graph 1)

Figure 1. Motile Planulae in Positive Control

Figure 2. Settled planulae in 3% Zinc Oxide treatment

Figure 3. Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide 3% concentration treatments and negative controls

Figure 4. Misshaped planulae in 12% zinc oxide. The zinc oxide can be seen as white particles

Figure 5. Misshaped planulae in 12% zinc oxide. The zinc oxide can be seen as white particles 6

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S

F U RT H E R S T U D I E S

I would like to thank Mackenzie Manning and Narrissa Spies for encouraging me to take on this research. In addition, thank you to Kewalo Marine Laboratory for providing the equipment and chemicals. Also, thank you to Danny Zhen and Ruby for valuable assistance in the field and laboratory.

Studies shed light on the dangers of nanoparticle compounds found in the marine environment (Leung et al., 2009 and Hazeem et al., 2015). Further studies are required to understand the biological influence of these non-nano “reef safe” mineral chemicals on the marine life.

DISCUSSION

C. A. Downs, E. K.-W. (2015). Toxicopathological Effects of the Suncreens UV filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophe none-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primacy Cells and Its Envrionmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Island. Cross Mark. Christiansen, S. K. (2012). Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures: an exploratory study in rats. International Journal of Andrology. Hazeem, M. B. (2015). Cumulative effect of zinc oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles on growth and chlorophyll a content of Picochlorum sp. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Leung, S. W. (2009). Toxicities of nano zinc oxide to five marine organisms: influences of aggregate size and ion solubility. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Richmond, H. R. (2005). Coral Reproduction and Recruitment as tools for studying ecotoxicology of coral reef ecosystems. CRC Press.

REFERENCES The settlement of Porites sp. planulae in this study was affected by zinc oxide and titanium dioxide A study that assessed contaminants in aquatic ecosystems found that pollutants can interfere with the metamorphic inducement of the bacterial community on the substrata and/or with the inducer receptor of the planulae (Richmond, 2005) Titanium dioxide physically blocked the area of settlement possibly reducing the planulae’s ability to connect with the bacterial community (this pattern was not observed in the zinc oxide treatment)

R EC O V E RY A F T E R E X P O S U R E S T U DY Unsettled planulae from the first experiment were placed into wells with filtered sea water and a biofilm slide and observed for 48 hours (Figure 6) Individuals from zinc oxide treatments continued to experience effects even after removal and recovery compared to those exposed to titanium dioxide. Reverse metamorphosis was observed in one planulae from the 6% zinc oxide concentration. These “secondary planulae” from the high concentration of zinc oxide were not able to recover settle. In contrast, the titanium dioxide planulae had a low settlement rate in the first experiment so they were not in as direct contact with the chemicals and seemed to be not as affected in the recovery study.

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Figure 6: Planulae from Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide 3% concentration treatment with filtered sea water and positive controls

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Graph 1: Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Concentration Averages in Relation to Planulae Settlement

B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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How to Get More Nutrition into Urban/Poor Communities Jana Julian Faculty Advisor: Mike Ross Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

PURPOSE

Despite being one of the “richest” countries in the world, 12.3% of U.S. households are considered food insecure (USDA, 2017). Being food insecure means that over 15 million households are uncertain of having or unable to obtain enough food to meet the needs of all family members due to lack of funds and/or resources; this involves disrupted eating patterns and/or reduced food intake which may be compensated for by government assistance and community food pantries. Statistics also show that over 29 million Americans live in food deserts, which limits their accessibility to nutritious foods and increases costs for them to obtain them (USDA, 2017). While this predominantly affects minority and low-income neighborhoods, these numbers most likely do not include the homeless population or people not eligible for government assistance, such as undocumented immigrants, so the percentages may be higher. The consequences of poor nutrition results in developing illnesses that harm the body and the mind i.e, behavioral health issues, obesity, hypertension, gout, sleep apnea etc. (Seagal et al.; NCHS) It has also been established, through government research, that there is a correlation between poverty and lack of nutrition. Now the question is what can be done to decrease the amount of people in the U.S. suffering from food insecurity and malnutrition. A likely solution could be the introduction of microgreens into urban/poor/food desert communities.

The purpose of this study was to determine the best method of growth for microgreens. Microgreens are grown from the seeds of vegetables, herbs, or grains and they have a brief, species-dependent growth cycle, of 1–3 weeks from seed germination (Xiao et al., 2012). They are harvested at soil level, when cotyledons are fully expanded and the first pair of true leaves has emerged (Kyriacou et al., 2012). Microgreens were chosen because research has shown that they can have four to six times more nutrients than mature plants. Compared to matured plants, microgreens contain higher amounts of important phytonutrients and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Se, and Mo) and lower nitrates (Xiao et al., 2012; Weber, 2017 ). For this study the focus were the minerals Ca, K, Mg and Fe due to research showing that these were minerals that poorer communities are deficient in; we tested this by having samples sent to the Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center at UH Manoa. In addition to nutrition density, microgreens only need soil, water and sunlight and are best harvested within three to four weeks (though harvestable growth can be seen in just over a week) while many mature vegetables may need to grow for months before harvesting. This allows urban households to use less resources and harvest regularly giving them access to fresh, nutrient dense greens. Being able to harvest regularly could have a positive impact on the health and nutrition of individuals in poorer communities and food deserts.

Figure 1. A mixture of microgreens.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


M ET H O D S

R E S U LT S

1. On 11SEP17 a mixture of Burpee Brand vegetable seeds were divided into three groups. In the control batch, basic potting mix and perlite were used with no fertilizer. In the commercial batch, Miracle Gro was used as the fertilizer and in the organic batch, vermicast was used as the fertilizer. Over a 22-day period, the growth rates of all plants were observed approximately every 3-4 days. (The plants were grown in the Kapiolani Community College (KCC) greenhouse in Honolulu, HI and were watered automatically via an in ceiling sprinkler system three times a day for four minutes.) At the end of the 22-day period, the microgreens were harvested and sent to a facility on UH Manoa to be tested. Figure 2 shows the process from planting to harvesting.

The initial experiment indicated that nutrient levels were higher in the samples of microgreens than they are in mature plants. Shown in figure 4 are the amounts in mg/g of the microgreens from the study and USDA measurements of the mature vegetables. In the study, the microgreens were a mixture of Basil, Beets, Red Cabbage, Carrots, Collards, Spinach and Swiss Chard. Iron appeared to have higher concentrations than the mature plants versions of the plants used in the microgreens mixture.

11SEP17

19SEP17

22SEP17

25SEP17

25SEP17

02OCT17

Level of Nutrients in Microgreens vs Mature Plants in mg/g

Figure 2.

2. On 6OCT17 the initial experiment was repeated in an urban environment using individual mason jars for each batch (figure 3); we didn’t have access to vermicast so we used chicken manure as the organic fertilizer. This time the focus included the effects of red light and natural light on growth patterns. Research has shown that red light improves the nutritional quality of microgreens, causes stem elongation, increased fresh weight and decreased leaf area, but this varied between species (Brazaityte, 2016). There were two batches of control, commercial and organic. Each batch was sealed in a mason jar to try and recreate a greenhouse effect for each plant.

Figure 3.

20NOV17 Figure 4. The plants after the study was competed. While the Miracle Gro batch is still growing, the Organic and Control batch no longer have sprouts and have not grown further. It was speculated a few weeks prior that these two batches were eaten by insects and/or rodent. It is possible they may have found these plants to be more nutritious or better testing than the commercial batch.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H In order to conduct research more effectively in the future, it would be best to utilize one type of edible plant, that also grows quickly, such as spinach, to allow for time to repeat the experiment, measure more accurately and make adjustments. It would also be best to complete the entire experiment in an urban environment in order to better showcase how well the method would work for the purpose of this study. B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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L I T E R AT U R E R EV I EW 1. Andrejiova, Alena, et al. “Content of Selected Bioac tive Substances In Dependence On Lighting In Microgreens.” Acta Hortivulturae Et Regiotecturae , pp. 6–10., www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/ahr.2017.20. issue-1/ahr-2017-0002/ahr-2017-0002.pdf. 2. Barclay, Eliza. “Introducing Microgreens: Younger, And Maybe More Nutritious, Vegetables.” NPR, NPR, 30 Aug. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/ thesalt/2012/08/29/160274163/introducing-micro greens-younger-and-maybe-more-nutritiousvegetables. 3. Bliss, Rosalie Marion. “USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 62, No. 1.” AgResearch Mag, Jan. 2014, agresearch mag.ars.usda.gov/2014/jan/greens/. 4. Brazaitytė, A., Vir¿ilė, A., Samuolienė, G., Jankauskienė, J., Sakalauskienė, S., Sirtautas, R., Novičkovas, A., Daba¿inskas, L., Va¿takaitė, V., Miliauskienė, J. and Duchovskis, P. (2016). Light quality: growth and nutritional value of microgreens under indoor and greenhouse conditions. Acta Hortic. 1134, 277284DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.37https:// doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.37 5. Brazaityte, A., Sakalauskiene, S., Virsile, A., Jankauskiene, J., Samuoliene, G., Sirtautas, R., Vastakaite, V., Miliauskiene, J., Duchovskis, P., Novickovas, A. and Dabasinskas, L. (2016). The effect of short-term red lighting on Brassicaceae microgreens grown indoors. Acta Hortic. 1123, 177184DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1123.25https:// doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1123.25 6. Brazaityte, Ausra, et al. “The Effects of LED Illumination Spectra and Intensity on Carotenoid Content in Brassicaceae Microgreens.” Food Chemistry, Elsevier, 22 Oct. 2014, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0308814614016392?via%3Dihub.

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7. Kyriacou, Marios C., et al. “Microgreens as a Com ponent of Space Life Support Systems: A Cornucopia of Functional Food.” Frontiers, Frontiers, 29 Aug. 2017, journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/ fpls.2017.01587/full. 8. Lockney, Dan. “LED Systems Target Plant Growth.” NASA, NASA, 2010, spinoff.nasa.gov/ Spinoff2010/cg_1.html. 9. Salzman, Nikki. “Using SNAP Benefits to Grow Your Own Food.” USDA, 6 June 2011, www.usda.gov/media/ blog/2011/07/6/using-snap-benefits-grow-your-ownfood. 10. Seagal, Laura M, et al. “Food Insecure Children.” Food Insecure Children - The State of Obesity, stateofobesity. org/food-insecurity/. 11. “Toolkit for SNAP Participants.” SNAP Gardens, www.snapgardens.org/snap-participant/. 12. USDA. “Key Statistics & Graphics.” USDA ERS - Key Statistics & Graphics, 4 Oct. 2017, www.ers.usda.gov/ topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-theus/key-statistics-graphics/. 13. USDA. “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).” Food and Nutrition Service, 17 Nov. 2017, www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligible-food-items. 14. Weber, Carolyn F. “Broccoli Microgreens: A Miner al-Rich Crop That Can Diversify Food Systems.” Fron tiers, Frontiers, 7 Mar. 2017, journal.frontiersin. org/article/10.3389/fnut.2017.00007/full. 15. Xiao, Zhenlei, et al. “Assessment of Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations of Emerging Food Products: Edible Microgreens.” ACS Publications, 18 July 2012, pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ jf300459b?tokenDomain=presspac&tokenAccess= presspac&forwardService=showFullText&journal Code=jafcau&.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated in Vitro from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Device in Vivo Jessie Mattos Faculty Advisor: John Berestecy, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N Type I Diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the United States alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. Standard treatment of exogenous insulin is life-saving; however, extreme fluctuations in blood glucose levels are detrimental to the individual’s health. This leaves the type I diabetic vulnerable to complications including vascular and kidney disease, blindness, lower limb amputation, and death. This experiment describes the protocol for the production of insulin-secreting cells in vitro from the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. These cells can be loaded into a protective device that can then be implanted under the skin. The device is designed to protect the cells from immune rejection by the implant recipient. The implant is vascularized and engrafted via recipient blood vessels and surrounding tissue and can respond to glucose by secreting insulin thereby replacing the Beta-islet cells that are lost in patients with T1D.

DATA / R E S U LT S Resulting populations were analyzed by flow cytometry, RNA analysis, and immunofluorescence, and with proinsulin and C-peptide content.

P ROTO C O L O P T I M I Z AT I O N Modification of PEC-01 (pancreatic endoderm cell) protocol was achieved by the additional treatment of activin A, Wnt3A, heregulin Beta1 at stage 3 (days 5-7) and with activin A and heregulin Beta1 at stage 4 (days 7-13). Stage 5 (days 13-15) was designed to maximize NGN3 induction. Stages 6 and 7 were designed for optimal expression of insulin and mature Beta-cell genes from the pancreatic progenitor cells.

Figure 1-i depicts digital RNA analysis for pancreatic gene expression during PEC-01 and IC protocols. RNA levels are shown for PP markers (PDX1, PTF1A*, NKX6.1, & SOX9) (iA) and endocrine markers (CHGA, INS, GCG, & SST) (iB) RNA levels of NGN3 over days 5-13 (stages 3 & 4) (iC) NGN3 expression during stage 5 (days 13-15) & into stage 6 (day 18) of IC protocol alone with treatment of gamma-secretase inhibitor (causes upregulation of NGN3 expression in cells).

B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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DATA / R E S U LT S C O N T.

Figure 1-ii. depicts digital RNA analysis of IC aggregates at stage 7 (of experiments 2 & 3 out of 49) of differentiation comparing pancreatic gene expression in native ICs, ICs that have been cryopreserved/thawed, and reaggregated ICs in comparison with purified human islet cells.

C O N C LU S I O N S The development of an in vitro differentiation protocol that produces pancreatic endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells were successfully achieved in this experiment. This new set of protocols optimized a previous 4-stage protocol by the modification of end stage (stages 3 and 4) differentiation of pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) resulting in the net increase of pancreatic progenitor cells. These PPCs were then further differentiated (stages 5-7 of modified protocol) to become glucose-responsive beta islet-like cells (ICs) in vitro. The ability to form functional grafts that are protected from cell-cell interactions with the immune system is a critical aspect of potential allogeneic cell therapy for autoimmune disorders like T1D.

L I T E R AT U R E C I T E D

Figure 2-i. (left): depicts proinsulin processing by stage 7 IC aggregates and human islet cells. (A): ELISA for C-peptide content normalized to DNA content. (B): Percentage of proinsulin processed, calculated using the ratio of C-peptide to C-peptide plus proinsulin. Figure 2-ii. (right): depicts human C-peptide levels of sera in mice (via ELISA) implanted with Encaptra device (loaded with indicated cell aggregates) at indicated post engraftment times.

Agulnick, A. D., Ambruzs, D. M., Moorman, M. A., Bhou mik, A., Cesario, R. M., Payne, J. K., Damour, K. A. (2015). Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine,4(10), 1214-1222. doi:10.5966/sctm.2015-0079 Kroon, E., Martinson, L., Kadoya, K., Bang, A., Kelly, O., Eliazer, S., Young, H., Richardson, M., Smart, N., Cunningham, J., Agulnick, A., D'Amour, K., Carpenter, M. and Baetge, E. (2008). Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vivo. Nature Biotechnology, 26(4), pp.443-452. Baetge, E. (2008). Production of -cells from human embryonic stem cells. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 10, pp.186-194.

Figure 3 (left). Immunostaining of IC grafts in Encaptra devices at 22 weeks after implantation. (A): Immunofluorescence for co-localization of INS, NKX6.1, and PDX1 in grafts of native ICs and (B): re-aggregated ICs. (C): Immunofluorescence for INS, GCG, and SST in graphs of native ICs and (D): re-aggregated ICs.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Investigating Levels of Arsenic Found in Brown Rice to Determine Toxicity Portia Yee, Yuree Ku, Kayla Valera, and Kristen Mikami Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Before it was discovered as a toxic substance, arsenic was used for medicinal purposes. Research has shown that substances that are used daily, such as rice, have been found to contain traces of arsenic. Our research will investigate the presence of arsenic in brown rice. If there is arsenic present our next goal is to find a way to reduce it to a safe, consumable level.

The test strips tested negative for arsenic. We then sent samples of cooked brown rice to the Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center (ADSC) at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources with ratios of 2:1 and 6:1 water to rice. The sample with a 6:1 ratio came back with 0.0002ug/g of arsenic. The sample with a 2:1 ratio came back with 0.0003ug/g of arsenic.

Figure 1. Rice diagram showing location of arsenic

M ET H O D S Our first experiment was done through a test that incorporated the Gutzeit method. This method uses reagents, such as zinc, mixed with a brown rice milk sample to create arsine gas. The arsine gas converts mercuric bromide to mixed mercury halogens and causes the test strip to change color if tested positive.

Figure 3. Samples of arsenic mixture sent to the ASDC

Figure 4. Ground rice and water mixture with test kit

C O N C LU S I O N The rice that was cooked with a ratio of 6:1 water to rice has 33% less arsenic than the rice that was cooked with a ratio of 2:1. This means that if rice is cooked with more water, the end product will contain less arsenic. Although the amount of arsenic is low, this could be useful for countries with rice that contains a higher level of arsenic.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H Figure 2. Rice milk (left), test strip and indicator (middle)

Our next step will be to engineer a device that will aid in removing arsenic from rice during the cooking process. B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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REFERENCES Antonio J. Signes-Pastor, Manus Carey, Andrew A. Me harg, Inorganic arsenic removal in rice bran by per colating cooking water, Food Chemistry, Volume 234, 2017, Pages 76-80, ISSN 0308-8146, http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.140. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0308814617307203) Keywords: Inorganic arsenic; Rice bran; Cooking water; Nutrient elements; Rice bran composition M. Azizur Rahman, H. Hasegawa, High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contami nated water is used for irrigation and cooking, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 409, Issue 22, 2011, Pages 4645-4655, ISSN 0048-9697, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.068. (http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0048969711008400) Keywords: Arsenic; Rice; Dietary intake; Inorganic arsenic

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Petru Jitaru, Sandrine Millour, Marco Roman, Kaoutar El Koulali, Laurent No√´l, Thierry Gu√©rin, Exposure assessment of arsenic speciation in different rice types depending on the cooking mode, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 54, 2016, Pages 37-47, ISSN 0889-1575, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2016.09.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0889157516301570) Keywords: Food analysis; Food composition; Food safety; Risk evaluation of rice in France; Total and inorganic arsenic; DMA; Specia tion analysis; HPLC; ICP-MS Scavone, William. “Arsenic Leaching into Rice Process.” Arsenic in Rice, Kestrel Studio, 9 Sept. 2013,www. kestrelstudio.com/portfolio/medical-illustration/edito rial-and-patient-education/arsenic-rice.php.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Thank you to Dr. Aaron Hanai, Kristen Mikami, Professor Marci Amii, Dr. Kathleen Ogata, and Li-Anne Delavega.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Sequencing of Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites Directed Against Bacterial Pathogens Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, and Alan Garcia Faculty Advisor: Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D and John Berestecky, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is a widely used method in biomedical research. These antigen binding reagents are used to treat maladies ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. The Kapi’olani Community College Monoclonal Antibody Service Facility and Training Center (MASFTC) has developed a number of hybridoma cell lines producing mAbs against a variety of bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni, Burkholdaria pseudomallei and Xanthomonas campestris. Despite their versatility, the problems associated with hybridoma technology include high production costs, poor reproducibility, and an overall lack of standardization. At the MASFTC, work has begun to remedy these challenges through sequencing mAb variable domains (Fv) with the intent of offering UH researchers recombinant mAbs, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv), at a lower cost and with higher reliability. A major challenge in isolating antibody Fv genes stems from the surprisingly high expression of myeloma

fusion partner (P3) antibody genes. These pseudogenes serve as a barrier in isolating functional Fv sequences. In this study, various methods have been used to eliminate the nonfunctional P3 pseudogenes and successfully isolate functional genes, thereby allowing characterization and validation before

M ET H O D O LO G Y Total RNA was extracted from a MASFTC hybridoma cell line that produced antibodies against a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen protein antigen. Select mRNA was then converted into cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with Superscript III (Invitrogen). Amplification of cDNA using Fv primer pools [1] was performed and confirmed by gel electrophoresis. The functional genes were isolated through a targeted PCR technique [2], thereby depleting nonfunctional genes. Amplified products were cloned and plasmids with potential functional genes were purified and sequenced. ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for detecting and quantifying monoclonal antibody binding to the antigen

RN A Extraction Total RNA was extracted from mouse hybridoma B-cells by Trizol reagent

RT -PCR Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction converted mRNA into cDNA

Heavy Chain

PCR Amplification of V-genes with antibody primers

PCR

DIGEST

Isolation of functional V-genes by depletion method

Figure 1. Antibody structure. The antigen binding fragment (Fab) contains heavy and light chains with constant and variable domains. The variable fragment (Fv) has framework regions (FRs) and complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs are the point of contact allowing the antibody to bind to a target antigen.

Light Chain

Afl III Restriction enzyme

CLON E blue–white screening

SEQUEN CE

Figure 2. Methodology Flow Chart for the detection, isolation and validation of the functional V-genes.

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C O N C LU S I O N S

Figure 3. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay results indicate that the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the pathogenic bacterial antigen for the hybridoma colony of interest (C.O.I.) compared to species 2 and Escherichia coli (both are negative controls). Isolated Elimination of functional Negative V-genes pseudogenes V-genes control

2-log

500 bp

100 bp

Figure 4. Gel electrophoresis of PCR products that targeted and eliminated P3 genes for functional V-gene isolation. 500 bp

2-log

In an attempt to isolate the functional mAb variable genes, there have been challenges in eliminating the P3 pseudogenes due to their high expression levels. Despite current VL chain challenges, various methods have been successfully used to amplify the VH functional genes and suppress or eliminate the P3 pseudogene background. Thus, successful sequencing of functional VH mAb variable gene regions was achieved. Recently, a technique using the enzyme Afl III was developed and will be implemented for VL chain sequencing in the near future.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S We thank Colleen Allen for her laboratory and administrative support. Thank you KARM and everyone in the lab. This project was supported by grants from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, award number: P20GM 103466. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

PP2 PP2 Negative PP1 PP1 Digested PP2 Digested PP3 Digested control

REFERENCES

100 bp

Figure 5. Gel electrophoresis of eliminated P3 genes by restriction enzyme digestion for functional V-gene isolation. CAGATCCAGTTGGTGCAGTCTGGAGCTGAACTGGTAAGGCCT GGGACTTCAGTGGAGGTGTCCTGCAAGGCTTCT GGATACACT TTCACTGATTACTTG ATAGAGTGGATAAAACAGGGGCCTGG ACAGGGCCTTGAGTGGATTGGAGTG ATTAATCCTGGAATTG GTGGTGCT CATTATAATGAGAAGTTCAAGGGCAAGGCAACA CTGACTGCAGACACATCTTCCAGCACTGCCTACATGCAGCTCA GCAGCCTGACATCTGATGACTCTGCGGTCTATTTCTGT GCAA GACACTATAGGTACGGATATTACTATGCTATGGACTAC TG GGGTCAAGGAACTTCAGTCACCGTCTCC CDR1

CDR2

1. Essono, S., et al., A general method allowing the design of oligonucleotide primers to amplify the variable regions from immunoglobulin cDNA. J Immunol Methods, 2003. 279(1-2): p. 251-66. 2. Yuan, Xin, Michael J. Gubbins, and Jody D. Berry. "A Simple and Rapid Protocol for the Sequence Deter mination of Functional Kappa Light Chain CDNAs from Aberrant-chain-positive Murine Hybridomas." Journal of Immunological Methods 294.1-2 (2004): 199-207.

CDR3

QIQLVQSGAELVRPGTSVEVSCKASGYTFTDYLIEWIKQGPGQG LEWIGVINPGIGGAHYNEKFKGKATLTADTSSSTAYMQLSSLTS DDSAVYFCARHYRYGYYYAMDYWGQGTSVTVS

Figure 6. Functional Antibody Variable Heavy Chain cDNA Sequence. CDR1

CDR2 CDR1

CDR3 CDR2 CDR3 SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

Figure 7. Translated sequence and predicted configuration of the functional antibody variable heavy chain (SAbPred structural antibody prediction software). CDRs indicate antigen contact points. 16

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody Nghi Dam Faculty Advisor: John Berestecky, Ph.D and Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D O LO G Y

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus cause microcephaly in fetuses and neurological disease. Flavivirus envelop (E) protein is responsible for virus entry and represents a major target for neutralizing antibodies. Dai et al. report structures of ZIKV envelop (E) protein and its complex with a flavivirus broadly protective antibody 2A10G6, which reveals antibody recognition of a highly conserved fusion loop. The flavivirus broadly protective murine antibody 2A10G6 has previously been shown to exhibit in vitro neutralization activity against dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus, which also binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice.

• • • • • • •

Protein Preparation, Expression and Purification of ZIKV-E protein The hybridoma producing mAb 2A10G6 (IgG1) for functional analysis Analytical Gel Filtration and Purification of Fab/E Complex Neutralization Assay (using plaque reduction assay) Animal Protection Experiment Crystallization, Data Collection and Structure Determination Surface Plasmon Resonance Assay

R E S U LT S 2A10G6 binds to the tip of ZIKV-E protein domain II at a perpendicular angle, embedding the fusion loop of ZIKV-E with a high binding affinity and neutralizes the ZIKV infection in vitro. Significantly, 2A10G6 completely protects mice against the circulating ZIKV strain in vivo, indicating a therapeutic potential.

Figure 1. Graphical Abstract

Figure 2. Overall Structure of the ZIKV-E Protein. Its crystal structure resembles all the known flavivirus E structure which have 3 distinct domains: a central -barrel-shaped domain I, an elongated finger-like domain II and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain III.

Figure 3. Binding of ZIKV-E to a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 2A10G6.

Figure 4. Complex Structure of 2A10G6 Fab Bound to ZIKV-E

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R E S U LT S C O N T. The antibody exhibited neutralizing activity, with a 50% plaque reduction titer of 249ug/mL . The fusion loop of ZIKV-E deeply inserts into a hole formed by both the heavy chain and light chain of 2A10G6, while the bc loop contacts only the heavy chain.

C O N C LU S I O N The researchers have shown 2A10G6 to be able to neutralize and provide protection against ZIKV via recognition of the ZIKV-E protein fusion loop region. As they have previously shown 2A10G6 to be able to efficiently neutralize many other flaviviruses, which exhibit this highly conserved fusion loop, it is likely that the binding modes of 2A10G6 are the same as that of ZIKV in these flaviviruses. This antibody, especially after being humanized, may represent an auspicious therapeutic for the treatment of flavivirus infection.

REFERENCES

Figure 5. Neutralization Activity and Protection of 2A10G6 against ZIKV

Figure 6. Analysis of the Detailed Interaction between the 2A10G6 and ZIKV-E

“Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody.” Lianpan Dai,Jian Song,Xishan Lu,Yong-Qiang Deng,Abednego Moki Musyoki,Huijun Cheng,Yanfang Zhang,Yuan Yuan,Hao Song,Joel Haywood,Haixia Xiao,Jinghua Yan,Yi Shi,Cheng-Feng Qin,Jianxun Qi,George F. Gao Cell Host & Microbe, 2 May 2016, pp. 696–704.

Figure 7. Comparison with Other Fusion Loop-Targeting Neutralizing Antibodies

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Protective Effects of Antioxidants in UV-Induced Apoptosis Katherine Souza Faculty Advisors: John Berestecky, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N What are commonly known as “sunburn cells” are actually a type of epithelial cell called keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is one the two pathways of cell death, the other being necrosis. Necrosis is a passive event where severe trauma causes groups of cells to burst, spilling their contents and generally making a big mess inducing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis, by contrast, is an active cell mechanism of controlled cell destruction and disposal. Some of the morphological features of apoptosis include: cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA fragmentation. Apoptotic cells are eventually broken up into membrane enclosed fragments that are usually phagocytosed by neighboring cells. Apoptosis is a deliberate mechanism employed by the cell when there is too much DNA damage to be fixed. When apoptosis fails, damaged DNA can continue to replicate, creating a risk for cancer.

Figure 1. HaCaT cells exposed to UVB and observed at SEM (A,B), TEM (C) and CLSM (D). Apoptotic features, as well as a diffuse positivity to TUNEL reaction, appear. Autophagic vacuoles occasionally appear at TEM observation (C, inset). Scale bars: A,B) 10 µm; C and inset) 1 µm; D) 5 µm; E) 25 µm.

One of the reasons UV radiation affects cells is because DNA absorbs UVB wavelengths, causing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts, which are extremely mutagenic. Other UVB radiation effects include erythema, immunosuppression, edema, and increasing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn do more damage to the DNA as well as to lipids and proteins. This study wanted to take chemicals with known ROS scavenger properties and test to see if they would reduce the apoptosis in UVB irradiated cells. 6 molecules are being tested for their effects on apoptosis in the HeCaT cell line, which is a spontaneously transformed immortal keratinocyte cell line developed from human skin. These molecules are being compared to 3 controls: 1 in which the cells are treated with molecules and no UVB radiation, 1 in which untreated cells are subjected to UVB radiation, and 1 in which HaCaT cells are untreated and not irradiated. The 6 molecules being tested are: Melatonin (Mel), Creatine (Cr), Hydroxytyrosol (HyT), Tyrosol (TyR), Hydroxytyrosol Laurate (Laur-HyT) and Hydroxytyrosol Myristate (Myr-HyT). Mel is a pineal hormone endongenous to tissues. Cr is an essential energy precursor that is sometimes insufficiently made by the body and can be supplemented by food intake. HyT is a phenylethanoid found in olive leaves and olive oil. TyR is another phenylethanoid found in olive oil and argon oil and wine. Both HyT and TyR are well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but have limited solubility in lipid media. Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT are synthetic hydroxytyrosyl esters that are both more soluble in lipid media and better able to penetrate human corneum stratum and viable epidermis membranes.

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M ET H O D S A N D R E S U LT S HaCaT cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 2mM glutamine, and 1% antibiotics. They were maintained at 37 C in humidified air with 5% C02. Apoptosis was induced after cells were cultured to 80% confluence by exposure to UVB lamp (range 290-320nm) for 10 minutes, then the cells were incubated for 2 hours. Different aliquots of the HaCaT cells were treated for 24 hours with the 6 different antioxidant molecules prior to UVB treatment (except one set that was not UVB treated as a control). For all treatments, morphology and functional analysis were performed after the 2 hour incubation post UVB radiation. Morphology and functional analysis were tested in the following ways: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TUNEL, Trypan Blue (TB) exclusion assay, and Western blotting. With SEM and TEM different morphological features can be compared. TUNEL is a staining method for detecting DNA fragmentation generated during apoptosis. TB exclusion assay give a quantitative value to apoptosis protection. Western blotting tested for the presence of caspases and PARP, enzymes that are up-regulated during apoptosis. Cells treated with Mel, Cr, HyT, TyR, Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT alone appeared very similar to control (non irradiated) HaCaT cells, which indicates that the individual compounds did not affect cell viability and/or proliferation. HaCaT control cells exposed to UVB radiation showed changes in monolayer organization, decrease in cell confluence and attachment, cell blebbing, chromatin condensation, proliferation of autophagic vacuoles, and TUNEL positive, fluorescent nuclei. All cells treated with the 6 antioxidant compounds showed significant decrease in apoptotic patterns. TUNEL positive nuclei underwent an evident numerical decrease, preservation of cell morphology could be observed, and intracellular junction could be seen. Antioxidant protection was confirmed and quantified by the TB assay. In particular, the olive oil polyphenols HyT and TyR were exceptional in counteracting death induced by UVB radiation.

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TB assay (A): percentage analysis of viable cells for each treatment. All pre-treatments reduced dead cell number in a significant way. Densitometric analysis of cleaved caspases-8, -9, -3 (B, C, D) and PARP(E) western blotting bands. Histograms evidenced no activation in untreated cells (ctrl). Caspases and PARP activation could be observed after UVB exposure while it was reduced by the different pre-treatments. Data were expressed as ratio between mean optical density (OD) of cleaved caspase band and mean OD of actin band (protein control), in arbitrary units.

DISCUSSION This work demonstrates that massive DNA damage can be inhibited by antioxidant administration. Moreover, these compounds had the capacity to prevent caspase activation, which was upregulated after UVB treatment alone. HyT and TyR are natural dietary polyphenols whose role in preventing UVB apoptotic cell death has been greatly enhanced. HyT derivatives with acyl side groups (Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT) less efficient to protect keratinocytes compared to HyT, but they still significantly counteracted cell death and are able to penetrate the outer layer of human epidermis more effectively. In conclusion, there is a need for safe and effective skin protection against UVB-induced oxidative cell damage. These compounds are able to reduce that in vitro, and further research could lead to applications to prevent skin cancer in vivo.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Kulms, D. and Schwarz, T. (2000), Molecular mechanisms of UV-induced apoptosis. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 16: 195–201. doi:10.1034/ j.1600-0781.2000.160501.x; Eur J Histochem. 2017 Sep 18;61(3):2784. doi: 10.4081/ejh.2017.2784.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Ahupua‘a of Waikīkī & the Famous Beaches Within Feng-Jui Kuo Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

B AC KG RO U N D

A N A LY S I S

In ancient Hawaii, land belonged to god, not to people. The islands are called mokupuni. For this project, research will be on the island of O‘ahu. O‘ahu is divided into 6 moku: Ewa, Wai‘anae, Waialua, Kona, Ko‘olau Loa, and Ko‘olaupoko. Each Moku is further divided into ahupua‘a. The Moku (district) called Kona is currently the central location for O‘ahu Tourism. Within Kona, I live in the ahupua‘a (sub-district) called Waikīkī, the main tourist attraction for the beach and shops. The reason for this project is to find the geographic centroid of the Waikīkī ahupua‘a.

The ahupua‘a is gridded, and the area is broken down into known centroid shapes to help find the center, using the method of composite shapes. There is calculation error because of not being able to include every boundary of the map.

Figure 1. Waikīkī ahupua‘a into grid and shapes

FA M O U S B E AC H E S Waikīkī in Hawaiian means “spouting waters”. Waikīkī is famously known for its beaches: Queen‘s, Kūhiō, Wall‘s, Fort Derussy, Kaimana, and Kahanamoku beaches.

Figure 2. All of Waikīkī including the beach, divided into shapes

PRE-ENGINEERING

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FORMULAS Each shape is individually calculated, multiplied by the area, added together, then divided by the total area.

R E S U LT S For Kona‘s ahupua‘a Waikīkī, the land was broken down into a grid, then into multiple shapes, with each square representing approximately 0.5 miles. Each shape was individually calculated, and the centroid of the compound area was computed. Similarly, Waikīkī itself is also broken down into several shapes, not including Kapi‘olani Park.

C O N C LU S I O N Finding the centroid of land is very important as it helps to create maps for geographers, and guides for destinations.

REFERENCES http://www.ahamoku.org/index.php/maps/ http://www.avakonohiki.org/o699ahu.html

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Design and Fabrication of a Peristaltic Pump to Displace Viscous Liquid in Precise Increments Armani Aveina, Kevin Lee, and Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland, M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

F R A M EWO R K

The task for this project was to create a pump that could transfer a viscous liquid from one container to another. To add to the complexity, the pump is also tasked to dispense in specific measurements accurately. The pump from which we based our model is a peristaltic pump. It uses compression to “press� the liquid through a tube which prevents the liquid from getting contaminated.

We first modeled the frame after the DC motorized pump. After observing the mechanics and output, we began to modify the design to best fit the parameters set for the project. The design change consisted of a larger motor that supplied a larger holding torque of 56 oz-in and larger housing for the tubing and rotor. After running a few tests, we encountered problems with maintaining compression throughout the rotation. We are still in the process of testing the compression.

Figure 1. Diagram of Peristaltic Pump

Figure 2. DC Peristaltic Pump Figure 6. 3-D printed assembly (press-fit based)

Figure 7. 3-D printed assembly(rotor based)

M ET H O D S For controls and programming, we went with an Arduino Uno microcontroller using the software provided by Arduino. As for the framework of the pump, solidworks and makerbot were used to design and assemble our peristaltic pump.

Figure 3. Solidworks representation

Figure 4. Breadboard w/motor driver

Figure 5. Arduino Uno

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C O D I N G / P RO G R A M M I N G

C O N C LU S I O N

Coding and programming was focused on getting the motor and LCD screen to work. We were able to code the motor shield to accurately power the motor. The LCD screen is in progress and we are trying synce it up to the volume desired with the power output from the motor. After running a few tests we believe that the motor doesn’t have the required torque to displace the liquid.

In terms of progress, we have made great leaps and are on track in fabricating a working prototype. Despite the project being a work in progress, we were able to learn skills that are outside the expected class outcomes.

Figure 9: Full Prototype Assembly

F U T U R E WO R K We are currently waiting for a stronger motor and motor driver to improve the compression. The motor will have 125 oz-in holding torque while the driver will have a larger amp rating. As for expansions to improve the design and functionality of the device, we could increase the output of liquid by increasing the amount of tubing in turn making the rotor longer in length.

REFERENCES Velodyne.The Basics of a Peristaltic Pump. Retrieved from http://velodynesystems.com/blog/2016/05/18/the-ba sics-of-a-peristaltic-pump/

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S

Figure 8: Prototype Arduino Code

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We would like to thank Ms. Colleen Allen for her advice and financial support, as well as our professors Dr. Aaron Hanai & Justin Carland for their guidance throughout our project.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Exploring the History Around the Centroid of My Ahupua‘a David Chuang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Historically, Hawai‘i was not only broken up by nature into an island chain, but also by the Native Hawaiians into different, resource-based districts that seamlessly contributed to one another. The whole island (mokupuni) was divided in smaller parts (moku), and each moku was then divided into smaller districts (ahupua‘a). This poster focuses on the centroid of the ahupua‘a of Pālolo.

I created a grid map of my ahupua‘a. The purpose of this map is to help calculate the centroid of the area. The black line marks the outline of my ahupua‘a. The white rectangle are what I will be using to find the centroid. The black indicates the coordinates for my map. Each block’s length and height has a distance of 0.5 kilometers. I can find the centroid of each shape, and then add all of the centroids and divide by the total area to find the centroid of the entire compound shape.

PURPOSE The purpose of this project is to calculate and find the centroid of my ahupua‘a and to research any historically significant stories, songs, and particular locations around the centroid. I live in the division Kona and my ahupua‘a is Pālolo. I was raised in Liliha but now I live in Pālolo Valley so Pālolo is my current ahupua‘a.

R E S U LT S X bar is approximately around 7.902 Y bar is approximately around 7.902 Centroid is (7.902,7.902)

H I S TO RY O F PĀ LO LO A long time ago in Pālolo valley, there were two sisters. Their names were Awapuhi Melele and Awapuhi Ke‘oke‘o. Coincidentally, they both had feelings for the same kāne, jealous and angry,one turned the other into a stone in the Pālolo stream. The stone is near the middle of the stream and resembles the seated torso of a woman.

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FORMULAS

L I M I TAT I O N S The method that I used to calculate the centroid just provided a rough estimate of where it is. The mass of the area is not taken into account, and we may also assume that the area is flat. Due to these partial limitations on specifics, I was rendered with only a rough estimate on the location of Pālolo Valley’s centroid. To get a better approximation of the centroid, I would simply increase the number of shapes in the computation.

REFERENCES Hawaiian Legends Index. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hawaiiancollec tion/legends/subjectsearch.php?q=Palolo Valley Hui, K. (2014, December 16). Mo'olelo of Palolo. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://prezi.com/ejp4iiim w9kt/moolelo-of-palolo U. (n.d.). Maps Kona. Retrieved November 22, 2017, from http://www.avakonohiki.org/maps-kona.html

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Big mahalo to Dr. Aaron Hanai for your support and guidance throughout this whole project.

C O N C LU S I O N My centroid is definitely not an accurate answer due to resource limitations and accuracy of the maps. If I could redo the project again, I would create smaller shapes for a better estimate of the centroid. However, this project helped me learn how to find a centroid of my ahupua‘a and learn about the history around it. It also taught me how to utilize math and physics in a real world problem.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate & Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars Christopher Blake, Je Chen, and Jordan Li Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Mars is the most familiar planet to Earth in the Solar system, which has been our ideal target for planetary exploration. We have been planning and executing Mars exploration missions since 1960s. We started our investigation on Mars by sending flyby and orbiting space technology simulations. Previously solutions used for planetary landing have been to have a soft landing on the surface. Unfortunately, such landings are not precise. Some previous missions to mars include the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover, having a target area of a 20 x 7 km ellipse with previous landings having even larger target radii. In finding the trajectory based on changes in thrust and how fast fuel is consumed, it allows us to track position of a rocket in motion to determine where it will land. In continuing this research we hope to be add more realistic scenarios including accounting for drag or use of parachutes.

To Identify a viable mass flow rate ( ) Kg/s, which is the rate of the amount of fuel being expanded and specific thrust impulse (Isp) sec, which allows one to understand about more the thrust of the rocket, the equations of motions for a spacecraft were converted from second order dierential equations to first order dierential equations. This was done because MATLAB a high performance computational language is able to solve 1st ODE easily as well as plot the results in 2-D and 3-D.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

To create a trajectory capable of landing precisely on Mars, the � and Isp were varied individually and simulations were conducted plotting mass (Fig.1), velocity (Fig.2), height (Fig.3) & position (Fig.4) vs time. During the simulations, external eects such as drag and lift were neglected.

PRE-ENGINEERING

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R E S U LT S

REFERENCES

The results of the simulations conducted show an envelope of possible entry points into the Martian atmosphere as well as an envelope of possible landing coordinates on Mars (Figure 1-4).

1. Vallado, D. A., and McClain, W. D. (2001). Fundamentals of Astrodynamics and Applications. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic 2. Azimov, D. (2017). Analytical Solutions for Extremal Space Trajectories. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. 3. Pajola, M. (2016, April 16). Eridania Basin: An ancient paleolake floor as the next landing site for the Mars 2020 rover. Retrieved November 25, 2017, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0019103516300331?via%3Dihub

C O N C LU S I O N This work is interesting because landing precisely on Mars would allow us to better achieve various goals. One example is finding water at Eridania Basin, an ancient paleolake floor that scientists believe to be one of the largest lake environments. Other examples are the search for potential microbial life, or to improve our cost efficiency of transportation for future missions. Landing safely and as close as possible would reduce the use of fuel for rovers and quicker search missions. For future research, we could include more elements to find an optimal trajectory for more accurate results. From when vehicle enters the Mars atmosphere, declaration from aerodynamic drag, parachute and thrust to land our spacecraft.

Figure 3

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AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S This research was made possible by Minority University Research Program (MUREP). Special thanks to Dr. Aaron Hanai and Dr. Dilmurat Azimov.

Figure 4

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Investigation of Shear Strength of Common and Uncommon Structural Foundations Kyle Aukai, Siobhan Mercado, Alan Tupou Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Flooding is a natural disaster that can cost billions of dollars in damages, and can also leave homes devastated, literally and figuratively. Wood base foundations which tie into concrete foundations play a big role in the structural integrity of a house and its ability to withstand flooding forces. The purpose of our experiment was to test the shear strength of common wood base foundations that you might see around your neighborhood, and uncommon wood base foundations that we students have designed to determine the all around best structure keeping in mind cost of material, square footage, and the ability to withstand shear force.

Structure #1:

M ET H O D S We each constructed an original architectural base using popsicle sticks, several strong adhesives (super glue, krazy glue, and industrial gel), and a general guide of area and number of sticks to use. We tested shear strength of our completed foundations by attaching a simple pulley to each unique beam and observing how much weight it could hold before breaking. We tested by dispersing weight evenly over the surface of our structures.

Weight (amount of material) = 74.5g Beams withstood about 7500g of weight placed on the pulley before breaking Square Footage = 22cm x 11cm = 242cm^2 Structure #2:

Weight (amount of material) = 70.2g Center side beam withstood about 6935 gof weight placed on the pulley before breaking Corner beam withstood about 5530g of weight placed on the pulley before breaking Square Footage = 22cm x 11cm = 242cm^2

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Structure #3:

Weight (amount of material) = 107.6g Beams withstood about 8000g+ of weight placed on the pulley without breaking then we ran out of weights Square Footage = 11cm x 11cm = 121cm^2

C O N C LU S I O N The design that did the best against shear force was the structure with the shortest beams. Short beams allow for less flex and more uniform of the structure’s base as a whole. The other winning feature was the type of base; the continuous spread footing. Continuous spread footings allow for more sturdiness. This type of footing can be seen the most if you are to drive around your neighborhood, unless you live on a an incline. Spot footings are more for houses on an incline.

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REFERENCES 1. “Footings & Foundations.” Raised Floor Living, 2017, raisedfloorlivingpro.com/construction-process/foot ings-foundations/. 2. Associate Professor, University of Waterloo School of Architecture, Canada. “AMPHIBIOUS FOUNDA TIONS AND THE BUOYANT FOUNDATION PROJ ECT: INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD-RE SILIENT HOUSING.” Nov. 2009, s3.amazonaws.com/ academia.edu.documents/34627070/ECEnglish_pa per_UFM_Paris_r5a.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKI AIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1511834908&Sig nature=CaxbDsMCJzBaJ0puZft8RR3Gk4Y%3D&re sponse-content-disposition=inline%3B%20file name%3DAMPHIBIOUS_FOUNDATIONS_AND_ THE_BUOYANT_F.pdf.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S A big mahalo to our mentor Dr. Aaron Hanai for providing us with the necessary materials and knowledge needed to complete this project, and to the KCC STEM Center for allowing us to use their facilities and classrooms to work on our project.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Kuapa Pond of Maunalua: A Center on Edge Mikayla Carias Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

M O KU P U N I O F O ‘A H U

KUA PA P O N D

Ancient Hawaiians followed a complex system of land division in which a whole island, or mokupuni, was divided into smaller parts, down to a section of land belonging to a single family2. Moku are the districts of each island2,4. Each moku is divided into ahupua‘a2. Each ahupua‘a were divided into two or three ‘ili2,4. The purpose of this project was to methodize a way of computing the centroid of the ‘ili I reside in. I live in the ‘ili of Maunalua.

The assumed centroid of Maunalua is just off the edge of the historical Keahupua-o Maunalua Fishpond, better known as the Kuapa Pond.

Figure 1: Topographic map of O‘ahu3

M ET H O D S Maunalua was then isolated and overlaid onto a grid (Figure 1, 3). The squares that contained 50% or more land were shaded to indicate the number (N) of squares. The centroid equations were used to calculate x, xi = center of the column, Ai = N per row.

Figure 1: Topographic map of O‘ahu3

C E N T RO I D A centroid is a weight average position of an area located by a Cartesian coordinate system, x = longitude, y = latitude0:

Figure 3: Maunalua in grid3

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C O N C LU S I O N

The same algorithm was carried out for . The inch value for the centroid in both the x- and y-direction are related to miles and a guestimation of the latitude and longitude was taken.

R E S U LT S The assumed centroid is off the perimeter of Kuapa Pond located in the current Hawaii Kai Marina, roughly (GPS): 21° 17’ 36.6756’’ N 157° 41’ 47.3964’’ W.

Reducing the size of the squares will allow for a more precise measurement from the method of calculations. The calculated centroid of Maunalua does not appear to be located at a specific point in the ‘ili, however it is near the historical fishpond. Additionally, due to the centroid measuring outside of the pond perimeter, an assumption was made as to where the measured centroid is located when determining the longitude and latitude.

REFERENCES

Figure 3: Maunalua in grid3

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1. Bedford, A., & Fowler, W. (2008). Centroids and centers of mass. Engineering mechanics: statistics & dynamics (312-313). NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. 2. Info Grafik Inc. (2017). Ahupua‘a. Retrieved from http://www.hawaiihistory.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ig. page&CategoryID=299 3. Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) Kipuka Database. (n.d.). [Topographic map of O‘ahu]. Kipuka Database. Retrieved from http://kipukadatabase.com/kipu ka/#view2 4. Williams J.S. (1997). ‘Umi divides the land. In From the mountains to the sea: early Hawaiian Life (pp. 9-29). Retrieved from http://ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/ library?e=d-0english-000Sec--11en-50-20-framesetbook--1-010escapewin&a=d&d=D0.5&toc=0 5. Latitude-Longitude. Retrieved from https://www.lat long.net/

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Measuring & Calculating the Centroid of the Waimānalo Ahupua‘a with a Physics Approach Steven Washino Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

The goal of this project is to find the centroid of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a. An ahupua‘a is an enclosed region separating the island into several parts. The purpose of finding the centroid is to understand where the center of the land division rests, as well as searching for ancient clues suggesting early native Hawaiian knowledge of centroids.

By cutting the ahupua‘a into small pieces of land with simple shapes, we can solve for the individual centroids. The equation used to solve for the centroid takes the sum of all centroids, plus sum of all areas, over the sum of all areas. To measure my pieces, I used a mapping tool that gives you the distance between two points you can drag on a map. With the lengths of all my pieces, I then solved for their areas and centroids given that they were simple shapes.

R E S U LT S In the 14th century, the Pahua Heiau was created. This heiau is a rock terrace dedicated to agricultural production. The x-coordinate of this heiau happens to be very close to my computed xbar. According to city-data.com, the total area of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a is only 5.8% off.

A H AWA I I A N P O E M O F WA I M Ā N A LO Uluwehi Waimānalo ‘āina ho‘opulapula Ipu ia like ala ona pua like ‘ole Ho‘okahi pu‘uwai ho‘okahi mana‘o ‘Āina aloha o ka lehulehu Hanohano no ‘oe e Kalaniana‘ole Ho‘oko kauoha ‘oe na ka hana pololei

Lush, Waimānalo, homestead land Its fragrant flowers, incomparable One heart, one thought Land of love for the population You are the glory of (Prince Jonah) Kalaniana‘ole You fulfilled the trust with righteous deeds

Ha‘awi ka mae ma‘i e ia Waimānalo Kokua like mai na mana Kahikolu

Waimānalo gives health Help and power comes from Trinity

Kū kilakila na home u‘i Me ka kokua a na mana lani

Standing strong, the stalwart homes With help from the heavenly powers

Ha‘ina kēia mele no Waimānalo ‘Āina ho‘opulapula no Kalaniana‘ole

Tell this song of Waimānalo Homestead land of Prince Kalaniana‘ole PRE-ENGINEERING

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C O N C LU S I O N

REFERENCES

The goal of this project was to find the centroid of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a and any significance to that area. Some of the measurement data may have been slightly inaccurate, as well as the method, due to significant figures, and available tools. However, the results should be deemed significant because they can be described somewhat close to a native Hawaiian heiau. This is important because if ancient Hawaiians built their heiaus around the centroids of their ahupua‘a, then that suggests that they knew about laws and principles of physics even when living in isolation from the rest of the world.

https://www.freemaptools.com/measure-distance.htm

All units in miles y1 = 1.17 x1 = 3.82 y2 = 1.05 x2 = 1.45 y3 = 0.845 x3 = 0.359 y4 = 2.93 x4 = 0.687 y5 = 3.35 x5 = 1.16 y6 = 5.98 x6 = 2.55 y7 = 5.52 x7 = 0.927 y8 = 7.73 x8 = 3.63 y9 = 6.44 x9 = 0.927

http://www.huapala.org/Wai/Waimanalo_Aina_Kaulana. html http://kipukadatabase.com/kipuka/Ahupuaa.html?ObjectID=561&b=2 Waimanalo Ahupua`a neighborhood in Waimanalo, Hawaii (HI), 96795, 96821, 96825 detailed profile http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Waimanalo-Ahupua-a-Waimanalo-HI.html

Area 1 = 4.83 2 = 6.06 3 = -0.714 4 = 1.29 5 = 5.80 6 = 6.38 7 = 0.959 8 = 0.907 9 = 0.59

Final results 2.13

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3.41

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Modularization of an Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle for Varying Scientific Experiments Yuuma Yamamoto, Chris Blake, and Joni Hashizume Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Underwater robotics is a field that can minimize the amount of injuries in the ocean due to being able to remove humans from having to dive to conduct research experiments. The main objective was to mount devices to the Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (UROV) and add features and functionality to the robot. Japan Agency For Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) researcher allowed the team to collaborate with him by attaching the camera to the UROV. The camera system has two cameras to generate a 3D mapping of the ocean floor. The ultimate objective was to assist researchers and professors that needed to use the UROV as a tool.

To accomplish the task of modularizing the UROV the engineering design process was closely followed. The tasks were to attach a 20 ½” x 7 3⁄8” x 9 7⁄8” (Figure 1) stereoscopic camera which has the ability to display an image in 3-D image to the UROV as well as an Ocean Optics STS-VIS miniature spectrometer. Attaching the stereo camera was achieved through multiple iterations with different designs as well as field test (Figure 2-4,6). Ranging from paper and pencil, cardboard and then upgraded to wood. The same method was followed for attaching the spectrometer. To remotely operate the spectrometer (Figure 5) a Raspberry Pi 3 was connected to the camera as the main computer using SeaBreeze an open source software for ocean optics.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

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R E S U LT S

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

The final iteration of the stereo camera mount consisted of a 20 ½” x 4 ½” wood mount with two 1” diameter holes 18 ½” apart mounted slightly above the top of the UROV (Figure 7) with zip ties and two metal pole which allowed the camera to be level with the water. The final iteration for the spectrometer mount was a 4” x 3” foam PVC stand (Figure 8). There is a commercial off the shelf waterproof box for housing the spectrometer and its remote operation is an ongoing effort.

C O N C LU S I O N

Figure 6.

Figure 7.

The research consisted of trying to attach a stereoscopic camera to the UROV so that the camera could operate while the UROV was being remotely operated. Attaching the camera took up majority of our class time, as we made that our first priority until the spectrometer arrived. As of now, we have not been able to attach the spectrometer or the camera for the spectrometer to the ROV.

REFERENCES

Figure 8.

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Li, Y., Guo, S., & Wang, Y. (2017). Design and character istics evaluation of a novel spherical underwater robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 94, 61-74. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2017.03.014 Johnsen, G., Ludvigsen, M., Sørensen, A., & Aas, L. M. (2016). The use of underwater hyperspectral imag ing deployed on remotely operated vehicles - methods and applications. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49(23), 476-481. doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.10.451 Kreuzer, E., & Pinto, F. C. (1996). Controlling the po sition of a remotely operated underwater vehicle. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 78(2-3), 175185. doi:10.1016/0096-3003(96)00007-0

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


The Approximation of the Centroid of the Kalihi Apuhua‘a Brendan Cha Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

This project is to find the centroid of the ahupua‘a that we live in and see if there is a historical site or a special event that has happened at the found centroid.

My method is to trace the yellow outlines that indicates the boundaries of my ahupua‘a in Autodesk Inventor. Once I have traced the outline of the ahupua‘a, then I can have the program calculate the center of mass of the 2D drawing. Next step is to cross reference the 2D drawing with a map from KIPUKA, which indicates the boundaries of the ahupua‘a

B AC KG RO U N D The ahupua‘a is a traditional land unit that usually starts from the summit of the mountains all the way to the outer edges of reef. The ahupua‘a system made sure that everyone had access to natural resources. Kalihi is the name of the ahupua‘a that I live in, and was known as the most fertile valley. The location of the ahupua‘a was ideal for agriculture and fish farming practices.

Figure 1. Kalihi Ahupua‘a

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R E S U LT S Figure 2 shows the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawing of the ahupua‘a with the center of mass (centroid) which is a yellow dot. In figure 3, the blue color represents the CAD drawing, which I made a best-fit onto the actual map on KIPUKA, and the centroid is a red colored dot. The centroid landed in a ‘ili called Ka‘ahaloa.

C O N C LU S I O N In conclusion, this method isn’t as accurate because this is hand-drawn, and the computer had to find a centroid of a mass object that is in 2D with no evaluation of the land. If it was possible to create a graphical function that can graph the ahupua‘a precisely, then our centroid will be more accurate.

Figure 3: Centroid Formula

REFERENCES Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://kipukadatabase. com/kipuka/#view3 POE Centroids. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2017, from https://aerospaceporterhs.wikispaces.com/POE Centroids

Figure 4: KIPUKA Map with Centroid Drawing

Figure 2: Autodesk CAD Drawing

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


The Analysis and Significance of the Centroid About the Ahupua‘a: Waikīkī Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

In this project, we are tasked to find the centroid that may have some significance to how the ahupua’a was divided amongst each moku or district. The moku that will be observed is Kona and in particular, the ahupua‘a known as Waikīkī.

Using the two equations before, the x-bar and y-bar were to be 6.32km and 4.71km respectively.

Figure 1. Ahupua‘a Map of O‘ahu

A N A LY T I C A L M ET H O D

Figure 3. Grid map of O’ahu with centroid

By gridding out a map of the ahupua‘a, we can apply the two equations on the right to find an approximated geometric centroid.

The method used consisted of 2 assumptions. One being that the ahupua‘a was a flat 2-D shape. The other considered that the shape was massless. Both were needed to find a centroid through software that was available. By doing this, research and conclusions can be made between the centroid and hawaiian historical sites. The centroid found was geography found to be in the area known as Pālolo.

Figure 2. Grid of O‘ahu with approximated shapes

Figure 4. Map of Pālolo Valley

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C O R R E L AT I O N TO H AWA I I A N H I S TO RY

C O N C LU S I O N

In the moku of Kona, there is a story of the mo‘o (ancestral god) water spirits that lie in the streams of Mānoa. These water spirits are said to help their descendants with health/wellness and protect them from danger.

The centroid found through the analysis of the ahupua‘a was located deep within Pālolo valley. The site near the centroid had no tale or history that complemented the correlation between the two. Despite the result, the research still proves as a great way to further understand concepts discussed in class and be used in the real world.

REFERENCES

Figure 5: Water Lizard

Alan Takano.O‘ahu Ahupua‘a Map. Retrieved from http:// gigapan.com/gigapans/135099. Kipuka.Kipuka Database. Retrieved from http://kipukada tabase.com/kipuka/#view3. Dennis Kawaharada.Traditions of O‘ahu. Retrieved from http://apdl.kcc.hawaii,edu/oahu/stories/kona/aumakua. htm.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Quantifying Magnetic Properties in Order to Assess the Viability of an Earth-Magnet Powered Railway Mahealani Kini, Matthew Kohatsu, and Cassidy Siegrist Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N In planning this experiment, we wanted to know if it would be possible to make a railway using only Earth-magnets. Permanent earth-magnets are generally either iron based or rare earth element based (Minowa (2008)). Similar poles repel each other, and we surmised that it could be possible to propel vehicles along a magnetic track. To do so, we needed to know, empirically, how much force can be generated by a standard set of magnets. If successful, we could use this measured force constant to calculate the size and strength of rare Earth-magnets that would be needed to make our hypothetical railway, and eventuality the techniques with which we would propel vehicles traveling on such a railway.

In our initial setup, we placed two Vernier magnetic carts on our extended cart track with the same magnetic 1poles facing each other, so that they would repel. We lifted the far end of the track with a metal block so that gravity could help the carts settle into their truest position once weights were placed on them. The angle of incline we determined mathematically using the inverse sin of the height of the ramp over the length of the ramp. It was determined that the angle was 0.98791 degrees.

M ET H O D S For this experiment, we used: • Copper Weights • Vernier Magnetic Carts • Cart Track • Metal Block

Figure 1. Initial Ramp Set up

Figure 2. Close up of experiment with weights

For the experiment, we determined that we could measure magnetic force by seeing the change in distance between the two carts as weight was added on, top of the left cart. We started with, the measurement with no weight added, and added 25 grams of weight on the cart for each test .. Each weight was tested three times, and during each test we agitated the cart to allow it to settle at the distance where magnetic force overcame the weight of the cart. AH were recorded,. averaged, and plotted.

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R E S U LT S

REFERENCES

The average data points were plotted and showed an indirect relationship. The more weight was added, the shorter the distance between the two carts became. Conversely, the lighter the cart was, the greater the distance between the two carts became. The equation for the relationship of magnetic force can be described as f(x)=-634x+11361 with x representing distance.

1. Friedmanl B. M., Abraham, M. G., Paetkau, M., Taylor, S ..R .. , & Ross Friedman1 C. (2013). Use of a varying turn-density coil (VTDC) to generate a constant-gradient magnetic field and to demonstrate the magnetic force on a perm,anent magnet. Canadian Journal Of Physics, 91(3),. 226-230. doi:10.1139/cjp-2012-0405 2. Toshniwal, N .. G., & Pawar, K. D. (2015). Magnets in dentistry. Pravara Medical Review; 7(4)1 10-16. 3. Minowa, T. (2008). Rare Earth Magnets: Conservation of Energy and the Environment. Resource Geology, 58(4 ), 414-422. doi:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2008.00073.x

Figure 3. Distance vs Weight

C O N C LU S I O N An Earth-magnet powered railway presents questions that must be answered before it can be seriously considered. Through repeated, trials an almost constant magnetic force was found. The ability to measure magnetic force establishes a baseline into further research.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H For future iterations of this project the angle of inclination could be increased while also increasing the strength of the magnets and decreasing the weights applied to the cars in order to achieve more exact 1measurements.

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Figure 4. Magnetic rail concept

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S We would like to thank Dr. Aaron Hanai for his excellent expertise and guidance on this project. We would also like to thank the Kapi'olani Community College STEM center for their continued support.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Biodiesel Production Travis Sherman Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

A B S T R AC T

DATA / R E S U LT S

Temperatures are increasing to levels that are unhealthy for our planet(1). Greenhouse gases (CO2) introduced by harvesting and refining fossil fuels are speeding up this warming. By re-using cooking oil we can eliminate the need to harvest and refine such fuel. Our experiment will also produce biodiesel that is less toxic to the environment when combusted(2).

After transesterification the biodiesel is tested to ensure that all cooking oil has been converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel then separates from the glycerin (Figure 1). The biodiesel is then washed (Figure 2) and dried (Figure 3). The biodiesel is then put through a series of tests, designed to ensure the purity and quality of the fuel. One such test is the density test (Figure 4). Results of our biodiesel tests compared with the ASTM Standards are listed in Table 1.

I N T RO D U C T I O N Biodiesel is sourced from plant-based oil. These oils, called triglycerides, will be modified from their vegetable oil state to biodiesel by a process known as transesterification. Recycling the refined vegetable oil will reduce our carbon footprint by eliminating waste. Our biofuel replaces a fossil-fuel, further reducing our carbon footprint.

P RO C E D U R E The procedure was adapted from Kywe, Tint Tint & Mya Mya Oo, from their article, “Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Pilot Plant,” published in 2009, with the following exceptions: 1. Reduced dryng time of cooking oil prior to transesterification. 2. Allowed temperature of oil to reach ~75°C for 20 minutes during transesterification. 3. Stir bar used instead of hand stirring during the washing process.

TEST

BIODIESEL

ASTM STANDARD

Glycerin Test

0.0900%

0.240%

Soap Test

32ppm

41ppm

Water test

396ppm

500ppm

Density

0.86g/mL*

0.86-0.90g/mL

Free Fatty Acid

0.2256%

0.7760%

*Adjusted to density at 15°C. Density taken at 23°C=0.8675g/mL

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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C O N C LU S I O N Refining our biodiesel was a simple process. Testing was extensive, to ensure quality. Our biodiesel passed all 5 tests. Biodiesel should never exceed ~65°C during transesterification, as methanol begins boiling at 64.7°C. Despite this, our process was still successful. Water removal by heating and stirring is effective. Ensure complete emulsification of biodiesel and water. Water is removed when biodiesel temperature exceeds 110°C. Our process refined cooking oil into quality biodiesel. You can make your own at home, including the testing!!

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REFERENCES Potter, Sean. “NASA/NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year On Record Globally.” NASA. 18 Jan 2017. Web. 25 Jan 2017. Roos, Dave. “Biofuels vs. Fossil Fuels.” HowStuffWorks. N.d. Web. 19 Apr 2017. Kywe, Tint Tint & Mya Mya Oo. “Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Pilot Plant.” 2009. Web. 17 Jan 2017. “Volume correction factors—diesel, bio-diesel and diesel blends. ” Government of Canada. 2 Feb 2017. Web. 19 Apr 2017. Utah Biodiesel Supply - Graydon Blair. "Quality Tests For Biodiesel - Utah Biodiesel Supply." Quality Tests For Biodiesel - Utah Biodiesel Supply. N.d. Web. 22 Mar 2017.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Creating Biodiesel: From Your Kitchen to Your Car Jaelynn Lopez, Mia Melamed, Sita Om, and Louisa Yang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

PURPOSE

M ET H O D S

The purpose of this experiment was to produce a usable form of biodiesel from vegetable cooking oil.

The drying process, density-test, free-fatty acid test, and soap titration were adopted from Dr. McMahon at Central Carolina Community College1. We modified the drying process, using a higher temperature and longer time period, at 200°C and 22 min. The biodiesel was washed 10 times in contrast to single washing performed by Loyola University2. Biodiesel water content was performed according to Brae Laboratories3. Our tests values were compared to ASTM values from Biofuel Systems Group⁴.

I N T RO D U C T I O N Vegetable oils, waste cooking oil, animals fats and tallow, are a number of products that can be converted into a usable form of biodiesel. Oils/fats are composed of triglycerides, which in the presence of an alcohol and a base catalyst, the oils/fats are converted into biodiesel, known as transesterification. The transesterification reaction is where the glycerol molecule is replaced by the alcohol ion (Figure 1). In this study we demonstrate a reaction that occurs between virgin vegetable oil and methanol (alcohol) in the presence of a catalyst, potassium hydroxide (KOH). Triglycerides have a viscosity not conducive for a car engine, and transesterification generates a friendly mix for car parts. And so the following methods were performed to ensure the quality of biodiesel.

R E S U LT S Test

Limits

Units

Soap Titration 48

Data

66

mL/L

Total glycerin 0.09

0.240 max

% mass

Density

0.875-0.90

g/cm3

Free Fatty Acid 0.3

0.877

0.5 max

mg KOH/g

Water

0.05

% vol

0.06

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

A usable form of biodiesel was successfully created. After the washing process (Figure 4), our biodiesel passed 5 out of 6 tests, except for the water test. The failed water test may be resolved by heating the biodiesel at a higher temperature ( > 200°C) and for a longer time (>22°C). Among all our final values, our density value was closest to the ASTM value. The first 3/27 test for bound glycerin had failed, and so we ran transesterification process with half the amount of KOH, which led to a successful conversion to biodiesel.

Dr. McMahon October 2017. Dr. McMahon at Central Carolina Community College shared his knowledge and instruction in the drying process, free fatty acid test, density test and the soap titration test. Utah Biodiesel Supply - Graydon Blair. Biodiesel Process ing Supplies, Equipment, Processors and Information - Biodiesel Homebrewing.” Utah Biodiesel Supply, www.utahbiodieselsupply.com/. Spring, Robert. Water Test Kits, www.sandybrae.com/Wa ter_Test_Kit.html Biofuel Systems Group Limited. Biodiesel Standards, Biofuel Systems Group LTD, http://www.biofuelsys tems.com/specification.htm Hossain, Md A, et al. Biodiesel from Coconut Oil: A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine. World Academy of Science Engineering, and Technology, In ternational Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineer ing, waset.org/publications/2808/biodiesel-from-coco nut-oil-a-renewable-alternative-fuel-for-diesel-engine Green Travel with On-Time, Quality Bus Travel. North field Lines Inc. http://northfieldlines.com/safety/gogreen/

C O N C LU S I O N In this experiment, we successfully produced a usable form of biodiesel from cooking vegetable oil. All tests: density, soap, free-fatty acid, and total glycerin, passed, except the water test, as compared to ASTM …….values. For those interested in creating biodiesel from vegetable oil, it is suggested to heat for a longer period of time …….(> 22 min) and temperature (>200°C) during the drying process. We are interested in testing with another starting material such as coconut oil due to the abundance of the fruit …….throughout the Pacific Islands.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Mahalo nui loa to Dr. Kathleen Ogata for sharing her knowledge from experience. Mahalo to Kapi'olani Community College for providing resources, the laboratory and the Stem center.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Flight Time: Earth To Mars Leiolani Malagon-Leon Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Going back to the planet Mars has been one of the top priorities for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (2017). The process of going there involves advanced theoretical orbital dynamics calculations in order to predict the trajectory, the amount of fuel needed to get there, the landing path, and the time needed to jump from the earth’s orbit to Mars’ orbit. This project is a continuation of my past internship with the NASA Community College Aerospace Scholars that I participated in last Spring 2017.

Applying the above Newton’s law to a satellite orbiting the sun along Mars’s orbit, calculating the time it takes resumes to using Kepler’s third law. The assumptions made in this analysis are 1) that the thrust used is short and high to allow our satellite to jump on Mars’s orbit in a very short period of time 2) the circumference of the elliptical orbit is approximately the same as for a circular one in the present orbit. Hence, for a entire period, the distance traveled can be written as: (3)

PURPOSE The purpose of this research is to calculate the time required to fly to the planet Mars.

Substituting the gravitational force into equation (2):

M ET H O D The method employed in this project involved learning Calculus-based Physics throughout most of the semester! Specifically, the following physics theories and methods had to be self-taught to complete this project:

(4)

Substituting the radial acceleration from equation (1) into equation (4) gives:

Kinematics and the relationship between kinematic variables such as position, velocity and acceleration

Substituting equation (3): 2) Circular motion and the relationship between velocity and radial acceleration (1)

3) And Newton analysis, the second laws and the concept of forces.

If you rearrange the equation and solve for the period, you are left with…

(2)

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One way that this equation can be applied is when calculating the time that it would take to go from Earth to Mars. Take the Mass of the Sun and the Semi major axis of Mars in order to get how many seconds it will take to get from Earth to Mars. From their in order to get how many days it will take, convert seconds to days to receive the final simplified answer. The time is then divided by a factor of 2 since we are calculating the time for half a round trip. The constant needed are Mass of Sun:

Semi Major Axis of Mars:

Gravitational constant:

So half the period is:

Which corresponds to approximately to 343 days.

F U RT H E R R E S E A RC H The next stages of this project are to 1) estimate the change of impulse required to get to Mars, using fast thrust engine to estimate the amount of fuel required 2) learn Matlab to run simulations on the best stable orbit to use to get there.

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Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


How fo' solve one Atwood System in Pidgin Jusden Keli‘ikuli Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

Physics is a difficult subject that I struggled to understand. But I was able to succeed with the help and encouragement of Dr. Herve Collin who allowed me to write this physics research paper in Hawai‘i Creole English (HCE), also known as Pidgin in Hawai‘i. I consider Pidgin as my rst language because I grew up on the west side of Oahu where Pidgin is commonly spoken. Writing in Pidgin helped to bridge the language gap between Pidgin and English, thus making it easier for me to clarify and comprehend physics concepts and problem solving methods. Not only has writing in Pidgin increased my physics comprehension, but it also made physics and writing more enjoyable for me. I hope that this report will help my fellow kanakas and Pidgin-speaking students succeed in physics and inspire other kanakas to purse a career in STEM. Wats da magnitude of da velocity fo one atwood system, da one with two blocks and one pulley. Try picha block A stay on one incline plane connected to one string dat no can stretch and da odda block B is at da end of da string hangin' look laddat below. Wit dis info: da mass fo block A is 2 kg, da mass fo block B is 7kg, da angle fo da incline place is 30 degrees, da static friction is 0.5, da kinetic friction is 0.2, da mass fo da pulley is 5 kg, and da distance dat each block wen travel from rest is 0.5 meters, try ga out da nal velocity.

Figure 1. Atwood System Type tree (inclined plane).

Da first ting we go do is write all da known and given variables and dea values. We only get one known variable, da acceleration due to gravity (g) and all da rest stay given values. Now da given values is da mass of block A (mA), mass of block B (mB), mass of da pulley (mp), distance travel (d), given angle (), kinetic friction (k), and static friction (s). Jus' write em all down so goin be easy layta on.

Fo' dis problem, we gon' use da method fo' Energy Conservation Law so dat we can nd out da velocity of da atwood system starting from rest after it wen move by da distance d.

Firs' gotta identify all da systems in da whole atwood system. So, we get tree' massive systems: block A, block B and da pulley. Da next ting fo' do is pick da 2 points, da initial and nal point wea' you gon' use da energy method and we gon' call it 1 and 2 in ga (2) on da diagram. Da ting gon look laddat below.

Figure 2. Diagram wit chosen points

Next ting' go pick youa coordinate system fo' each system. Rememba dat fo' energy oua coordinate system gotta be wit da positive y axis in da up direction so dat we can use da PEg term in oua energy equation. We go start with da blocks rs'. Fo' each block you get da choice fo' put da coordinate system at point 1 or at point 2. We go pick point 2 fo da origin of dea coordinate system fo' both block A and B. Now fo' da pulley, cuz we dealin' wit someting dat rotates da rst question we gotta ask oua self is da axis of rotation xed or no? In oua question da pulley got one xed axis of rotation. But in oua case cuz its one pulley, da axis of rotation stay at da center of mass and dat gon' be da origin of da coordinate system. All da origins gon' be used fo' get PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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da PEg terms in equation (11). Da overall diagram gotta look someting laddis below.

Figure 3. Da whole Atwood System Diagram wit da points and coordinate systems

Next we go write down oua generic energy equation fo oua systems.

We go tro away some terms. Da rst ting we go tro away is da work due to da weight fo' each system A and B cuz we gon put da PEg in oua equation (10). We can tro away da work due to da normal force acting on block A and da work due to da pulley cuz dey stay equal to zero. We can also ignore da work due to da tension on block A, block B, and da pulley cuz da ting gon cancel each oda. Now only get one term left das work due to friction acting on block A. We got talk about da details why dey get trown away. So fo da Work done by da weight fo block A dat is goin' UP and using da ga (4) to express WA along da displacement d:

(1)

wea da terms stay laddis: • • • •

W is da Work done by all da external forces PEg is da Potential Energy due to da gravity PEs is da Potential Energy due to one spring KE is da Kinetic Energy fo both rotational and translational

Figure 4. Free Body Diagram: Block A

Cuz oua problem no mo' one spring in da atwood system we can tro' away da ∑ PE s terms on both sides of da equation (1). So da equation gon' look laddis:

Da work done by da weight of A is:

(2)

Now we gotta ga out haw many work terms get. We expect da work terms to be one long list. Fo da pulley, cuz we dealin wit one massive pulley we expect da work done by da weight of da pulley (WWP ), da work done by da\ tension on da pulley from block A (WTAP ), da work done by da tension on da pulley from block B (WTBP) and da work done by da normal force from da table acting on da pulley (WNT ). Fo' block B we expect da work done by its weight (WWB ) and da work done by da tension acting on block B (WTB ). Fo' block A we expect work done by its weight (WWA ) and da work done by da tension acting on block A (WTA ), work due to kinetic friction (Wf kA ), work due to da normal force acting on A (WNA ).

(4)

but no need dis cuz get PEg already in da equation (2) and da ting goin look da same like da functional form fo' PEgAI as da equations (10) and (11) way down below. Da work done by da weight of B stay goin DOWN, try look at ga (5) below to express WB along da displacement:

(3) Figure 5. Free Body Diagram fo Block B

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Da work done by da weight of B is:

(5)

No need dis cuz we get PEg in da equation (2) and same ting fo da Work done by the weight of block A. da ting gon' get da same functional form fo' PEgBI as da equations (10) and (11) way down below. Now get da work done by da normal force on da pulley (NP ). Da pulley no move so da displacement (ds') stay zero.

Figure 6. Free Body Diagram Pulley

Da work done by da normal force is:

Da pulley not goin' go anywea so da displacement (ds') stay zero and da work done by da weight (WP ) of da pulley gon be da same.

dis gon' be PEgP1 and PEgP2 in equation (9). Get foa moa work terms: one from TA acting on A, den TB acting on B, and da odda two TA and TB stay acting on da pulley. We go do da linear ones rs'. Da work done by TA acting on object A das TRANSLATING: TA stay in da same direction like da displacement ds':

Da work done by TB acting on object B stay TRANSLATING: TB stay in da opposite direction from da displacement (ds'):

So we know dat TB > TA cuz da pulley get one angular acceleration so da torque stay non-zero so dey not gon cancel.... yet! We gon look at da Net (faster) work done by TA and TB on da pulley. Da angular displacement we gon use look laddis = S R. S mo betta fo use but we gon change em to s = R. So we get: d(R = s) = dR + Rd = ds but R stay constant yeah so da rs term gon be gone: Rd = ds and now we get d jus laddat: d = ds R Da pulley rotates (wit one angular acceleration) so we go use da sum of da torques not da sum of da forces (like wit object A and B dat translate). Cuz TB > TA, da torque fo' TB stay mo big so gon be da positive one.

Add this to WTB and WTA and you now get ZERO. So only get da workdue to da friction acting on block A:

(6)

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We gotta use Newton's Method to gure out da friction term. Rememba daga (4), da free body diagram fo block A we go use dat.

Next ting, pani (replace) all da energy terms wit dea funtional form inequation (10) laddis below.

Newton's second law is:

We go ga out wea da height fo each block stay at. Based on ga (3) we gon get hA1= —dsin and hB1 = d. Cuz dis problem get one non-slipping pulley we can use da formula fo' angular velocity ( = v ⁄R) fo replace so we get all oua kinetic energy terms wit' velocity. We go drop all da subscripts for velocity cuz dey gon' all be da same magnitude. Da last ting, we gotta do is ga out da moment of inertia (I). Cuz one pulley is one solid disk about one central axis (das da center of mass) da moment of inertia stay I = 1⁄2mR2. So oua new equation gon' look ladis:

Write dea equations wit Newton's second law.

Cuz k = kN and we kno' dat N = mAgcos , so we get m gcos . We go ga our da work due to friction k A

k

=

(11)

Now try look da second and third terms! Dey stay equal to da work terms from equations (4) and (5) cuz PEgA2 and PEgB2 stay zero! Solve fo da velocity (v): Now we kno oua work terms we go write out da full equation from equation numba (2). In da equation we go put in all da kinetic terms: translational fo block A and B (KET ) and rotational fo da pulley (KER) (7) (8) (9)

Now we go make small dis equation cuz of oua chosen coordinate system. Dea is tree' questions dat we go ask oua self. Da rst question, fo' da PEg, is da block on da x axis? if yes, PEg = 0. Da next question, fo' KET , is da block moving at dat point? if no, KET = 0. Is da pulley rotating at dat point? if no, KER = 0. Cuz we wen pick oua coordinate system at point 2 and cuz its on da x axis so da PEgA2 =0 and PEgB2 =0. Also, cuz oua system is not moving or rotating at point 1, we get KETA1 =0 and KETB1 =0, and KERP1 =0. And da las' ting, cuz PER is at da origin and da ting no move so get PEgP1 and PEgP2 both equal zero.

PAU ! AC K N OW L E D G E M E N T S : I'd like give a special mahalo to Ashley Tibunsay and the Tibunsay ‘Ohana for their love, encouragement, and support through my studies, to Dr. Herve Collin for his time, mentorship, encouragement, support, and dedication, and to Li-Anne Delavega for her revisions, time, and support.

Oua shorten equation gon be: (10)

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Process of Determining Curie Temperatures of Multiferroic Materials Aaron Pacheco Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Multiferroics are materials that have both ferroelectric and magnetic properties. To have both qualities are rare because very few ferroelectrics exhibit long range magnetic order. Recently, there has been a particular interest growing towards multiferroics to understand the fundamental aspects that give rise to magnetic ferroelectric coupling in device applications such as the magnetic media that hard drives in computers use to store data. Many of the magnetic domains (as depicted in Table 1) controlled by applied electrical fields occur at temperatures too low for most practical uses. Temperatures that occur on an average hard drive range from 40ºC to 50ºC and overheating occurs at 100ºC. As the temperature exceeds 100ºC, data loss begins. By experimenting with multiferroic materials a new threshold beyond existing maximum temperatures can be found.

The process of the experiment consisted of using DC power through a coil to heat the top portion of the device up to high temperatures. In this experiment, the temperatures went up to 500ºC in order to find the curie temperature. The two different types of material compounds used were NiFeWCu and FeBaTi.

Each compound had to be grinded and pressed by two separate machines. The grinding time could take up to an hour or more depending on the material used. The press used up to 4000 kg/cm² to create a 1cm wide disk sample to be used in the experiment (refer to Table 2). Once the sample was created, it was suspended by high heat resistant glass into the device at the source of heating. Beneath the heating element was a large wound coil for generating an magnetic field. The magnetic field was initiated in 20ºC intervals in a series of trials, ranging from 200ºC to 500ºC. The data was recorded until curie temperatures were reached.

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C O N C LU S I O N The results show that between the two types of multiferroics used, the FeBaTi had the higher curie temperature (As shown in the graphs below). This would be the better application for the hard drive replacement. Furthermore, a widely unknown material could possess an even higher curie temperature that may exist if graphene was used in unison with Fe. Graphene is a new material made of carbon one atom thick. Its magnetic and ferroelectric properties could unlock new heat thresholds while still managing to recover data. More research needs to be done in the realm of multiferroics.

Works Cited R.K. Kremer, M.G. Banks, A. Simon 54

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Temperature Gradient Monitor for the ProtoDUNE Leah McCabe Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

E X P E R I M E N TA L S ET- U P

The protoDUNE (figure 1) is an experiment designed to test applications before the construction of the DUNE(1). The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 34 kiloton liquid argon (LAr) detector that be built in the next few years. The DUNE will be used to detect neutrinos and antineutrinos to give a better understanding of the origin of matter and to study black hole formation using neutrinos from supernova explosions within our galaxy. The temperature gradient (figure 2) indirectly measures the purity of the LAr in the detector. The purity of LAr makes it possible to tank particles(2). Temperature fluctuations in the tank as a low as 20 mK affect the results.

The 3 meter high cryostat cylinder that was used to do preliminary testing on the monitor was filled with liquid nitrogen (liquid nitrogen is readily available and close in temperature to LAr). Four sensors were mounted 10 cm apart, to an aluminum bar. The bar can be moved vertically through the cylinder to cross calibrate the sensors (figure 3) thus increasing the precision of the sensors. The cylinder is double walled with a valve to attach a vacuum pump. The air between the walls is removed to insulate the cylinder. As seen in figures 4 and 5, when the pump is turned off, air fills the walls, and condensation is accumulated on the outside of the cylinder, showing that the contents inside the cylinder are heating.

Figure 1. Outer Vessel of ProtoDUNE Photo credit: International Journal of High-Energy Physics Figure 3. Temperature Sensors

Figure 2. Gradient Monitor in progress

Figure 4. Cryostat cylinder with vacuum pump

Figure 5. Roughly 2 minutes after removing vacuum pump

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R E S E A RC H O B J EC T I V E S

REFERENCES

Assemble temperature gradient monitor. Test commercial temperature sensors manufactured with an accuracy of about 100 mK to see if a precision of 10 mK can be obtained. Become familiar with ROOT Data Analysis Framework to analyze data.

Abi, B., et al. (2017, June 23). The Single-Phase Proto DUNE Technical Design Report. Retrieved from arX iv:1706.07081. Adamowski, M. et al. (2015). Development of Cryogenic Installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 101, 012029. doi:10.1088/1758899x/101/1/012029.

R E S U LT S Results with a precision of 10 to 15 mK were previously found with cross-calibration. Further improvements are still being made to the apparatus. Additional measurements are in progress. Once the precision of the temperature monitor is satisfactorily met, research may begin on circulation systems to ensure the purity of LAr in the cryostat.

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AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S This research has been supported by the Office of Science, in the Department of Energy. Mahalo to Radovan Milincic, Jelena Maricic, and Yujing Sun for guidance and support on this project.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Waves in a Flute Clare Ann Ronquillo Faculty Advisor: Jacob Tyler, M.S. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N : The flute is an open pipe shaped instrument that is a member of the woodwind instrument family. The flute is the only woodwind instrument that does not require a reed to produce sound. Rather, air is blown directly into the hole of the mouthpiece. This hole is called the bore. Air blown into the bore resonates to create sound.

WAV E S OV E RV I EW:

N O D E S A N D S TA N D I N G WAV E S :

Sound waves are viewed as longitudinal waves. These waves are seen as the displacement in a medium in which is parallel to the wave's’ direction of travel. A wave is measured in terms of frequency, f, which is defined as 1/T or how many cycles occur in one second. Its unit is Hertz (Hz), in which 1 Hz can represent 1 cycle each second. Wavelengths defined by the Greek letter lambda, , is the distance measured between points on various pulses of a wave.

Standing Waves are defined as a pattern of oscillation, when two waves move in opposite directions causing the wave appear to not move and the nodes to remain in the same place. Node is found within standing waves where there is no motion. Antinodes are points, that are found within a standing wave with the greatest amplitude.

A I R V I B R AT I O N S I N A F LU T E : When the flutist blows a stream of air from their lips’ embouchure, the stream is blown against the edge of the mouthpiece bore. If the stream is disturbed, it becomes a wave-like displacement which then travels along the bore and will either enter or deflect out of the bore. The sound vibration of the flute is the basis of the disturbance in the air stream. This action leads to air flowing in and out of the mouthpiece hole. To produce a sustained note, the speed, v, of the airstream must be adjusted by increasing or decreasing pressure when blowing so that the frequency of the note is played. When this is successfully achieved, the stream will fill the body of the flute. A slow airstream is produced to play low notes and a fast airstream for higher notes.

T H E F LU T E I S A N O P E N P I P E : The flute is an open cylindrical tube shaped instrument that is open at both ends. When played, the total pressure is the atmospheric pressure. In other words, the acoustic pressure of the flute is equal to zero. This is due to the existence of pressure nodes, which are points that are located at the end of the tube. In terms of standing waves and frequency, the flute at the length of 66 cm, would have a node located in the center and antinodes at each end.

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P I TC H , H A R M O N I C S , & F R EQ U E N C Y:

OV E R B LOW I N G :

Harmonic refers to a mixture of pitches for the note played depending on how high or low the frequency is. Pitch is a musical term that defines the depth of a tone. A low frequency equals to low notes and a higher frequency equal to high notes. While nodes are separated by the distance of half of the interfering waves that create standing waves, this sets up the idea harmonics. The temperature on any given day affects the speed of sound which then affects the frequency in the flute. Speed, frequency, and wavelength all relate to each other through; v = f . An important aspect of harmonics is the principle of superposition where there are waves on top of other waves.

Pressing down on the keys of the flute or releasing them can result in making the tube short or long which thereby affects the fundamental frequency and harmonics as shown in figure 5. When the flutist is playing low notes, majority of the keys are down which makes the flute long. As the flutist plays the scale going up, less keys are pressed which results in a shorter tube or flute. Going up the scale can also be achieved by forcing the air stream blown into the instrument. The action will force the sound created, into the second harmonic register, this is viewed as “overblowing.” The length of tube also contributes to low and high frequency.

As shown in figure 5, all of the frequencies travel through the same flute at the same time. Therefore, with the understanding of the v = f , the frequency of the fundamental harmonic is represented as; f = v ⁄ ,= v /2L. In this equation, the variable L, represents the length of the flute.

REFERENCES Griffith, W.T. and Brosing, J.W. (2014).” The Physics of Everyday Phenomena. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Boehm, Theobold, The Flute and Flute Playing, New York: Dover, 1964. Toff, Nancy, The Flute Book. New York: Oxfore, 1996. Quantz, Johann Joachim, On Playing the Flute, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1966. Ryde, S. (1995). The density of a gas and the speed of sound. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 41(2), 51.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Using Parallel Processes and Numerical Methods Applied to the Planetary Landing Problem Jonathan Wallen Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Planetary landing is an active engineering problem being faced by many space agencies and organizations around the world. Planetary landing technology1(PLT) is a broad term that incorporates every asspacecraft on a planetary body in a controlled manner. This incorporates many technical disciplines; orbital mechanics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, thermodynamics, fluid mechanic, etc. A fantastically successful example of planetary landing is the Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover).pect of technical detail required to land some

When faced with such a dynamic problem, one way to begin is to simplify it then add more and more variables. The basic skeleton used to solve this problem are the equations for gravity: Fg=(GMeM)/r^2 After simplifying constants, integrating Newton’s second law and solving for velocity: V = (sqrt(mu/r)) (G=gravitational parameter, Me=mass of earth, M=mass of spacecraft, r=distance from planetary surface, mu=G*Me) With this established numerical methods can be employed to solve the more complicated differential equations by turning a 2nd order differential equation into coupled first order differential equation . Matlab was used to compute states over time that a spacecraft takes and PLT the results.

Mars Science Laboratory planetary landing Plan focused from entry to touchdown2.

There are many moving pieces in the whole package of planetary landing. The figure above highlights the tactile engineering disciplines of the PLT problem. However in this research, the focus has been on the orbital mechanics that arrive a spacecraft to a planetary body in way that the landing can be controlled.

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R E S U LT S After using numerical differential equation solving methods from the Matlab library, the states of the spacecraft over time can be plotted, such as position and speed:

C O N C LU S I O N Thus far, these computations and numerical methods have been applied to “solve” the problem one variable at a time. The next steps of this research will be employing parallel processing3 to improve the computing power needed to solve these numerical methods. This will enable running more iterations in less time, which in turn enables researchers to analyze more possible solutions to the PLT problem.

REFERENCES 1. Delaune, J., Le Besnerais, G., Voirin, T., Farges, J., & Bourdarias, C. (2016). Visual–inertial navigation for pinpoint planetary landing using scale-based landmark matching. Robotics & Autonomous Systems, 7863-82. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2016.01.007 2. NASA.Entry, Descent, and Landing. https://mars.nasa. gov/msl/mission/technology/insituexploration/edl/ 3. Ayguadé, E., & Mueller, M. (2007, October). Introduc tion. International Journal of Parallel Programming. pp. 437-439. doi:10.1007/s10766-007-0055-0.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Thanks to the HESTEMP grant program and Dr Dilmurat Azimov for providing the content, funding, and opportunity for this research.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Student Reflections Explore Kapi’olani’s STEM experience

A N D R EW C H A N G Physical Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College

Aloha, my name is Andrew Chang and I am the student artist who created the cover illustrations for the Pueo O Kū STEM research publication. I’m a student and ASNS degree recipient in physical science at Kapi‘olani Community College. After graduating with my ASNS degree, I transferred to UH Mānoa where I am currently majoring in chemistry and minoring in art. Producing the illustrations for the STEM publication merges my two passions of art and science. I’ve been lucky enough to have been given the opportunity to illustrate this publication, which this will be the third cover I have done for the STEM publication. This year, the illustration for the publication of Pueo O Kū represents how the Pueo, the Hawaiian short-eared owl, travels back and forth from Mauka (mountain) to Makai (by the sea), overseeing the Kānaka (people). For me, this represented students, just like myself, who have transferred from Kapi‘olani CC to Mānoa, and are still involved with STEM here at Kapi‘olani. I have been involved in STEM since I graduated high school and participated in many research projects during my time here at Kapi‘olani STEM. When I transferred over to Mānoa, I continued to stay involved with the STEM program here. I will be graduating from Mānoa this spring, and I hope that incoming STEM students will embrace the opportunity to get involved in the Kapi‘olani CC STEM program.

My name is Katie Gipson and I am currently getting my Associates in Science in Natural Sciences degree - Concentration in Life Sciences, but will get transfer to a mainland university to get a Zoology Degree. I am interested in behavioral ecology and hope to work with wolves one day. I have participated in research on the Manu-o-ku (White Fairy Terns) monitoring their nesting and parental care behaviors as well as the chick’s growth rates. I have also participated in research on algae in Maunalua Bay monitoring both native and invasive species. Working on my project I’ve learned that research takes a lot of work and dedication, but is very rewarding at the end if you enjoy the work that you’re doing.

K AT I E G I P S O N Natural Sciences with Concentration in Life Sciences Kapi‘olani Community College

Working on this Journal, I realized that not everyone is at the same stage in their work and there is a wide range of subjects that I never thought to research. My contribution to the Pueo O Kū Journal (reviewing and scoring the projects that were submitted to be published in the journal) has helped me to understand how to better present my research and given me ideas on what I can work on in the future.

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My name is Ronnie Kauanoe and I am a peer mentor for computer science at the KCC STEM Center seeking my degree in computer science. I’m interested in software development and hoping to help others by creating new programs, whether that’s through the medical field or self-driving cars. I’ve never done official research like what’s been done through the Pueo O Kū Journal but I’m really glad that I could take part in this opportunity. I was a peer reviewer for the journal and looked at projects from the engineering, physics, and biology departments. I especially liked the project describing how an Atwood System functions that was written in Hawaiian Pidgin.

RO N N I E K AUA N O E Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College As a Kapi‘olani Community College student who graduated with a ASNS in Pre-engineering, I recently transferred to the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa continuing my education and am currently pursuing a Bachelor's of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. I am still exploring my career options. I have a passion for data analysis and visualization and see myself working with a team to design, code, problem solve, and constantly learn something new. I participated in several STEM related research projects: Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate and Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars and Artificially Induced Oscillations In A Liquid Medium For Coastal Flood Prediction, to name a few. These experiences have taught me how to: print using the 3D printer, program in Arduino to make a wave tank, and use ordinary differential equations to create simulations in Matlab.

J O R DA N L I Electrical Engineering Major University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

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Being a board member on the Pueo O Kū Journal allowed me to gain insights in various topics of STEM research. It also allotted me the opportunity to witness a student’s growth through their performance of the research. While on the board, I examined all the submitted STEM research projects and selected outstanding research to be showcased in the journal. I hope to use my learned experiences to reviewing the journal, to improve my own research projects in the future.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


‘Alohi Madrona is a Native Hawaiian student double majoring in AA in Hawaiian Studies and ASNS in Biological Sciences. A graduate of Ke Kula Kaiapuni ‘o Ānuenue, ‘Alohi is fluent in ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i and brought valuable cultural insight and knowledge to the Pueo O Kū Peer Review Committee. ‘Alohi has participated in a number of undergraduate research experiences that have merged her cultural knowledge and biological sciences interest. She is a current a KapCC peer mentor for Ka Pōhaku Kihi Pa‘a Peer Mentoring Program in Hawaiian Language and Botany, and is an ‘Ike Wai Undergraduate Scholar.

‘A LO H I M A D RO N A Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College I am Leah McCabe and I am pursuing my B.S. in Astrophysics. I plan to get a Ph.D. and plan to be involved in research. I also would really enjoy teaching. My first semester at KapCC, I got involved in a research project and have found something to dabble with every semester since, from biodiesel to orbital mechanics and dark matter. Working on the Pueo O Kū Journal has shown me that there are many ways to present research. It really stressed how important it is to give a good background on the subject for someone that might not have the same background in science. The figures and images are great for reference and make the material approachable. This project stretched me in that it made me focus on topics that aren't in my sphere of influence. Looking at ideas that I don't work with daily helped to reshape my understanding of how to convey difficult concepts in a meaningful and relatable way.

LEAH MCCABE Astrophysics Major University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

Student Reflections

63


K E A N U RO C H ET T E -Y U Biological Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College

Ia Orana Tātou, My name is Keanu. I am from Tahiti, and I started college at Kapi‘olani Community College (KCC) during the Fall of 2017. I am currently an ASNS in Biological Science Major at KCC. I am interested in Marine Biology. I am a student Kāko’o at the STEM center. My job in the Pueo ‘O Kū Journal was to articulate and organize tasks concerning the posters ranking operation. In a nutshell, I was a liaison between the Outreach Event Coordinator, Keōmailani Eaton and the Peer Review Committee. I had collected the poster slides that were submitted to the submission manager through the Board of Student Publications, and ensured that they were anonymous. Then, I would send them to the Peer Review Committee so that they were able to review the research projects and rank the posters. After each peer reviewer completed the ranking process, we had to decide which projects would be published in the journal by using a 5-point scale ranking system. We averaged the results from the Peer Review Committee ranking to determine the posters “score”. Once the projects were reviewed and ranked, I sent the original poster files to Allyson, the Art Director, for her to layout. The quality of the research was great. I was surprised it is the work of undergraduate students. It made my realize that researches are not reserved to Master and PhD students only. It made me want to start doing some undergraduate research as well.

First off, I'd like to congratulate the students that were chosen to be featured in this publication. Your commitment to continuations growth and discovering the unknown is inspiring.

A L LY S O N V I L L A N U EVA Interface Design Major Kapi‘olani Community College

64

I am a second-year Interface Design student in the New Media Arts program. Working on Pueo O Kū has been both challenging and rewarding in many ways. Each paper had it's own unique character to them and it was my responsibility to pair the body copy (text) with imagery. Choosing fonts and seeing how they live together on paper brings me great designing bliss. The papers were selected weekly and I would receive them in increments. As I opened each file, it felt like Christmas. I didn't know what to expect and felt excited to be able to reconstruct and play with a new toy. In a sense, I'm humbly grateful to receive such presents and hope that when you read this publication that you receive the gift of curiosity, knowledge, and motivation. Kūlia i ka nu‘u: “Strive for the highest”

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics


Kapi‘olani Community College 4303 Diamond Head Road Honolulu, Hi 96816

1


Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
The Draft function is used to create angle at certain face.This function is widely used on injection moulding parts. Parts fabricated by injection moulding parts would typically require certain draft angle to facilitate the removal of the parts from the mould.

Accessing the Function

The easiest way to access the function is through the Features ribbon.

Alternatively, it could be accessed through Insert> Features> Draft.

SolidWorks draft feature
Accessing Draft feature


Draft Options


The Draftfunction is pretty straight forward as there is not many options to this feature. To create draft angle, first select the Normal Face(highlighted in pink on picture below). The Normal face is the surface perpendicular to the draft face. Next select the Surfaces to Draft (highlighted in blue on picture below).

SolidWorks draft feature
Setting up Draft feature
Results will be shown as below.
SolidWorks draft feature
After adding Draft angle
Note that during setting up the draft feature, there is small arrow pointing upward at the Normal face. This arrow indicates the 'pulling' direction, where the top face would become the smaller cross section area, and the lower face would become the bigger cross section area. Should this arrow is pointing downwards, the end result would looks like an inverted pyramid.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

BA 203 D Development Standard of Multi Use Drawing Simlified Multi Hexagon Nuts

Company Information
Possible Scope of Release:
For Use Within Mazda
Mazda Engineering Standard

MES Classification:
Fundamental Standard
MES Description:
Development Standards of Multi-Use Drawing/
Simplified Multi-Use Drawing
MES No.:
MES BA 203D

Distribution
General
Limited

Mazda Motor Corporation

3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun

Hiroshima, Japan

Date Established:
November 15, 1986
Date Revised:
September 5, 2008
Date Effective:
September 12, 2008

1. The MES Number is stated on this cover sheet. The Number on the top right-hand side of each
page of the text does not include any revision code (alphabetical suffix).

2. The effective date on this cover sheet shows the desired date of implementation. Implement
these standards after coordinating any changes with related departments.

3. If there is any discrepancy between a standard and a drawing, follow the drawing.

Published by

Teruhisa Morishige
Manager
Standardization & Engineering
Information Administration Group
R&D Planning & Administration Dept.
MES BA 203

Notices

1. Purpose of Revision
This MES has been revised to clarify the data entry methods.

2. Main Revised Points


(1) The data entry methods in THICKNESS block, MATERIAL block, COLOR block, and
TREATMENT block have been changed.

3. Explanation of SI Indications
Mark Transition Phase Description
Third Phase Only SI units are used in this standard without use of
any previous unit.
Example: 10 MPa
MES BA 203

Contents

1. Scope ...................................................................................................................................... 2

2. Purpose ................................................................................................................................... 2

3. Definitions.............................................................................................................................. 2

4. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development .......... 4

5. Title Block Format and Entry Method ................................................................................... 8

6. Format and Entry Method for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Blocks 15

7. Difference Block Format and Entry Method........................................................................ 19

8. Development Method of Supplier Drawing for Receiving by Multi-Use Drawing/

Simplified Multi-Use Drawing............................................................................................. 19

9. Revision of Specification ..................................................................................................... 19

10. Applicable Standards.......................................................................................................... 20

Annex ....................................................................................................................................... 21

1-d
MES BA 203

1. Scope
This MES specifies development methods of engineering drawings for automobile parts
using multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings.
Remark A Multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing consists of either 2D detail
drawings alone or 3D-CAD drawings. The drawing development methods by
2D detail drawings alone are specified in the body of this MES and those by
3D-CAD drawings are specified in Annex.

2. Purpose
This MES aims at enhancing the information value of engineering drawings and ensuring
clear-cut transmission of the engineer’s intent to subsequent processes by clarifying the
requirements of multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings.

3. Definitions
For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions of principal terms shall apply:
(1) Type The first four-digit code of a part number representing the part type with an
identical function.
(2) Functional number The five-digit code representing the function of a part.
(3) 2D detail drawing A detail drawing including dimensions or the like developed in
2D mode.
(4) 3D-CAD drawing Engineering output information consisting of 3D-CAD data and
3D-CAD drawing.
(5) Multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD drawing that clarifies
differences among multiple similar only parts, similar assembly parts, or similar complete
parts.
(6) Simplified multi-use drawing
(a) Vertical simplified multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD
drawing on which a vertical combination of the structures of parts of the same type is
indicated simultaneously, including an assembly drawing and an only drawing, which
refer to a “component drawing”.
(b) Horizontal simplified multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD
drawing on which parts of the same type and the same structure level are indicated in
combination such as the right and left, front and rear, and upper and lower.
(c) Vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a
3D-CAD drawing of a combination of (a) and (b). In this case, different types of parts
are acceptable.
(7) Single-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD drawing on which all the
only parts or assembly parts have the same part number.

2-d
MES BA 203

(8) Similar parts Parts whose outer shapes are similar to each other and whose
necessary tools can be standardized in principle.
(9) Simplified drawing A drawing on which only changed portions are indicated with a
note that the others shall be in accordance with the existing drawing, when the only parts
or assembly parts indicated on the existing drawing are partially changed to develop a new
drawing.
(10) Drawing No. A number that is specific to each drawing. The number shall be
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing.
(11) Title block A block in the right bottom corner of the drawing, in which the drawing
number/part number, the part name or the like shall be entered. (See Fig. 3.)
(12) Multi-use drawing block/Simplified multi-use drawing block A block provided
for each part indicated on the multi-use drawing /simplified multi-use drawing, in which
the part number, the part name or the like shall be entered. (See Fig. 14.)
Remark When the number of parts on the simplified multi-use drawing is small, the
part number and the part name shall be entered in the DWG. NO./PART NO.
block and the NAME block respectively. When the number of parts is large,
a simplified multi-use drawing block shall be established to enter these items.
(13) Difference block A block established to clarify differences among the parts
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing. (See Fig. 23.)
(14) "ON" to multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing A condition where a
part is descriptively added to an existing multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing.
(Transferred-in)
(15) "OFF" from multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing A condition
where a part is descriptively deleted from an existing multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing.
Remark A part is “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing in
the following cases:
(a) When the part supply is discontinued by an engineering change. (Deleted)
(b) When the part is represented separately on a single-use drawing. (Transferred-out)
(c) When the part is transferred to another multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use
drawing. (Transferred-out)
(d) When the part becomes unnecessary after the production of a model is discontinued.
(Deleted)

3-d
MES BA 203

4. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development


4.1 Restrictions on multi-use drawing Work division symbols and drawing division
symbols are shown in Table 1. Because the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing
is the outcome of a special indication method, consideration is required to make the drawing
easily recognized in the subsequent processes and to prevent troubles caused by an oversight
in the drawing. To that end, the following restrictions shall be imposed on the work division
symbol:
(1) The simplified drawing shall not be used in the development of a multi-use
drawing/simplified multi-use drawing whose work division symbol is “Z” or “P”;
(2) The simplified drawing is acceptable if the work division symbol is “Y”, “T” or “M”;
(3) The parts whose work division symbols are different from each other shall not be used on
the same multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing; and
(4) With regard to the work division symbol “Z”, the parts in the prototyping stage and the
parts in the final drawing or later stage shall not be used on the same multi-use drawing/
simplified multi-use drawing.

4-d
MES BA 203

Table 1 Subscript for Work Division Symbol/Drawing Division Symbol/


Part Number
Work division symbol Drawing division Subscript Remarks
symbol for part
No.
Z Prototype parts S Multi-use Refer to Drawing division symbol on
established for drawing MES BE multi-use drawing/simplified
Ken-kouji, excluding Simplified 752. multi-use drawing shall be
parts for comparative multi-use indicated by “S” alone, not
table and prototype drawing the serial number.
structure
Parts in final drawing D Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
or later stage drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
E Simplified multi-use drawing shall be
multi-use indicated by “D” or “E” alone,
drawing not the serial number.
Y Parts established for S40 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
concurrent Si-kouji S89 drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
(excluding Technical Simplified multi-use drawing shall
Research Center) multi-use advance in a sequential order
drawing (S40, S41, S42…S50) for every
drawing change.
T - Parts established for S90 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
Ken-kouji S99 drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
comparative table Simplified multi-use drawing shall
- Parts established for multi-use advance in a sequential order
Ken-kouji prototype drawing (S90, S91, S92…S99) for every
structure engineering change.
M Parts established for M90 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
Si-kouji issued by M99 drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
Technical Research Simplified multi-use drawing shall
Center multi-use advance in a sequential order
drawing (M90, M91, M92…M99) for
every engineering change.
P Parts established for P80 to Multi-use Refer to Drawing division symbol on
mass production P99 drawing MES BE multi-use drawing/simplified
comparative table Simplified 750 multi-use drawing shall
multi-use advance in a sequential order
drawing (P80, P81, P82…P99) for every
engineering change.

5-d
MES BA 203

4.2 Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development Notes on


the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development are provided below. For
the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 010.
(1) Clarification of different points A difference block shall be established as follows:
(a) The different points on the drawing shall be indicated clearly with indication symbols
such as A B C , ① ② ③, Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ . A symbol in the difference block shall
correspond to the one that represents the different point on the drawing. (See Fig. 1.)
Only numerals and alphabetical characters shall be used as indication symbols;
(b) The different points shall be circled with to make them easily recognized. In
addition to , specific notes shall be indicated. (See Fig. 1.) This process,
however, may be omitted if the different parts on the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing are clear enough to be recognized at a glance.

A shall be entered in

the difference block, too.


Remark

Signal lamp mounting hole


A Signal lamp mounting hole

Engine ornament hole


Mirror mounting hole
Indicate specific notes.
Add indication symbol.
B Engine ornament hole

C B A
Different Points

Fig. 1 Entry Example of Indication Symbols

6-d
MES BA 203

(2) A sketch shall be made near the title block or the difference block to help recognize the
different parts (Fig. 2). This process, however, may be omitted if the different parts on
the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing are clear enough to be easily
recognized.

Fig. 2 Sketch of Different Parts

(3) In the case of a multiple-sheet drawing, the title block, the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall, as a rule, be
indicated on the drawing of the first sheet.
(4) Notes on difference block and multi-use drawing block layout
(a) The difference block shall be extended from the right to the left.
(b) The overall layout shall be determined before the drawing development, giving due
consideration to the model system, the derivation of specially-equipped vehicles and the
like.
(5) Ideas to facilitate reading of multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing
block and difference block The multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block and the difference block shall be made easy-to-read by, for example, using
thick lines every five lines.
(6) Multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block and difference block
when multi-use part is “OFF” When a multi-use part is “OFF” from the multi-use
drawing/simplified multi-use drawing, the items indicated in the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be marked out
using double lines.
4.3 Notes on multi-use drawing development The only parts, assembly parts and
complete parts indicated on the multi-use drawing shall be similar. In addition, their
functional numbers shall be identical.

7-d
MES BA 203

4.4 Notes on simplified multi-use drawing development


(1) The parts indicated on the vertical simplified multi-use drawing and the horizontal
simplified multi-use drawing shall be the same in type.
(2) The parts indicated on the vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing are allowed to
be different types and have different functional numbers.
(3) The parts indicated on the simplified multi-use drawing shall be associated with the
simplified multi-use drawing block, by indicating their part numbers or symbols.

5. Title Block Format and Entry Method


5.1 The form of the title block shall conform to MES BA 011. Refer to Fig. 3 for the form
of the title block.

REV REV BY BY
ECN NO. DATE NOTE
NO. SYM ENGNR DSIGN
CAD TYPE 3D/2D CAD FILE NAME

CAD LOC. DATA LEVEL CAD REF. DATA APPROVED DATA CHECKED DATA DESIGNED

SPEC. DWG. COLOR QUALITY TREATMENT MES P

DWG.DATE SCALE EST. MASS THICKNESS MATERIAL

APPROVED NOTE
(BASE
DWG.)
CHECKED
NAME

DESIGNED
DWG. NO.
PART NO.
MULT.DWG. SUBSCRIPT FRM SHT SIZE
maZDa
Mazda Motor Corporation
Fig. 3 Title Block (Reference)

8-d
MES BA 203

5.2 Title block entry method The methods of entering in the title block on the
multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing are as shown below. For the entering
methods other than the following, refer to MES BA 011.
5.2.1 MULT. DWG. block A drawing division symbol shall be selected from Table 1,
and entered in the MULT. DWG. block. An entry example is shown in Fig. 4.

MULT. DWG.
D
Fig. 4 Entry Example in MULT. DWG. Block

5.2.2 SUBSCRIPT block


(1) When multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is established:
(a) “–” shall be entered in the SUBSCRIPT block, or the block shall remain blank. An
entry example when “–” is used is shown in Fig. 5.

SUBSCRIPT

Fig. 5 Entry Example in SUBSCRIPT Block

(b) The subscript shall be entered in the multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block. (See Fig. 14.)
(2) When a multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is NOT established,
the subscript shall be entered in the DWG. NO./PART NO. block. (See Fig. 7.)
5.2.3 DWG. NO./PART NO. block The coding systems of the drawing number and the
part number are as follows:
(1) The numbering systems of the multi-use drawing and the simplified multi-use drawing
shall conform to section 5.2.3(6) and section 5.2.3(7), respectively.
(2) The coding system of the part number to be indicated as the drawing number shall
conform to MES BE 710, MES BE 750 and MES BE 752.
(3) In order to facilitate reading of the drawing number and the part number, “– (hyphen)” or
“blank” may be used as a separator between type, function, subscript and suffix.
(4) When a part with a drawing number is “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing, the drawing number of the multi-use drawing shall not be changed.
The revision number shall be from 0 to 999.
(5) When an “OFF” part is established as a single-use drawing, the revision number shall
begin with 0.

9-d
MES BA 203

(6) In the case of the multi-use drawing, DWG. NO./PART NO. block shall be used as the
drawing number block. The entry method of the drawing number shall be as specified
below.
(a) The representative number of the parts indicated on the multi-use drawing shall be
entered. An entry example is shown in Fig. 6.

DWG. NO.
B01A–53300
PART NO.
Fig. 6 Entry Example in DWG. NO./PART NO. Block
on Multi-Use Drawing

(b) The representative number shall be a part number with the highest priority established
for each model series.
(c) For a multi-use drawing across model series, a part number with the earlier mass
production timing shall be used as a representative number.
(d) Once a drawing number is established, it shall not be changed even if the production of
the model is discontinued.
(e) After a part is “OFF” from a multi-use drawing and only one part remains on the
drawing, the multi-use drawing shall be handled as follows:
1) If the drawing is likely to be used later as a multi-use drawing, it shall be kept as a
multi-use drawing;
2) If the drawing is not likely to be used later as a multi-use drawing, it shall be handled
as a single-use drawing.
(7) In the case of the simplified multi-use drawing, the entry methods in the DWG. NO./
PART NO. block shall be as specified below.
(a) When both drawing number and a part number are entered in DWG. NO./PART
NO. block (Without simplified multi-use drawing block)
1) An earlier part number in ascending order, among the parts indicated on the
simplified multi-use drawing, shall be used as a drawing number. Entry examples of
the drawing number and the part number are shown in Fig. 7.

10 - d
MES BA 203

DWG. NO. 34231–Z02


PART NO. B01A–34230 34230–Z02
DWG. NO. 53290–Z02
PART NO. B01A–53290 54290–Z02
DWG. NO. 13481–A
PART NO. B01A–13480 13480–A

A subscript of the part number (See Table 1) or a suffix shall be entered.


The functional number (Last five digits) of a part indicated on the drawing shall be
entered.
A drawing number (An assembly number shall be used as a representative drawing
number.)
Fig. 7 Entry Examples of Drawing Number and Part Number on Simplified
Multi-Use Drawing

2) The drawing number and all the part numbers indicated on the simplified multi-use
drawing shall be entered. As for the part number, the type shall be omitted, and the
functional number + subscript/suffix in parentheses shall be placed right next to the
drawing number.
3) When a vertical simplified multi-use drawing includes a standard part or an existing
part, the part number shall be indicated on the drawing, not in the DWG. NO./PART
NO. block.
4) Once a vertical simplified multi-use drawing becomes a single-use drawing, it is not
allowed to be a simplified multi-use drawing again because its revision history may
become confusing.
5) Any part whose engineering has been changed shall be marked, even if its suffix or Z
number is not changed.

11 - d
MES BA 203

(b) When only drawing number is entered in DWG. NO./PART NO. block (With
simplified multi-use drawing block)
1) A representative number shall be entered as a drawing number. An entry example is
shown in Fig. 8. The part number shall be indicated in the simplified multi-use
drawing block.

DWG. NO.
B01A–56530
PART NO.
Fig. 8 Entry Example of Drawing Number on Simplified
Multi-Use Drawing

2) The representative number shall be as follows:


a) In the case of a vertical simplified multi-use drawing and a horizontal simplified
multi-use drawing, an earlier part number in ascending order, among the parts
indicated on the drawing, shall be used as a representative number;
b) In the case of a vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing, an earlier
functional number in ascending order, among the parts indicated on the drawing,
and then, a part number with the highest priority established for each model series,
shall be used as a representative number.
3) Once a vertical simplified multi-use drawing becomes a single-use drawing, it is not
allowed to be a simplified multi-use drawing again because its revision history may
become confusing.
5.2.4 NAME block
(1) The naming system for parts shall conform to MES BE 760 and the website created by the
CAD Dept. to search for part names.
(2) The supplier shall consult with the responsible Mazda engineering dept. because it does
not have access to the website of the CAD Dept.
(3) Entry examples are shown below.
(a) When multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is established
An entry example is shown in Fig. 9.

ガセット ブリッジ
NAME
BRIDGE–GUSSET
Fig. 9 Entry Example in NAME Block

12 - d
MES BA 203

(b) When simplified multi-use drawing block is not established An entry example
is shown in Fig. 10. The part names of all the part numbers indicated in the DWG.
NO./PART NO. block shall be entered.

フロント フェンダ ジャンクション ライト


レフト
NAME
RH
JCT–F FENDER, LH

Fig. 10 Entry Example in NAME Block

5.2.5 EST. MASS block


(1) The estimated mass of a part shall be entered in the EST. MASS block.
(2) As for the parts whose estimated masses are the same, including symmetrical parts, the
estimated mass may be entered in the title block, when a multi-use drawing block/
simplified multi-use drawing block is not established.
(3) In the following cases, “–” shall be entered in the EST. MASS block, or the block shall
remain blank:
(a) When a multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is provided to enter
the estimated mass;
(b) When the estimated mass is indicated on the drawing.
(4) Refer to MES BB 501 for the estimated mass details.
5.2.6 THICKNESS block, MATERIAL block, COLOR block, TREATMENT block
(1) If the specification of each part is the same, the specification shall be entered in the title
block.
(2) In the following cases, “Specified Separately” shall be entered in the THICKNESS block,
MATERIAL block and TREATMENT block:
(a) When a difference block is provided to enter the specification;
(b) When the specification is indicated on the drawing.
(3) If colored parts and colorless parts are mixed, “Y” shall be entered in the COLOR block,
and a distinction between the colored and colorless shall clearly be indicated in the
multi-use drawing block.
5.2.7 Revision block The entry method in the revision block shall conform to
section 5.1.3(20) (Revision block) of MES BA 011 as well as the following instructions:
(1) When part engineering is changed The entry method in the note block shall
conform to section 5.1.3(20)(f) (Note block) of MES BA 011.
(2) When part is “ON” or “OFF” When a part is "ON" or "OFF" without part
engineering change, the entry method in the revision block shall be as follows:

13 - d
MES BA 203

(a) Engineering change notice number block (ECN NO. block)


1) When a part for the new model is “ON”, a model establishment notice number shall
be entered in the ECN NO. block.
2) As for a part other than for the new model, the engineering change notice number
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing and the single-use
drawing shall be as specified in Fig. 11.

05 B W 001

Sequential number starting from 001


W (Fixed symbol)
Code of the responsible engineering Dept.
Last two digits of the dominical year

6 05X0010 05.09.01 B04A−28510 Newly built


6 05BW001 05.09.01 B02A−28510 ON ○○ ○○
REV REV BY BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE ENGNR DSIGN
Remarks 1. When a new part is “ON” to an existing single-use drawing for establishment
of a new model, a concurrent drawing release is possible with the new-model
establishment by coding the engineering change numbers.
2. When a part is “ON” and “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing with an engineering change, the general engineering
change number shall be used.
Fig. 11 Entry Example of Engineering Change Notice Number

(b) REV SYM block Shall be left blank.


(c) NOTE block
1) An entry example when a part is “ON” and “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/
simplified multi-use drawing is shown in Fig. 12.

1 05CW030 05.11.01 B04A−28510 OFF


0 05CW015 05.03.30 B02A−28510 ON ○○ ○○
REV REV BY BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE
ENGNR DSIGN
Fig. 12 Entry Example When Part is “ON” and “OFF”

14 - d
MES BA 203

2) An entry example when a part is “OFF” to the single-use drawing is shown in Fig. 13.

3 05CW015 05.11.01 B02A−28510 OFF→Single-use drawing ○○ ○○


REV REV BY BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE ENGNR DSIGN

Fig. 13 Entry Example in Revision Block (OFF to Single-Use Drawing)

6. Format and Entry Method for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing


Blocks
(1) The forms of the multi-use drawing block and the simplified multi-use drawing block shall
be the same. The form shall be as shown in Fig. 14.

EST.MASS PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.


Fig. 14 Multi-Use Drawing Block/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Block

(2) When all the part numbers indicated on the drawing are entered in the DWG. NO./PART
NO. block on the simplified multi-use drawing, a simplified multi-use drawing block shall
not be established. (If a part whose engineering has been changed is marked, a revision
record is unnecessary.)
6.1 EST. MASS block
(1) The estimated masses of each of the parts indicated in the multi-use drawing block/
simplified multi-use drawing block shall be entered in the EST. MASS block. An entry
example is shown in Fig. 15.

1.23 kg
EST. MASS PART NAME SUBSCRIPT
Fig. 15 Entry Example in EST. MASS Block

(2) Refer to MES BB 501 for details of the estimated mass entry method.

15 - d
MES BA 203

6.2 PART NAME block


(a) Each of the part names indicated in the multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block shall be entered in the PART NAME block. An entry example is shown
in Fig. 16.

MEMBER−DASH LWR
PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 16 Entry Example in PART NAME Block

(b) The naming system shall conform to MES BE 760 and the website created by the CAD
Dept. to search for part names. The supplier shall consult with the responsible Mazda
engineering dept. because it does not have access to the website of the CAD Dept.
6.3 SUBSCRIPT block The SUBSCRIPT block shall be filled up, in accordance with
the “Subscript for Part No.” in Table 1. An entry example is shown in Fig. 17. The
numbering methods of the subscript shall conform to MES BE 750 and MES BE 752.

Z02
PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 17 Entry Example in SUBSCRIPT Block

6.4 PART NO. block The entry method in the PART NO. block shall be as follows:
(1) The part numbers of the parts indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use
drawing shall be entered. An entry example is shown in Fig. 18.

B01A−53350−A
SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 18 Entry Example in PRO. PART NO. Block

(2) The coding methods of the part number shall conform to MES BE 710, MES BE 750 and
MES BE 752.
(3) In order to facilitate reading of the part number, “– (hyphen)” or “blank” may be used as a
separator between type, function and suffix.

16 - d
MES BA 203

6.5 Revision block The entry method in the revision block in the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block, hereinafter referred to as revision block, shall be as
follows:
(1) When engineering change does not cause “ON” or “OFF” An entry example is
shown in Fig. 19.

If the suffix is revised by an engineering change 4 , enter the revised suffix.


A If SUBSCRIPT of a prototype part is revised by the engineering change 4 ,
Zxx enter the revised SUBSCRIPT.
○ When the engineering change 4 is applied to a part, but no change is made in the
suffix or SUBSCRIPT.
When the engineering change 4 is not applied to a part.
3 4 5
Fig. 19 Entry Example in Revision Block When Part Engineering is Changed

(2) When part is “ON” or “OFF” to existing multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use


drawing (including similar cases) An entry example is shown in Fig. 20.
(Descriptions of old style)
NEW When a part is newly established and “ON”. 新
ON When a part is “OFF” from a multi-use 転入
drawing, single-use drawing or simplified
multi-use drawing, and is “ON” to another
multi-use drawing.
B/ON When a part is transferred in and its suffix 転入
becomes B. B
0/ON When an engineering change is made with 転改
compatibility, while the part is transferred
in.
Z03 When the revision is Z03, while the part is 転入
/ON transferred in. Z03
P/C When a part number is changed. 部変
RE When a part is back in and is “ON”. 復
OFF When a part is “OFF” from a multi-use 転出
drawing and is “ON” to another multi-use
drawing or simplified multi-use drawing, or
when the drawing is changed to a
single-use drawing.
DEL When a part is deleted by an engineering 廃止
change.

3 4 5 3 4 5
Remark In order to include English descriptions, alphanumeric input is recommended
as shown in the left blocks of the table above.
Fig. 20 Entry Example in Revision Block When Part is “ON” and “OFF”

17 - d
MES BA 203

(3) When the revision block is full, all the entered numbers shall be deleted, and the last
number before the deletion shall be put at the head so as to go on afterward. The number
in △ in the revision block shall be the same as one in the revision block (REV. NO.
block) in the title block. An entry example is shown in Fig. 21.

Full

PART NO. 0 1 2 3 4 PART NO. 4 5 6


Fig. 21 Entry Example When Revision Block is Full

6.6 Simplified multi-use drawing block on vertical/horizontal multi-use drawing In


the case of a vertical/horizontal multi-use drawing, simplified multi-use drawing blocks for
each level shall be established in a vertical direction. The simplified multi-use drawing
blocks for each level shall be placed in the order of complete, assembly and only level from
the bottom. An entry example is shown in Fig. 22. The space between each level shall be
determined on the assumption that additional parts may be established in the future.

Simplified multi-use drawing block for ONLY level

Simplified multi-use drawing block for ASSY level

Simplified multi-use drawing block for COMPT level


Title block

Remarks 1. In order to avoid MIDAS input omissions by the Engineering Release


Control Gr., the simplified multi-use drawing blocks shall, as a rule, be
placed near the title block. (Including the multi-use drawing)
2. If the simplified multi-use drawing blocks cannot be placed near the title
block due to the lack of space, annotations shall be placed near the title
block.
Example: Refer to SHT2/2 for the simplified multi-use drawing blocks.
The simplified multi-use drawing blocks are shown in the left of
the drawing.
Fig. 22 Entry Position of Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Blocks

18 - d
MES BA 203

7. Difference Block Format and Entry Method


The format and an entry example in the difference block are shown in Fig. 23.

○ ○ ○
○ ○
○ ○ ○
○ ○ ○
Remark

Signal lamp mounting


Engine ornament hole
Mirror mounting hole

SPSU−E−30/30

SPC
hole

1.0

0.8
D C B A Material Thickness
Different Points
Fig. 23 Entry Example in Difference Block

7.1 Items to be entered in difference block


(1) All different items among parts shall be indicated, and common items shall be omitted.
(2) In the difference block, it shall be indicated with a circle(○) how each different item is
applied to each part. (Cross mark (×) shall not be used.)
(3) For the assembly parts indicated on the vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing,
the structure of a different part shall be indicated in the difference block. Furthermore, it
shall also be indicated with a circle(○) which assembly part is applied to each part.
(Cross mark (×) shall not be used.)
(4) A title or a symbol that represents a different point(s) most clearly shall be given to each
different item.
(5) A remark block shall be established as part of the difference block to clearly describe the
characteristics of each part indicated on the drawing and to describe the reasons of
differences in application, function, specification, destination and the like of each part.

8. Development Method of Supplier Drawing for Receiving by Multi-Use Drawing/


Simplified Multi-Use Drawing
The development method of the supplier drawing for receiving shall conform to
MES BA 302.

9. Revision of Specification
The MES revision shall be made in accordance with MES Suggestion Sheet.

19 - d
MES BA 203

10. Applicable Standards


Refer to the latest editions for the following applicable standards:
MES BA 010 General Rules of Technical Drawing
MES BA 011 Technical Drawing Sizes and Format
MES BA 208 Development Standard of 3D-CAD Drawing Set (For GNC)
MES BA 209 Development Standard of 3D-CAD Drawing Set (For I-DEAS)
MES BA 302 Standards and Application Procedures for Received Drawing Set /
F-Drawing Set
MES BB 501 Establishment Standard of Parts Mass
MES BE 710 Numbering System of Utility Parts
MES BE 750 Numbering System of General Parts
MES BE 752 Numbering System of Prototype Parts
MES BE 760 Naming Method of Parts

20 - d
MES BA 203

Annex Development Method of Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing by


3D-CAD Drawings

1. Scope
This Annex specifies development methods of engineering drawings for automobile parts
using 3D-CAD multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings. The items other than
those indicated in this Annex shall be in accordance with the body of this MES, MES BA 208
and MES BA 209.

2. Definitions
The definitions of principal terms used in this Annex shall conform to the body of this MES,
MES BA 208 and MES BA 209.

3. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development


3.1 Restrictions on multi-use drawing Shall conform to section 4.1 (Restrictions on
multi-use drawing) of this MES.
3.2 Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development
(1) When multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing is developed by I-DEAS
The multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing by I-DEAS shall be developed by
either sketch drawings or 2D detail drawings. The detail notes are provided below. For
the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 209.
(a) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by sketch
drawings
1) The concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section 5(3)(c)
(Concurrent use of geometry data) of MES BA 209.
2) The concurrent use methods of geometry-related data shall conform to section 4(3)(b)
(Geometry-related data) of MES BA 209.
3) The sketch drawing shall be developed from Drawing Dummy Assembly or parts
model. For details, refer to 4) in section 6(1)(a) (Sketch drawing) of MES BA 209.
4) The multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference
block shall be established on the parts model.
5) Specific notes shall be indicated on the parts model so that the different points can be
recognized at a glance. For details, refer to section 5(4)(a) 4) (Expression of
different specification) of MES BA 209.

21 - d
MES BA 203

(b) Notes on multi-use drawing development by 2D detail drawings


1) The concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section 5(3)(c)
(Concurrent use of geometry data) of MES BA 209.
2) The 2D detail drawing shall be developed from Drawing Dummy Assembly or parts
model. For details, refer to 3) in section 6(1)(b) (Detail drawing) of MES BA 209.
3) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the 2D
detail drawing.
4) Specific notes shall be indicated on the 2D detail drawing so that the different points
can be recognized at a glance. For details, refer to section 4.2(1) (Clarification of
different points) of this MES.
(2) When multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing is developed by GNC
The multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing by GNC shall be developed by either
diagram description drawings or 2D detail drawings. The detail notes are provided
below. For the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 208.
(a) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by diagram
description drawings
1) The concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section 10(2.3) (In the
case of multi-use drawing) of MES BA 208.
2) The diagram description drawing shall be developed in accordance with section 4
(Basic Requirements of 3D-CAD Drawing Set) of MES BA 208.
3) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the
diagram description drawing.
(b) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by 2D detail
drawings
1) The 2D detail drawing shall be developed in accordance with section 4 (Basic
Requirements of 3D-CAD Drawing Set) of MES BA 208. All the details such as
dimensions shall be fully indicated on the drawing.
2) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the 2D
detail drawing.

22 - d
MES BA 203

* Questions concerning Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) may be addressed at any of the
following:

AUSTRALIA (SAA) ITALY (UNI)


Standards Australia Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione
PO Box 5420 Via Battistotti Sassi 11/b
Sydney NSW 2001 1-20133 Milano

AUSTRIA (ON) KOREA, Rep. of (KSA)


Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut Korean Standards Association
Heinestrasse 38 13-31, Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu
1020 Vienna Seoul 150-010

CANADA (SCC) NEW ZEALAND (SANZ)


Standards Council of Canada Standards Association of New Zealand
270 Albert Street, Suite 200 155 The Terrace
Ottawa ON, K1P 6N7 Private Bag 2439
Wellington
FRANCE (AFNOR)
Association française de normalisation SWITZERLAND (SNV)
11, avenue Francis de Pressensé Swiss Association for Standardization
FR-93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex Bürglistr. 29
8400 Winterthur
GERMANY (DIN)
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung UNITED KINGDOM (BSI)
Burggrafenstrasse 6 British Standards Institution
D-10787 Berlin 389 Chiswick High Road
GB-London W4 4AL

USA (ANSI)
American National Standards Institute
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor
US-New York N.Y. 10036

* Questions concerning Japanese Automobile Standards (JASO) may be addressed at the


following:

Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.


10-2, Goban-cho, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 102-0076
Japan

23 - d

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Back in the AutoCAD days typically a CAD Manager would manage all the AutoCAD templates & blocks. Everything was available to all the design staff to use but they were not freely allowed to edit templates or blocks. This became a "check & balance" that made sense because it's much easier to manage a standard if there is not a "free for all" on it. If there was a "free for all" then drawing sets would not be consistent and things would run less efficient. This is why a CAD Manager typically has had things like templates and blocks locked down thus the term "CAD Nazi" became widely known.

With the switch from AutoCAD to Revit I have noticed that standards can get very messy very quick in Revit. There are several ways this happens. A few ways I have seen this happen is copying from other projects, transferring project standards or the model was never setup properly to begin with so designers just made things up on their own. For example often times a designer doesn't even know that they copied in several viewport types, text types and line types from a few different projects when they copied a few details.

Let's take a step back and make sure we are clear on the different types of standard items in a Revit model that can impact consistency between several disciplines:

System Families - Callout Types, Dimension Styles, Text Styles, Elevation Types, Grid Types, Level Types, Section Types, Viewport Types (View Titles)

Component Families (Symbol & Tag) - Title Block, Callout Head, Section Head, Section Tail, Level Heads, Grid Heads, North Arrow, Graphic Scale, View Title, Revision Tag, View Reference, Room Tag, Space Tag, Keynote Tag

*Discipline Specific Tags (Door, Window, Duct, Beam, Panel, etc.)

Project Settings - Line Weights, Object Styles, Project Units, Phase Settings

Most people might not know that most of these items can be made editable in the Worksets Manager. For example if the Callout Types were made editable by someone with the username "BIM Manager" when a designer goes to try to edit a callout type it will give a permissions message saying "You do not have permissions to edit this element BIM Manager has ownership of the Callout Types and will need to relinquish". Below I will go through how I have been using the Username and Worksets so users cannot edit these standard elements. This forces them to ask the BIM Manager to update a title block, symbol or project setting rather than working in a silo or going their own way.

Step One:

Change your username. Go to the Big R and Options. Change your username. I have been using something obvious so they know they need to contact me before editing the item. BIM Manager, BIM Coordinator,….BIM Nazi if you like to live dangerously. DO NOT FORGET TO CHANGE YOUR USERNAME BACK AFTER SYNCING AND CLOSING THE MODEL!

Step Two:

Open up each model and go to worksets. I select the following and make these editable:

Project Standards:

Families:

Callout Heads

Elevation Marks

Generic Annotation (Graphic Scales, North Arrows, etc.)

Grid Heads

Level Heads

Revision Cloud Tags

Section Marks

Title Blocks

View Titles

Views:

Any views used to coordinate the model that you do not want designers to edit

Step Three:

After I make the worksets above editable I also go into the model and "borrow" the levels and project basepoint. If a level gets moved or deleted it can cause major problems. Same with the base point.

Syncing and Closing Model:

When you sync the model uncheck all the boxes circled in the image below. This will sync but it will not relinquish all these elements you took ownership. When you close the model be sure to "Keep Ownership of Elements".  If you relinquish you will have to open the model and check everything out again. After repeating this 10-20 times you will get these memorized and it will only take about 2-3 minutes to go through this process in each model. This could save valuable time fixing problems after they happen.

DO NOT FORGET TO CHANGE YOUR USERNAME BACK AFTER SYNCING AND CLOSING THE LAST MODEL ON THE PROEJCT!


Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Combine or subtract 2D shapes to create custom shapes

Sometimes you need to create a 2D profile that is a combination of the basic geometrical shapes that AutoCAD creates. While you might be able to use the PLINE command to create what you want, in some cases, 2 other methods may be easier.

Subtract shapes with the SUBTRACT command

For example, let’s say that you want to create this profile.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-1

Depending on the information you have about the radius of the circle and length of its inset, it might be easier for you to start with these objects:

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-2

Here is one way to get the result you want:

  1. Draw the large filleted rectangle, the 2 small rectangles and the circle.
  2. Start the REGION command.
  3. Select all 4 objects and end selection. You’ll see a message: 4  loops extracted. 4 Regions created.
  4. Start the SUBTRACT command. This command isn’t on the ribbon in the 2D Drafting & Annotation workspace, so just type the command on the Command line.
  5. At the Select solids, surfaces, and regions to subtract from .. Select objects: prompt, select only the larger filleted rectangle and end selection.
  6. At the Select solids, surfaces, and regions to subtract .. Select objects: prompt, select the 2 small rectangles and the circle. Then end selection.

AutoCAD subtracts the smaller regions from the larger one, leaving just the desired profile.

Combine shapes with the UNION and INTERSECT commands

You can also use the UNION command to turn the 4 regions on the left to the region on the right.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-3

Finally, you can use the INTERSECT command to find the intersection of 2 regions, as you see here.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-4

Use the BOUNDARY command to create regions and polylines

The BOUNDARY command can work like the SUBTRACT command. With the BOUNDARY COMMAND, you can do the following:

  1. Draw the shapes on the left, below.
  2. Start the BOUNDARY command to open the Boundary Creation dialog box.
  3. If you want to also create objects from nested objects (inside the boundary of an outer object), check the island Detection checkbox.
  4. Choose Region from the Object Type drop-down list and click OK. If all you want to do is create the shape on the right, you can choose Polyline from the drop-down list, but you won’t be able to union, subtract, or intersect them.
  5. At the Pick Internal Point prompt, click inside the object or objects that you want to turn into polylines or regions. Press Enter to end the command.
  6. You can now use UNION, INTERSECT, or SUBTRACT the regions.

Note: The BOUNDARY command creates the new objects ON TOP OF the original objects. Move them to see the original objects.

Tip: Once you have the shape you want, you can reuse the BOUNDARY command, choose Polyline, and create a polyline. Remember to move the new polyline from on top of the original region.

Do you use regions in 2D drawings, to combine/subtract them or for some other purpose? Leave a comment!

Ellen Finkelstein

Ellen Finkelstein

Ellen Finkelstein is the author of the best-selling AutoCAD & AutoCAD LT Bible, which started with R14. Ellen has written extensively on AutoCAD, including articles for Autodesk’s website and features for AutoCAD’s Help system. Ellen’s first book was AutoCAD For Dummies Quick Reference.

Ellen Finkelstein

Latest posts by Ellen Finkelstein (see all)

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

BA 203 D Development Standard of Multi Use Drawing Simlified Multi Hexagon Nuts

Company Information
Possible Scope of Release:
For Use Within Mazda
Mazda Engineering Standard

MES Classification:
Fundamental Standard
MES Description:
Development Standards of Multi-Use Drawing/
Simplified Multi-Use Drawing
MES No.:
MES BA 203D

Distribution
General
Limited

Mazda Motor Corporation

3-1, Shinchi, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun

Google Earth Pro 4.3 crack serial keygen Hiroshima, Japan

Date Established:
November 15, 1986
Date Revised:
September 5, 2008
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Date Effective:
September 12, 2008

1. The MES Number is stated on this cover sheet. The Number on the top right-hand side of each
page of the text does not include any revision code (alphabetical suffix).

2. The effective date on this cover sheet shows the desired date of implementation. Implement
these standards after coordinating any changes with related departments.

3. If there is any discrepancy between a standard and a drawing, follow the drawing.

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Published by

Teruhisa Morishige
Manager
Standardization & Engineering
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Information Administration Group
R&D Planning & Administration Dept.
MES BA 203

Notices

1, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Purpose of Revision
This MES has been revised to clarify the data entry methods.

2. Main Revised Points


(1) The data entry methods in THICKNESS block, MATERIAL block, COLOR block, and
TREATMENT block have been changed.

3. Explanation of SI Indications
Mark Transition Phase Description
Third Phase Only SI units are used in this standard without use of
any previous unit.
Example: 10 MPa
MES BA 203

Contents

1. Scope . 2

2. Purpose . 2

3. Definitions. 2

4. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development . 4

5. Title Block Format and Entry Method . 8

6. Format and Entry Method for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Blocks 15

7. Difference Block Format and Entry Method. 19

8. Development Method of Supplier Drawing for Receiving by Multi-Use Drawing/

Simplified Multi-Use Drawing. 19

9. Revision of Specification . 19

10. Applicable Standards. 20

Annex . 21

1-d
MES BA 203

1. Scope
This MES specifies development methods of engineering drawings for automobile parts
using multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings.
Remark A Multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing consists of either 2D detail
drawings alone or 3D-CAD drawings. The drawing development methods by
2D detail drawings alone are specified in the body of this MES and those by
3D-CAD drawings are specified in Annex.

2. Purpose
This MES aims at enhancing the information value of engineering drawings and ensuring
clear-cut transmission of the engineer’s intent to subsequent processes by clarifying the
requirements of multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings.

3. Definitions
For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions of principal terms shall apply:
(1) Type The first four-digit code of a part number representing the part type with an
identical function.
(2) Functional number The five-digit code representing the function of a part.
(3) 2D detail drawing A detail drawing including dimensions or the like developed in
2D mode.
(4) 3D-CAD drawing Engineering output information consisting of 3D-CAD data and
3D-CAD drawing.
(5) Multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD drawing that clarifies
differences among multiple similar only parts, similar assembly parts, or similar complete
parts.
(6) Simplified multi-use drawing
(a) Vertical simplified multi-use drawing autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD
drawing on which a vertical combination of the structures of parts of the same type is
indicated simultaneously, including an assembly drawing and an only drawing, which
refer to a “component drawing”.
(b) Horizontal simplified multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a 3D-CAD
drawing on which parts of the same type and the same structure level are indicated in
combination such as the right and left, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, front and rear, and upper and lower.
(c) Vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing A 2D detail drawing or a
3D-CAD drawing of a combination of (a) and (b), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. In this case, different types of parts
are acceptable.
(7) Single-use drawing A autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ detail drawing or a 3D-CAD drawing on which all the
only parts or assembly parts have the same part number.

2-d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES BA 203

(8) Similar parts Parts whose outer shapes are similar to each other and whose
necessary tools autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ be standardized in principle.
(9) Simplified drawing A drawing on which only changed portions are indicated with a
note that the others shall be in accordance with the existing drawing, when the only parts
or assembly parts indicated on the existing drawing are partially changed to develop a new
drawing.
(10) Drawing No. A number that is specific to each drawing. The number shall be
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing.
(11) Title block A block in the right bottom corner of the drawing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, in which the drawing
number/part number, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the part name or the like shall be entered. (See Fig. 3.)
(12) Multi-use drawing block/Simplified multi-use drawing block A block provided
for each part indicated on the multi-use drawing /simplified multi-use drawing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, in which
the part number, the part name or the like shall be entered. (See Fig. 14.)
Remark When the number of parts on the simplified multi-use drawing is small, the
part number and the part name shall be entered in the DWG. NO./PART NO.
block and the NAME block respectively. When the number of parts is large,
a simplified multi-use drawing block shall be established to enter these items.
(13) Difference block A block established to clarify differences among the parts
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing. (See Fig. 23.)
(14) "ON" to multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing A condition where a
part is descriptively added to an existing multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing.
(Transferred-in)
(15) "OFF" from multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing A condition
where a part is descriptively deleted from an existing multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing.
Remark A part is “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing in
the following cases:
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ When the part supply is discontinued by an autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ change. (Deleted)
(b) When the part is represented separately on a single-use drawing. (Transferred-out)
(c) When the part is transferred to another multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use
drawing. (Transferred-out)
(d) When the part becomes unnecessary after the production of a model is discontinued.
(Deleted)

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 3-d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ BA 203

4. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development


4.1 Restrictions on multi-use drawing Work division symbols and drawing division
symbols are shown in Table 1. Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing
is the outcome of a special indication method, consideration is required to make the drawing
easily recognized in the subsequent processes and to prevent troubles caused by an oversight
in the drawing. To that end, the following restrictions shall be imposed on the work division
symbol:
(1) The simplified drawing shall not be used in the development of a multi-use
drawing/simplified multi-use drawing whose work division symbol is “Z” or “P”;
(2) The simplified drawing is acceptable if the work division symbol is “Y”, “T” or “M”;
(3) The parts whose work division symbols are different from each other shall not be used on
the same autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ drawing/simplified multi-use drawing; and
(4) With regard to the work division symbol “Z”, the parts in the prototyping stage and the
parts in autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ final drawing or later stage shall not be used on the same multi-use drawing/
simplified multi-use drawing.

Coreldraw 12 new crack serial keygen 4-d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES BA 203

Table 1 autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Subscript for Work Division Symbol/Drawing Division Symbol/


autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Part Number
Work division symbol Drawing division Subscript Remarks
symbol for part
No.
Z Prototype parts S Multi-use Refer to Drawing division symbol on
established for drawing MES BE multi-use drawing/simplified
Ken-kouji, excluding Simplified 752. multi-use drawing shall be
parts for comparative multi-use indicated by “S” alone, not
table and prototype drawing the serial number.
structure
Parts in final drawing D Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
or later stage drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
E Simplified multi-use drawing shall be
multi-use indicated by “D” or “E” alone,
drawing not the serial number.
Y Parts established for S40 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
concurrent Si-kouji S89 autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
(excluding Technical Simplified multi-use drawing shall
Research Center) multi-use advance in a sequential order
Photolemur Keygen Archives drawing (S40, S41, S42…S50) for every
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ drawing change.
T autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ - Parts established for S90 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
Ken-kouji S99 drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
comparative table Simplified multi-use drawing shall
- Parts established for autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ multi-use advance in a sequential order
Ken-kouji prototype drawing (S90, S91, S92…S99) for every
structure 4U AVI MPEG Converter 2.0.5 crack serial keygen engineering change.
M Parts established for M90 to Multi-use Drawing division symbol on
Si-kouji issued by M99 drawing multi-use drawing/simplified
Technical Research Simplified multi-use drawing shall
Center multi-use advance in a sequential order
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ drawing (M90, M91, M92…M99) for
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ every engineering change.
P Parts established for P80 to Multi-use Refer to Drawing division symbol on
mass production P99 drawing MES BE multi-use drawing/simplified
comparative table Simplified 750 multi-use drawing shall
multi-use advance in a sequential order
drawing (P80, P81, P82…P99) for every
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ engineering change.

5-d
MES BA 203

4.2 Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development Notes on


the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development are provided below. For
the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 010.
(1) Clarification of different points A difference block shall be established as follows:
(a) The different points on the drawing shall be indicated clearly with indication symbols
such as A B C① ② ③, Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ. A symbol in the difference block shall
correspond to the one that represents the different point on the drawing. (See Fig. 1.)
Only numerals and alphabetical characters shall be used as indication symbols;
(b) The different points shall be circled with to make them easily recognized. In
addition to specific notes shall be indicated. (See Fig. 1.) This process,
however, may be omitted if the different parts on the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing are clear enough to be recognized at a glance.

A shall be entered in

the difference block, too.


autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Remark

Signal lamp mounting hole


A Signal lamp mounting hole

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Engine ornament hole


Mirror mounting hole
Indicate specific notes.
Add indication symbol.
B Engine ornament hole

C B A
Different Points

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Fig. 1 Entry Example of Indication Symbols

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 6-d
1 Cool Button Tool 4.1 crack serial keygen MES BA 203

(2) A sketch shall be made near the title block or the difference block to help recognize the
different parts (Fig. 2). This process, however, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, may be omitted if the different parts on
the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing are clear enough to be easily
recognized.

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Fig. 2 Sketch of Different Parts

(3) In the case of a multiple-sheet drawing, the title block, the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall, as a rule, be
indicated on the drawing of the first sheet.
(4) Notes on difference block and multi-use drawing block layout
(a) The difference block shall be extended from the right to the left.
(b) The overall layout shall be determined before the drawing development, giving due
consideration to the model system, the Full Downloads: Resident Evil 6 – PC of specially-equipped vehicles and the
like.
(5) Ideas to facilitate reading of multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing
block and difference block The multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block and the difference block shall be made easy-to-read by, for example, using
thick lines every five lines.
(6) Multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block and difference block
when multi-use part is “OFF” When a multi-use part is “OFF” from the multi-use
drawing/simplified multi-use drawing, the items indicated in the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be marked out
using double lines.
4.3 Notes on multi-use drawing development The only parts, assembly parts and
complete parts indicated on the multi-use drawing shall be similar. In addition, their
functional numbers shall be identical.

7-d
MES BA 203

4.4 Notes on simplified multi-use drawing development


(1) The parts indicated on the vertical simplified multi-use drawing and the horizontal
simplified multi-use drawing shall be the same in type.
(2) The parts indicated on the vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing are allowed to
be different types and have different functional numbers.
(3) The parts indicated on the simplified multi-use drawing shall be associated with the
simplified multi-use drawing block, by indicating their part numbers or symbols.

5. Title Block Format and Entry Method


5.1 The form of the title block shall conform to MES BA 011. Refer to Fig. 3 for the form
of the title block.

REV REV BY BY
ECN NO. DATE autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ NOTE
NO. SYM ENGNR DSIGN
CAD TYPE 3D/2D CAD FILE NAME

CAD LOC. DATA LEVEL CAD REF. DATA APPROVED DATA CHECKED DATA DESIGNED

SPEC. DWG. COLOR QUALITY TREATMENT MES P

DWG.DATE SCALE autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ EST. MASS THICKNESS MATERIAL

APPROVED autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ NOTE
(BASE
DWG.)
CHECKED
NAME

DESIGNED
DWG. NO.
PART NO.
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MULT.DWG. SUBSCRIPT FRM SHT SIZE
maZDa
Mazda Motor Corporation
Fig, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 3 Title Block (Reference)

8-d
MES BA 203

5.2 Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ block entry method autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ The methods of entering in the title block on the
multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing are as shown below. For the entering
methods other than the following, refer to MES BA 011.
5.2.1 MULT. DWG. block A drawing division symbol shall be selected from Table 1,
and entered in the MULT. DWG. block. An entry example is shown in Fig. 4.

MULT. DWG.
D
Fig. 4 Entry Example in MULT. DWG. Block

5.2.2 SUBSCRIPT block


(1) When multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is established:
(a) “–” shall be entered in the SUBSCRIPT block, or the block shall remain blank. An
entry example when “–” is used is shown in Fig. 5.

SUBSCRIPT

Fig. 5 Entry Example in SUBSCRIPT Block

(b) The subscript shall be entered in the multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block. (See Fig. 14.)
(2) When a multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is NOT established,
the subscript shall be entered in the DWG. NO./PART NO. block. (See Fig. 7.)
5.2.3 DWG. NO./PART NO. block The coding systems of the drawing number and the
part number are as follows:
(1) The numbering systems of the multi-use drawing and the simplified RPG MAKER MV crack serial keygen drawing
shall conform to section 5.2.3(6) and section 5.2.3(7), respectively.
(2) The coding system of the part number to be indicated as the drawing number shall
conform to MES BE 710, MES BE 750 and MES BE 752.
(3) In order to facilitate reading of the drawing number and the part number, “– (hyphen)” or
“blank” may be used as a separator between type, function, subscript and suffix.
(4) When a part with a drawing number is “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing, the drawing number of the multi-use drawing shall not be changed.
The revision number shall be from 0 to 999.
(5) When an “OFF” part is established as a single-use drawing, the revision number shall
begin with 0.

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 9-d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES BA 203

(6) Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the case of the multi-use drawing, DWG, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. NO./PART NO. block shall be used as the
drawing number block. The entry method of the drawing number shall be as specified
below.
(a) The representative number of the parts indicated on the multi-use drawing shall be
entered, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. An entry example is shown in Fig. 6.

DWG, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. NO.
B01A–53300
PART NO.
Fig. 6 Entry Example in DWG. NO./PART NO. Block
on Multi-Use Drawing

(b) The representative number shall be a part number with the highest priority established
for each model series.
(c) For a multi-use drawing across model series, a part number with the earlier mass
production timing shall be used as a representative number.
(d) Once a drawing number is established, it shall not be changed even if the production of
the model is discontinued.
(e) After a part is “OFF” from a multi-use drawing and only one part remains on the
drawing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the multi-use drawing shall be handled as follows:
1) If the drawing is likely to be used later as a multi-use drawing, it shall be kept as a
multi-use drawing;
2) If the drawing is not likely to be used later as a multi-use drawing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, it shall be handled
as a single-use drawing.
(7) In the case of the simplified multi-use drawing, the entry methods in the DWG. NO./
PART NO. block shall be as specified below.
(a) When both drawing number and a part number are entered in DWG. NO./PART
NO. block (Without simplified multi-use drawing block)
1) An earlier part number in ascending order, among the parts indicated on the
simplified multi-use drawing, shall be used as a drawing number. Entry examples of
the drawing number and the part number are shown in Fig. 7.

10 - d
MES BA 203

DWG. NO. 34231–Z02


PART NO. B01A–34230 34230–Z02
DWG. NO. 53290–Z02
PART NO. B01A–53290 54290–Z02
DWG. NO. autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 13481–A
PART NO. B01A–13480 13480–A

A subscript of the part number (See Table 1) or a suffix shall be entered.


The functional number (Last five digits) of a part indicated on the drawing shall be
entered.
A drawing number (An assembly number shall be used as a representative drawing
number.)
Fig. 7 Entry Examples of Drawing Number and Part Number on Simplified
Multi-Use Drawing

2) The drawing number and all the part numbers indicated on the simplified multi-use
drawing shall be entered. As for the part number, the type shall be omitted, and the
functional number + subscript/suffix in parentheses shall be placed right next to the
drawing number.
3) When a vertical simplified multi-use drawing includes a standard part or an existing
part, the part number shall be indicated on the drawing, not in the DWG. NO./PART
NO. block.
4) Once a vertical simplified multi-use drawing becomes a single-use drawing, it is not
allowed to be a simplified multi-use drawing again because its revision history may
become confusing.
5) Any autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ whose engineering has been changed shall be marked, even if its suffix or Z
number is not changed.

11 - d
MES BA 203

(b) When only drawing number is entered in DWG. NO./PART NO. block (With
simplified multi-use drawing block)
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 1) A representative number shall be entered as a drawing number. An entry example is
shown in Fig. 8. The part number shall be indicated in the simplified multi-use
drawing block.

DWG. NO.
B01A–56530
PART NO.
Fig. 8 Entry Example of Drawing Number on Simplified
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Multi-Use Drawing

2) The representative number shall be as follows:


a) In the case of a vertical simplified multi-use drawing and a horizontal simplified
multi-use drawing, an earlier part number in ascending order, among the parts
indicated on the drawing, shall be used as a representative number;
b) In the case of a vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing, an earlier
functional number in ascending order, among the parts indicated on the drawing,
and then, a part number with the highest priority established for each model series,
shall be used as a representative number.
3) Once a vertical simplified multi-use drawing becomes a single-use drawing, it is not
allowed to be a simplified multi-use drawing again because its revision history may
become confusing.
5.2.4 NAME block
(1) The naming system How to Crack, Register or Free Activate DAZ Studio Pro parts shall conform to MES BE 760 and the website created by the
CAD Dept. to search for part names.
(2) The supplier shall consult with the responsible Mazda engineering dept. because it does
not have access to the website of the CAD Dept.
(3) Entry examples are shown below.
(a) When multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is established
An entry example is shown in Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 9.

ガセット ブリッジ
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ NAME
BRIDGE–GUSSET
Fig. 9 Entry Example in NAME Block

12 - d
MES BA 203

(b) When simplified multi-use drawing block is not established An entry example
is shown in Fig. 10. The part names of all the part numbers indicated in the DWG.
NO./PART NO. block shall be entered.

フロント フェンダ ジャンクション ライト


レフト
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ NAME
RH
JCT–F FENDER, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, LH

Fig, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 10 Entry Example in NAME Block

5.2.5 EST. MASS block


(1) The estimated mass of a part shall be entered in the EST. MASS block.
(2) As for the parts whose estimated masses are the same, including symmetrical parts, the
estimated mass may be entered in the title block, when a multi-use drawing block/
simplified multi-use drawing block is not established.
(3) In the following cases, “–” shall be entered in the EST. MASS block, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, or the block shall
remain blank:
(a) When a multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block is provided to enter
the estimated mass;
(b) When the estimated mass is indicated on the drawing.
(4) Refer to MES BB 501 for the estimated mass details.
5.2.6 THICKNESS block, MATERIAL block, COLOR block, TREATMENT block
(1) If the specification of each part is the same, the specification shall be entered in the title
block.
(2) In the following cases, “Specified Separately” shall be entered in the THICKNESS block,
MATERIAL block and TREATMENT block:
(a) When a difference block is provided to enter the specification;
(b) When the specification is indicated on the drawing.
(3) If colored parts and colorless parts are mixed, “Y” shall be entered in the COLOR block,
and a distinction between the colored and colorless shall clearly be indicated in the
multi-use drawing block.
5.2.7 Revision block The entry method in the revision block shall conform to
section 5.1.3(20) (Revision block) of MES BA 011 as well as the following instructions:
(1) When part engineering is changed The entry method in the note block shall
conform to section 5.1.3(20)(f) (Note block) of MES BA 011.
(2) When part is “ON” or “OFF” When a part is "ON" or "OFF" without part
engineering change, the entry method in the revision block shall be as follows:

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 13 - d
MES BA 203

(a) Engineering change notice number block (ECN NO, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. block)


1) When a part for the new model is “ON”, a model establishment notice number shall
be entered in the ECN NO. block.
2) As for a part other than for the new model, the engineering change notice number
indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing and the single-use
drawing shall be as specified in Fig. 11.

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 05 B W 001

Sequential number starting from 001


W (Fixed symbol)
Code of the responsible engineering Dept.
Last two digits of the dominical year

6 05X0010 05.09.01 B04A−28510 Newly built


6 05BW001 05.09.01 B02A−28510 ON autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ ○○
REV REV BY BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE ENGNR DSIGN
Remarks 1, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. When a new part is “ON” to an existing single-use drawing for establishment
of a new model, a concurrent drawing release is possible with the new-model
establishment by coding the engineering change numbers.
2. When a part is “ON” and “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/simplified
multi-use drawing with an engineering change, the general engineering
change number shall be used.
Fig. 11 Entry Example of Engineering Change Notice Number

(b) REV SYM block Shall be left blank.


(c) NOTE block
1) An entry example when a part is “ON” and “OFF” from the multi-use drawing/
simplified multi-use drawing is shown in Fig. 12.

1 05CW030 05.11.01 autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ B04A−28510 OFF


0 05CW015 05.03.30 B02A−28510 ON ○○ ○○
REV REV BY BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE
ENGNR DSIGN
Fig. 12 Entry Example When Part is “ON” and “OFF”

14 - d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES BA 203

2) An entry example when a part is “OFF” to the single-use drawing is shown in Fig. 13.

3 05CW015 05.11.01 B02A−28510 OFF→Single-use drawing ○○ ○○


REV REV BY softube modular crack mac Archives BY
NO. ECN NO. DATE SYM
NOTE ENGNR DSIGN

Fig, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 13 Entry Example in Revision Block (OFF to Single-Use Drawing)

6. Format and Entry Method for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing


Blocks
(1) The forms of the multi-use drawing block and the simplified multi-use drawing block shall
be the same. The form autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ be as shown in Fig. 14.

EST.MASS autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.


Fig. autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Multi-Use Drawing Block/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Block

(2) When all the part numbers indicated on the drawing are entered in the DWG. NO./PART
NO. block on the simplified multi-use drawing, a simplified multi-use drawing block shall
not be established. (If a part whose engineering has been changed is marked, a revision
record is unnecessary.)
6.1 EST. MASS block
(1) The estimated masses of each of the parts indicated in the multi-use drawing block/
simplified multi-use drawing block shall be entered in the EST. MASS block. An entry
example is shown in Fig. 15.

1.23 kg
EST. MASS PART NAME SUBSCRIPT
Fig. 15 Entry Example in EST. MASS Block

(2) Refer to MES BB 501 for details of the estimated mass entry method.

15 - d
Windows 7 Enterprise Product Key, Serial Keys, Activation Code [Working] autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 203

6.2 PART NAME block


(a) Each of the part names indicated in the multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use
drawing block shall be entered in the PART NAME block. An entry example is shown
in Fig. 16.

MEMBER−DASH LWR
PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 16 Entry Example in PART NAME Block

(b) The naming system shall conform to MES BE 760 and the website created by the CAD
Dept. to search for part names. The supplier shall consult with the responsible Mazda
engineering dept. because it does not have access to the website of the CAD Dept.
6.3 SUBSCRIPT block autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ The SUBSCRIPT block shall be filled up, in accordance with
the “Subscript for Part No.” in Table 1. An entry autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ is shown in Fig. 17, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The
numbering methods of the subscript shall conform to MES BE 750 and MES BE 752.

Z02
PART NAME SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 17 Entry Example in SUBSCRIPT Block

6.4 PART NO. block The entry method in the PART NO. block shall be as follows:
(1) The part numbers of the parts indicated on the multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use
drawing shall be entered. An entry example is shown in Fig. 18.

B01A−53350−A
SUBSCRIPT PART NO.
Fig. 18 Entry Example in PRO. PART NO. Block

(2) The coding methods of the part number shall conform to MES BE 710, MES BE 750 and
MES BE 752.
(3) In order to facilitate reading of the part number, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, “– (hyphen)” or “blank” may be used as a
separator between type, function and suffix.

16 - d
MES BA 203

6.5 Revision block The entry method in the revision block in the multi-use drawing
block/simplified multi-use drawing block, hereinafter referred to as revision block, shall be as
follows:
(1) When engineering change does not cause “ON” or “OFF” autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ An entry example is
shown in Fig. 19.

If the suffix is revised by an engineering change 4enter the revised suffix.


A If SUBSCRIPT of a prototype part is revised by the engineering change 4 ,
Zxx enter the revised SUBSCRIPT.
○ When the engineering change 4 is applied to a part, but no change is made in the
suffix or SUBSCRIPT.
When the engineering change 4 is not applied to a part.
3 4 5
Fig. 19 Entry Example in Revision Block When Part Engineering is Changed

(2) When part is “ON” or “OFF” to existing multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use


drawing (including similar cases) An entry example is shown in Fig. 20.
(Descriptions of old style)
NEW When a part is newly established and “ON”, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌
ON When a part is “OFF” from a multi-use 転入
drawing, single-use drawing or simplified
multi-use drawing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and is “ON” to another
multi-use drawing.
B/ON When a part is transferred in and its suffix 転入
becomes B. B
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 0/ON When an engineering change is made with 転改
compatibility, while autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ part is transferred
in.
Z03 When the revision is Z03, while the part is 転入
/ON transferred in. Z03
P/C When a part number is changed. 部変
RE When a part is back in and is “ON”. 復
OFF When a part is “OFF” from a multi-use 転出
drawing and is “ON” to another multi-use
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ drawing or simplified multi-use drawing, or
when the drawing is changed to a
single-use drawing.
DEL When a part is deleted by an engineering 廃止
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ change.

3 4 5 autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 3 4 5
Remark In order to include English descriptions, alphanumeric input is recommended
as shown in the left blocks of the table above.
Fig. 20 Entry Example in Revision Block When Part is “ON” and “OFF”

17 - d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ MES BA 203

(3) When the revision block is full, all the entered numbers shall be deleted, and the last
number before the deletion shall be put at the head so as to go on afterward. The number
in △ in the revision block shall be the same as one in the revision block (REV. NO.
block) in the title block. An entry example is shown in Fig, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 21.

Full

PART NO. 0 1 2 3 4 PART NO. 4 5 6


Fig. 21 Entry Example When Revision Block is Full

6.6 Simplified multi-use drawing block on vertical/horizontal multi-use drawing In


the case of a vertical/horizontal multi-use drawing, simplified multi-use drawing blocks for
each level shall be established in a vertical direction. The simplified multi-use drawing
blocks for each level shall be placed in the order of complete, assembly and only level from
the bottom. An entry example is shown in Fig. 22. The space between each level shall be
determined on the assumption that additional parts may be established in the future.

Simplified multi-use drawing block for ONLY level

Simplified multi-use drawing block for ASSY level

Simplified multi-use drawing block for COMPT level


Title block

Remarks 1. In order to avoid MIDAS input omissions by the Engineering Release


Control Gr., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the simplified multi-use drawing blocks shall, as a rule, be
placed near the title block. (Including the multi-use drawing)
2. If the simplified multi-use drawing blocks cannot be placed near the title
block due to the lack of space, annotations shall be placed near the title
block.
Example: Hello Neighbor crack serial keygen to SHT2/2 for the simplified multi-use drawing blocks.
The simplified multi-use drawing blocks are shown in the left of
the drawing.
Fig. 22 Entry Position of Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Blocks

18 - d
MES BA 203

7. Difference Block Format and Entry Method


The format and an entry example in the difference block are shown in Fig. 23.

○ ○ ○
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ ○ ○
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ ○ ○ ○
○ ○ ○
Remark

Signal lamp mounting


Engine ornament hole
Mirror mounting hole

SPSU−E−30/30

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ SPC
hole

1.0

0.8
D C B A Material Thickness
Different Points
Fig, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 23 Entry Example in Difference Block

7.1 Items to be entered in difference block


(1) All different items among parts shall be indicated, and common items shall be omitted.
(2) In the difference block, it shall be indicated with a circle(○) how each different item is
applied to each part. (Cross mark (×) shall not be used.)
(3) For the assembly parts indicated on the vertical/horizontal simplified multi-use drawing,
the structure of a different part shall be indicated in the difference block. Furthermore, it
shall also be indicated with a circle(○) which assembly part is applied to each part.
(Cross mark (×) shall not be used.)
(4) A title or a symbol that represents a different point(s) most clearly shall be given to each
different item.
(5) A remark block shall be established as part of the difference block to clearly describe the
characteristics of each part indicated on the drawing and to describe the reasons of
differences in application, function, specification, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, destination and the like of each part.

8. Development Method of Supplier Drawing for Receiving by Multi-Use Drawing/


Simplified Multi-Use Drawing
The development method of the supplier drawing for receiving shall conform to
MES BA 302.

9. Revision of Specification
The MES revision shall be made in accordance with MES Suggestion Sheet.

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 19 - d
MES BA 203

10. Applicable Standards


Refer to the latest editions for the following applicable standards:
MES BA 010 General Rules of Technical Drawing
MES BA 011 Technical Drawing Sizes and Format
MES BA 208 Development Standard of 3D-CAD Drawing Set (For GNC)
MES BA 209 ByteFence crack serial keygen Development Standard of 3D-CAD Drawing Set (For I-DEAS)
MES BA 302 Standards and Application Procedures for Received Drawing Set /
F-Drawing Set
MES BB 501 autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Establishment Standard of Parts Mass
MES BE 710 Numbering System of Utility Parts
MES BE 750 Numbering System of General Parts
MES BE 752 Numbering System of Prototype Parts
MES BE 760 Naming Method of Parts

20 - d
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 3Planetsoft Ancient Castle 3D Screensaver 1.1 crack serial keygen MES BA 203

Annex Development Method of Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing by


3D-CAD Drawings

1. Scope
This Annex specifies development methods of engineering drawings for automobile parts
using 3D-CAD multi-use drawings/simplified multi-use drawings. The items other than
those indicated in this Annex shall be in accordance with the body of this MES, MES BA 208
and MES BA 209.

2. Definitions
The autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ of principal terms used in this Annex shall conform to the body of this MES,
MES BA 208 and MES BA 209.

3. General Rules for Multi-Use Drawing/Simplified Multi-Use Drawing Development


3.1 Restrictions on multi-use drawing Shall conform to section 4.1 (Restrictions on
multi-use drawing) of this MES.
3.2 Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development
(1) When multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing is developed by I-DEAS
The multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing by I-DEAS shall be developed by
either sketch drawings or 2D detail drawings. The detail notes are provided below. For
the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 209.
(a) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by sketch
drawings
1) The concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section 5(3)(c)
(Concurrent use of geometry data) of MES BA 209.
2) The concurrent use methods of geometry-related data shall conform to section 4(3)(b)
(Geometry-related data) of Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ BA 209.
3) The sketch drawing shall be developed from Drawing Dummy Assembly or parts
model. For details, refer to 4) in section 6(1)(a) (Sketch drawing) of MES BA 209.
4) The multi-use drawing block/simplified multi-use drawing block and the difference
block shall be established on the parts model.
5) Specific notes shall be indicated on the parts model so that the different points can be
recognized at a glance. For details, refer to section 5(4)(a) 4) (Expression of
different specification) of MES BA 209.

21 - d
MES BA 203

(b) Notes on multi-use drawing development by 2D detail drawings


1) The concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ (Concurrent use of geometry data) of MES BA 209.
2) The 2D detail drawing shall be developed from Drawing Dummy Assembly or parts
model. For details, refer to 3) in section 6(1)(b) (Detail drawing) of MES BA 209.
3) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the 2D
detail drawing.
4) Specific notes shall be indicated on the 2D detail drawing so that the different points
can be recognized at a glance. For details, refer to section 4.2(1) (Clarification of
different points) of this MES.
(2) When multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing is developed by GNC
The multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing by GNC shall be developed by either
diagram description drawings or 2D detail drawings. The detail notes are provided
below. For the notes other than the following, refer to MES BA 208.
(a) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by diagram
description drawings
1) Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ concurrent use methods of geometry data shall conform to section 10(2.3) (In the
case of multi-use drawing) of MES BA 208.
2) The diagram description drawing shall be developed in accordance with section 4
(Basic Requirements of 3D-CAD Drawing Set) of MES BA 208.
3) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the
diagram description drawing.
(b) Notes on multi-use drawing/simplified multi-use drawing development by 2D detail
drawings
1) The 2D detail drawing shall be developed in accordance with section 4 (Basic
Requirements of 3D-CAD Drawing Set) of MES BA 208. All the details such as
dimensions shall be fully indicated on the drawing.
2) The multi-use drawing block and the difference block shall be established on the 2D
detail drawing.

22 - d
MES BA 203

* Questions concerning Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) may be addressed at any of the
following:

AUSTRALIA (SAA) ITALY (UNI)


autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Standards Australia Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione
PO Box 5420 Via Battistotti Sassi 11/b
Sydney NSW 2001 1-20133 Milano

AUSTRIA (ON) KOREA, Rep. of (KSA)


Osterreichisches Normungsinstitut Korean Standards Association
Heinestrasse 38 13-31, Yoido-dong, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Youngdungpo-gu
1020 Vienna Seoul 150-010

CANADA (SCC) NEW ZEALAND (SANZ)


Standards Council of Canada Standards Association of New Zealand
270 Albert Street, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Suite 200 155 The Terrace
Ottawa ON, K1P 6N7 Private Bag 2439
Wellington
FRANCE (AFNOR)
Association française de normalisation SWITZERLAND (SNV)
11, avenue Francis de Pressensé Swiss Association for Standardization
FR-93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex Bürglistr. 29
8400 Winterthur
GERMANY (DIN)
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung UNITED KINGDOM (BSI)
Burggrafenstrasse 6 British Standards Institution
D-10787 Berlin autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 389 Chiswick High Road
GB-London W4 4AL

autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ USA (ANSI)
American National Standards Institute
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor
US-New York N.Y. 10036

* Questions concerning Japanese Automobile Standards (JASO) may be addressed at the


following:

Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Inc.


10-2, Goban-cho, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 102-0076
Japan

23 - d

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Back in the AutoCAD days typically a CAD Manager would manage all the AutoCAD templates & blocks. Everything was available to all the design staff to use but they were not freely allowed to edit templates or blocks. This became a "check & balance" that made sense because it's much easier to manage a standard if there is not a "free for all" on it. If there was a "free for all" then drawing sets would not be consistent and things would run less efficient. This is why a CAD Manager typically has had things like templates and blocks locked down thus the term "CAD Nazi" became widely known.

With the switch from AutoCAD to Revit I have noticed that standards can get very messy very quick in Revit. There are several autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ this happens. A few ways I have seen this happen is copying from other projects, transferring project standards or the model was never setup properly to begin with so designers just made things up on their own. For example often times a designer doesn't even know that they copied in several viewport types, text types and line types from a few different projects when they copied a few details.

Let's take a step back and make sure we are clear on the different types of standard items in a Revit model that can impact consistency between several disciplines:

System Families - Callout Types, Dimension Styles, Text Styles, Elevation Types, Grid Types, Level Types, Section Types, Viewport Types (View Titles)

Component Families (Symbol & Tag) - Title Block, Callout Head, Section Head, Section Tail, Level Heads, Grid Heads, North Arrow, Graphic Scale, View Title, Revision Tag, View Reference, Room Tag, Space Tag, Keynote Tag

*Discipline Specific Tags (Door, Window, Duct, Beam, Panel, etc.)

Project Settings - Line Weights, Object Styles, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Project Units, Phase Settings

Most people might not know that most of these items can be made editable in the Worksets Manager. For example if the Callout Types were made editable by someone with the username "BIM Manager" when a designer goes to try to edit a callout type it will give a permissions message saying "You do not have permissions to edit this element BIM Manager has ownership of the Callout Types and will need to relinquish". Below I will go through how I have been using the Username and Worksets so users cannot edit these standard elements. This forces them to ask the BIM Manager to update a title block, symbol or project setting rather than working in a silo or going their own way.

Step One:

Change your username. Go to the Big R and Options. Change your username. I have been using something obvious so they know they need to contact me before editing the item. BIM Manager, BIM Coordinator,….BIM Nazi if you like to live dangerously. DO NOT FORGET TO CHANGE YOUR USERNAME BACK AFTER SYNCING AND CLOSING THE MODEL!

Step Two:

Open up each model and go to worksets, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. I select the following and make these editable:

Project Standards:

Families:

Callout Heads

Elevation Marks

Generic Annotation (Graphic Scales, North Arrows, etc.)

Grid Heads

Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Heads

Revision Cloud Tags

Section Marks

Title Blocks

View Titles

Views:

Any views used to coordinate the model that you do not want designers to edit

Step Three:

After I make the worksets above editable I also go into the model and "borrow" the levels and project basepoint, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. If a level gets moved or deleted it can cause major problems. Same with the base point.

Syncing and Closing Model:

When you sync the model uncheck all the boxes circled in the image below. This will sync but it will not relinquish all these elements you took ownership. When you close the model be sure to "Keep Ownership of Elements".  If you relinquish you will have to open the model and check everything out again. After repeating this 10-20 times you will get these memorized and it will only take about 2-3 minutes to go through this process autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ each model. This could save valuable time fixing problems after they happen.

DO NOT FORGET TO CHANGE YOUR USERNAME BACK AFTER SYNCING AND CLOSING THE LAST MODEL ON THE PROEJCT!


Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Lobbyist Wars and BIM Development. Part 1: How a Leningrad nuclear physicist helped Autodesk take over the global CAD market

In the 17th century, every advanced Dutch farmer wanted to get hold of a tulip, in 2017, an advanced internet user wanted to buy Bitcoin. Nowadays, every advanced construction company dreams of using 4D-7D BIM in their planning and the competitive advantages that this technology will bring them. 





BIM . BIM- - $10 - BIM . 





,  BIM .





IFC buildingSMART

BIM, 2030 ?





BIM -> -> STEP. 3D. . « » .





autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 1991. . 





" " 3D STEP ( CAD) autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌





80- AutoCAD, Autodesk, 4 2D .





Underwater Archeology with AutoCAD The Wreck of HMS Pandora 1984 Expedition

DWG 2D Autodesk - 3D DWG STEP.





STEP autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 3. STEP - Autodesk, AutoCAD, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, . Autodesk STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data) Application Protocol 225 .





Autodesk IFC STEP.





1994 IFC, STEP, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Autodesk, - .





- - IFC . IFC - .





1997. - International Alliance for Interoperability.  2005 Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ - buildingSMART.





C Revit

1997 - ,      - Charles River Software - 3 Revit.   1998 Irwin Jungreis Atlas Venture. 2000 Revit





Left Irwin Jungreis, right Leonid Raiz. Sources: cadpanacea.com

Revit BIM.





Revit VyprVPN 3.2.0 key Archives (, Archicad) « », autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, .





Program interface Revit 2000. On the right you can find many Russian surnames

REVIT -

3D- IFC Autodesk AutoCAD. Architectural Desktop - Autodesk Architecture (DWG-BIM), Civil3D, Autodesk BIM .





5 Autodesk 2002 133 . 





2002 Autodesk Revit autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 4 Autodesk 15 000 Revit . Revit . 2005 Revit ( Civil3d) 15% Autodesk, 2006 ., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, - 25%.





Annual revenue Autodesk 2005. Page 79

2007 Revit Autodesk, , $3,4autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. , Revit Autodesk. 





Revit autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Autodesk   , BIM360. 2002 Autodesk. 





Red - More than 50% of the CAD market is occupied by Revit

Conclusion

2019 (Mitchell Hughes - Forbes Councils Member): , . 777. Revit, BIM, ".





2000-? IFC, STEP, Revit . Archicad Revit. Allplan, 3D Revit, .





Google Trends since 2004. Revit vs Archicad vs Allplan

(CAD) .





autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, STEP, IFC, Revit Autodesk .






.





: Lobbyist Wars and BIM Development. Part 1: Format STEP, IFC and the creation of the REVIT program





: Lobbyistenkriege und die Entwicklung von BIM. Teil 1: Format STEP, IFC und Entstehung des Programms Revit









Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

AutoCAD 2017 arrived last year with some new commands and features. I know it’s almost a year old but many of us take time to review the software to ensure that it’s stable and has enough features to determine whether we deploy and upgrade to the company, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. A couple simple yet favorite ones of mine are the Centerline and Center Mark commands which you can add to existing geometry.

Type CENTERLINE or CENTERMARK at the command prompt or on the Ribbon – Annotate Tab – Centerline panel, select the Center Mark or Centerline as shown below, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌.  By selecting the image you will be taken to the knowledge network showing an article on these commands.

centerline_ribbon

These center lines and center marks will remain associated with the objects you selected Boss POS Retail 8.7 crack serial keygen they were created. These lines are linked together, therefore changing the position of the original geometry the centerline and center mark geometry will change to reflect the updated position. The following video shows the two objects that are associated with the Centerline. Notice when I move the outer lines the centerline retains it’s position and remains in the center of the two lines regardless of whether I move and/or stretch the associated objects.

The Center Mark command will put center marks on a circle or arc. This command creates a cross-shaped mark at the center of a selected circle or arc shown in the quick video.

These Center Marks will have properties associated to each of those as shown in the window in the upper right of the image which can be found on the properties palette. Select the Center mark and hit CTRL+1 to see the properties palette and located the geometry section. You can control the distance, size, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and display of the objects by using the properties palette as shown.

Let’s review from the image shown below with the numbers representing Rekordbox DJ 6.5.3 Crack With License Key Full [2022 Latest] geometry as shown on the properties palette in the upper right of the image.

  1. Cross Size: this will control the size of the cross
  2. Cross Gap: the gap between the cross and where the extension line begins.
  3. Left Extension: Distance from the grip on the end of the circle to the end of the line.
  4. Right Extension: Distance autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the grip on the end of the circle to the end of the line.
  5. Top Extension: Distance from the grip on the end of the circle to the end of the line.
  6. Bottom Extension: Distance from the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ on the end of the circle to the end of the line.

centerline_properties

7.  Show Extension: This determines if you just get the cross or the extension lines. You have the ability to turn on and off.  The following video shows what this switch does.

These two new commands can be very helpful when creating detail sheets for projects as well as locating and maintaining the Centerlines of objects in AutoCAD.

Prior to publishing this tip, I noticed Jaiprakash Pandey – SouceCAD had previously posted on this very topic. Please take a look at his article as well as it provides additional information on the use of these new tools in AutoCAD, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Take time to visit his website as he has a very large amount of AutoCAD tips, tricks, and training materials to help you as you work in AutoCAD. Thank you, Jaiprakash for all you do.

sc

Happy New Year Everyone!

May 2017 bring you health, happiness, and peace.

happy_new

Sam

 

 

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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Combine or subtract 2D shapes to create custom shapes

Sometimes you need to create a 2D profile that is a combination of the basic geometrical shapes autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ AutoCAD creates. While you might be able to use the PLINE command to create what you want, in some cases, 2 other methods may be easier.

Subtract shapes with the SUBTRACT command

For example, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, let’s say that you want to create this profile.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-1

Depending on the information you have about the radius of the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ and length of its inset, it might be easier for you to start with these objects:

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-2

Here is one way to get the result you want:

  1. Draw the large filleted rectangle, the 2 small rectangles and the circle.
  2. Start the REGION command.
  3. Select all 4 objects and end selection. You’ll see a message: 4  loops extracted. 4 Regions created.
  4. Start the SUBTRACT command. This command isn’t on the ribbon in the 2D Drafting & Annotation workspace, so just type the command on the Command line.
  5. At the Select solids, surfaces, and regions to subtract from . Select objects: prompt, select only the larger filleted rectangle and end selection.
  6. At the Select solids, surfaces, and regions to subtract . Select objects: prompt, select the 2 small rectangles and the circle. Then end selection.

AutoCAD subtracts the smaller regions from the larger one, leaving just the desired profile.

Combine shapes with the UNION and INTERSECT commands

You can also use the UNION command to turn the 4 regions on the left to the region on the right.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-3

Finally, you can use the INTERSECT command to find the intersection of 2 regions, as you see here.

autocad-tips-region-custom-shapes-4

Use the BOUNDARY command to create regions and polylines

The BOUNDARY command can work like the SUBTRACT command. With the BOUNDARY COMMAND, you can do the following:

  1. Draw the shapes on the left, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, below.
  2. Start the BOUNDARY command to open the Boundary Creation dialog box.
  3. If you want to also create objects from nested objects (inside the boundary of an outer object), check the island Detection checkbox.
  4. Choose Region from the Object Type drop-down list and click OK. If all you want to do is create the shape on the right, you can choose Polyline from the drop-down list, but you won’t be able to union, subtract, or intersect them.
  5. At the Pick Internal Point prompt, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, click inside the object or objects that you want to turn into polylines or regions. Press Enter to end the command.
  6. You can now use UNION, INTERSECT, or SUBTRACT the regions.

Note: The BOUNDARY command creates the new objects ON TOP OF the original objects. Move them to see the original objects.

Tip: Once you have the shape you want, you can reuse the BOUNDARY autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, choose Polyline, and create a polyline. Remember to move the new polyline from on top of the original region.

Do you use regions in 2D drawings, to combine/subtract them or for some other purpose? Leave a comment!

Ellen Finkelstein

Ellen Finkelstein

Ellen Finkelstein is the author of the best-selling AutoCAD & AutoCAD LT Bible, which started with R14. Ellen has written extensively on AutoCAD, including articles for Autodesk’s website and features for AutoCAD’s Help system. Ellen’s first book was AutoCAD For Dummies Quick Reference.

Ellen Finkelstein

Latest posts by Ellen Finkelstein (see all)

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
The Draft function is used to create angle at certain face.This function is widely used on injection moulding parts. Parts fabricated by injection moulding parts would typically require certain draft angle to facilitate the removal of the parts from the mould.

Accessing the Function

The easiest way to access the function is through the Features ribbon.

Alternatively, it could be accessed through Insert> Features> Draft.

SolidWorks draft feature
Accessing Draft feature


Draft Options


The Draftfunction is pretty straight forward as there is not many options to this feature. To create draft angle, first select the Normal Face(highlighted in pink on picture below). The Normal face is the surface perpendicular to the draft face. Next select the Surfaces to Draft (highlighted in blue on picture below).

SolidWorks draft <b>autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌</b> height=autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ up Draft feature
Results will be shown as below.
SolidWorks draft feature
After adding Draft angle
Note that during setting up the draft feature, there is small arrow pointing upward at the Normal face. This arrow indicates the 'pulling' direction, where the top face would become the smaller cross section area, and the lower face would become the bigger cross section area. Should this arrow is pointing downwards, the end result would looks like an inverted pyramid.
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Pueo o ku pages v5

2


SPRING 2018

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics

K API‘OLANI COMMUNIT Y COLLEGE Board of Student Publications


About Pueo O Kū

Submission Process

Pueo o Kū STEM journal is a biannual publication featuring the undergraduate research writing of Kapi‘olani Community College&#39;s Science, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) and Health Sciences programs. Pueo o Kū is published by the Board of Student Publication at Kapi‘olani Community College University of Hawai‘i and highlights the noteworthy student research pioneered on the Kapi‘olani Community College campus.

Students interested in submitting their work to Pueo o Kū STEM journal, were able to do so online by visiting the Board of Student Publications website and filling out the general online submission form.

Established in August of 2005, the KapCC STEM program aims to improve the quality of education in the fields of STEM through various initiatives, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, including undergraduate research projects, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, peer mentoring and summer bridge programs. This effort has initiated an increased number of KapCC students transferring to four-year degree programs and is the educational foundation preparing students for careers in STEM disciplines.

Publication

Submission Criteria All submissions for Pueo O Ku 2018 publication were autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ at KapCC during the following semesters: Spring 2016, Summer 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Summer 2017, and Fall 2017. Featuring coursework in the STEM and Health Science fields submitted by the respective student author must autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ submitted digitally as a project poster formatted in .ppt or .pptx only (File size should not exceed 8 MB). High resolution images were recommended. Students were able to submit more than one work as it applied to the submission criteria. All submitted work was peer reviewed by the formed peer review committee.

STEM Outreach Coordinator

Supervisor

Keōmailani S. Eaton

Cheri Souza

Peer Review Committee

Art Director

Katie Gipson, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, ‘Alohi Madrona, Leah McCabe, Ronnie Kauanoe &amp; Jordan Li

Allyson Villanueva

Cover Artist

KAPI‘OLANI COMMUNITY COLLEGE

Publisher Board of Student Publications

Andrew Chang ©Kapi‘olani Community College, The University of Hawai‘i is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution and is committed to a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of race, sex, age, religion, color, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ origin, ancestry, disability, marital status ,arrest and court record, sexual orientation, or status as a covered veteran.


Mahalo to you for reading this edition of Pueo O Kū STEM Journal. In this edition you will uncover the shared passion for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) research. E lawe i ke a‘o a mālama, a ‘oi mau ka na‘auao is a proverbial Hawaiian saying which simply means, He/She who takes their knowledge and applies it, increases their knowledge. The STEM student experience is a learning process by which our students apply their knowledge through research. Research allows our STEM students to employ their knowledge in a way that is meaningful, useful and relevant to themselves and their community. Through research, students engage in the process of growth; they identify their own strengths, analyze their needs and pursue the appropriate course of action. In these pages, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, you will find STEM student devil may cry 5 steam crack Archives that stretched from ma uka (mountain side) to ma kai (ocean side). Similarly, we wanted the art of this edition of Pueo O Kū to mirror the work of our students. The ma uka to ma kai theme was represented using Native Hawaiian motifs created by KapCC STEM student Andrew Chang. We hope you learn, enjoy and embrace the passion for research expressed in these pages, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Me Ke Aloha, Keōmailani S. Eaton STEM Coordinator and Native Hawaiian Outreach


Table of Contents Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES A Sublethal Study of Zinc Oxide &amp; Titainium Dioxide on Porites Sp. Planulae Settlement

06

Tina Huynh-Nguyen Faculty Advisor: Mackenzie Manning, M.S., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Mentor: Narrissa Spies

How to Get More Nutrition into Urban/Poor Communities

08

Jana Julian Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated in Vitro from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Device in Vivo

11

Jessie Mattosi Faculty Advisor: Mike Ross

Investigating Levels of Arsenic Found in Brown Rice to Determine Toxicity

13

Portia Yee, Yuree Ku, Kayla Valera, and Kristen Mikami Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Sequencing of Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites Directed Against Bacterial Pathogens

15

Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, and Alan Garcia Faculty Advisor: Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D and John Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Ph.D

Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody

17

Nghi Dam Faculty Advisor: John Berestecky, Ph.D

Protective Effects of Antioxidants in UV-Induced Apoptosis

19

Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, Matthew Tuthill, and Katherine Souza Faculty Advisors: John Berestecky, Ph.D &amp; Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D

PRE-ENGINEERING Ahupua‘a of Waikīkī &amp; the Famous Beaches Within

21

Feng-Jui Kuo Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D

Design and Fabrication of a Peristaltic Pump to Displace Viscous Liquid in Precise Increments

23

Armani Aveina, Kevin Lee, and Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland, M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai

Exploring the History Around the Centroid of My Ahupua‘a

25

David Chuang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate &amp; Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars Christopher Blake, Jeff Chen, and Jordan Li Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

27


Investigation of Shear Strength of Common and Uncommon Structural Foundations

29

Kyle Aukai, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Mercado, and Alan Tupou Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Kuapa Pond of Maunalua: A Center on Edge

31

Mikayla Carias Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Measuring &amp; Calculating the Centroid of the Waimānalo Ahupua‘a with a Physics Approach

33

Steven Washino Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Modularization of an Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle for Varying Scientific Experiments

35

Yuuma YamamotoChris Blake, and Joni Hashizume Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai

The Approximation of the Centroid of the Kalihi Apuhua‘a

37

Brendan Cha Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

The Analysis and Significance of the Centroid About the Ahupua‘a: Waikīkī

39

Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

Quantifying Magnetic Properties in Order to Assess the Viability autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ an Earth-Magnet Powered Railway

41

Mahealani Kini, Matthew Kohatsu, Cassidy Siegrist Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

PHYSICAL SCIENCES Biodiesel Production

43

Travis Sherman Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D

Creating Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ From Your Kitchen to Your Car

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Jaelynn Lopez, Mia Melamed, Sita Om, and Louisa Yang Faculty Mentor: Kathleen Ogata

Flight Time: Earth To Mars

47

Leiolani Malagon-Leon Faculty Advisor: Dr, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Herve Collins

How fo&#39; Solve one Atwood System in Pidgin

49

Jusden Keliikuli Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins

Process of Determining Curie Temperatures of Multiferroic Materials

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Aaron Pacheco Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

Temperature Gradient Monitor for the ProtoDUNE

55

Leah McCabe Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic

Waves in a Flute

57

Clare Ann Ronquillo Faculty Advisor: Jacob Tyler, M.S.

Using Parallel Processes and Numerical Methods Applied autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the Planetary Landing Problem

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Jonathan Wallen Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai

STUDENT REFLECTIONS

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A Sublethal Study of Zinc Oxide &amp; Titainium Dioxide on Porites Sp. Planulae Settlement Tina Huynh-Nguyen Mentor: Narrissa Spies, Kewalo Marine Laboratory, Honolulu, HI Faculty Advisor: Mackenzie Manning, M.S. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ D U C T I O N

M AT E R I A L S A N D M ET H O D S

Recreational beach users are mindful to use sunscreen for UV protection when visiting the reefs. However, some sunscreens contain chemicals that have been shown to be endocrine disruptors in rats and other organisms (Christiansen et al., 2012). Oxybenzone is a popular active ingredient in sunscreens and has been shown to negatively affect coral larvae as an endocrine disruptor that induces ossification of the planulae, causing the planulae to encase in its own skeleton (C. A. Downs et al., 2015). In response to the possibly harmful effects of these chemicals on both humans and coral reef ecosystems, a new market of “reef safe” products that have mineral based active ingredients has been introduced to consumers. These products contain mineral ingredients like zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) that act as a physical barrier to block out UV rays. To date, there is little research on possible effects of these active ingredients on coral reefs. This study investigated the effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide on Porites sp. coral planulae settlement.

Planulae Collection Colonies of Porites sp. were collected from Honolulu Harbor in June 2017 and held in flow through seawater tanks at Kewalo Marine Laboratory. Asexually reproduced planulae were collected on June 23rd and used for a 48 hour study from June 23rd to June 24th of 2017 Stock Solution 1.5%, 3%, 6% and 12% concentrations of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide were made with filtered sea water Six replicates of 5mL of each concentration were aliquoted into 16.8mL wells containing a small biofilm pieces to encourage settlement, and ten planulae were added to each well. Three replicates of positive (biofilm and no minerals) and negative (no biofilm and no minerals) controls each containing 5mL of filtered sea water and ten planulae were compared to treatments

L A B S T U DY R E S U LT S Lab Study • After 48 hours, an average of 28.33% of planulae settled in positive controls and 0% settled in negative controls • Statistically significant decreases (p&lt; 0.05) in planulae settlement were observed when exposed to 12% and 1.50% zinc oxide compared to positive controls • All concentrations of titanium dioxide showed significant decreases in planulae settlement compared to positive controls (Graph 1)

Figure 1. Motile Planulae in Positive Control

Figure 2. Settled planulae in 3% Zinc Oxide treatment

Figure 3. Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide 3% concentration treatments and negative controls

Figure 4. Misshaped planulae in 12% zinc oxide, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The zinc oxide can be seen as white particles

Figure 5. Misshaped planulae in 12% zinc oxide. The zinc oxide can be seen as white particles 6

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S

F U RT H E R S T U D I E S

I would like to thank Mackenzie Manning and Narrissa Spies for encouraging me to take on this research. In addition, thank you to Kewalo Marine Laboratory for providing the equipment and chemicals, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Also, thank you to Danny Zhen and Ruby for valuable assistance in the field and laboratory.

Studies shed light on the dangers of nanoparticle compounds found in the marine environment (Leung et al., 2009 and Hazeem et al., 2015). Further studies are required to understand the biological influence of these non-nano “reef safe” mineral chemicals on the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ life.

DISCUSSION

C. A. Downs, E. K.-W. (2015). Toxicopathological Effects of the Suncreens UV filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophe none-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primacy Cells and Its Envrionmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Island, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Cross Mark. Christiansen, S. K. (2012), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures: an exploratory study in rats. International Journal of Andrology. Hazeem, M. B. (2015), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Cumulative effect of zinc oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles on growth and chlorophyll a content of Picochlorum sp. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Leung, S. W. (2009). Toxicities of nano zinc oxide to five marine organisms: influences of aggregate size and ion solubility. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Richmond, H. R. (2005), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Coral Reproduction and Recruitment as tools for studying ecotoxicology of coral reef ecosystems. CRC Press.

REFERENCES The settlement of Porites sp, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. planulae in this study was affected by zinc oxide and titanium dioxide A study that assessed contaminants in aquatic ecosystems found that pollutants can interfere with the metamorphic inducement of the bacterial community on the substrata and/or with the inducer receptor of the planulae (Richmond, 2005) Titanium dioxide physically blocked the area of settlement possibly reducing the planulae’s ability to connect with the bacterial community (this pattern was not observed in the zinc oxide treatment)

R EC O V E RY A F T E R E X P O S U R E S T U DY Unsettled planulae from the first experiment were placed into wells with filtered sea water and a biofilm slide and observed for 48 hours (Figure 6) Individuals from zinc oxide treatments continued to experience effects even after removal and recovery compared to those exposed to titanium dioxide. Reverse metamorphosis was observed in one planulae from the 6% zinc oxide concentration. These “secondary planulae” from the high concentration of zinc oxide were not able to recover settle. In contrast, the titanium dioxide planulae had a low settlement rate in the first experiment so they were not in as direct contact with the chemicals and seemed to be not as affected in the recovery study.

*

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Figure 6: Planulae from Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide 3% concentration treatment with filtered sea water and positive controls

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Graph 1: Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Concentration Averages in Relation to Planulae Settlement

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How to Get More Nutrition into Urban/Poor Communities Jana Julian Faculty Advisor: Mike Ross Kapi‘olani Community College, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

PURPOSE

Despite being one of the “richest” countries in the world, 12.3% of U.S. households are considered food insecure (USDA, 2017). Being food insecure means that over 15 million households are uncertain of having or unable to obtain enough food to meet the needs of all family members due to lack of autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ and/or resources; this involves disrupted eating patterns and/or reduced food intake which may be compensated for by government assistance and community food pantries. Statistics also show that over 29 million Americans live in food deserts, which limits their accessibility to nutritious foods and increases costs for them to obtain them (USDA, 2017). While this predominantly affects minority and low-income neighborhoods, these numbers most likely do not include the homeless population or people not eligible for government assistance, such as undocumented immigrants, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ may be higher. The consequences of poor nutrition results in developing illnesses that harm the body and the mind i.e, behavioral health issues, obesity, hypertension, gout, sleep apnea etc. (Seagal et al.; NCHS) It has also been established, through government research, that there is a correlation between poverty and lack of nutrition, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Now the question is what can be done to decrease the amount of people in the U.S. suffering from food insecurity and malnutrition. A likely solution could be the introduction of microgreens into urban/poor/food desert communities.

The purpose of this study was to determine the best method of growth for microgreens. Microgreens are grown from the seeds of vegetables, herbs, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, or grains and they have a brief, species-dependent growth cycle, of 1–3 weeks from seed germination (Xiao et al., 2012). They are harvested at soil level, when cotyledons are fully expanded and the first pair of true leaves has emerged (Kyriacou et al., 2012). Microgreens were chosen because research has shown that they can have four to six times more nutrients than mature plants. Compared to matured plants, microgreens contain higher amounts of important phytonutrients and minerals (Ca, Mg, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Fe, Mn, Zn, Se, and Mo) and lower nitrates (Xiao et al., 2012; Weber, 2017 ). For this study the focus were the minerals Ca, K, Mg and Fe due to research showing that these were minerals that poorer communities are deficient in; we tested this by having samples sent to the Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center at UH Manoa. In addition to nutrition density, microgreens only need soil, water and sunlight and are best harvested within three to four weeks (though harvestable growth can be seen in just over a week) while many mature vegetables may need to grow for months before harvesting. This allows urban households to use less resources and harvest regularly giving them access to fresh, nutrient dense greens, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Being able to harvest regularly could have a positive impact on the health and nutrition of individuals in poorer communities and food deserts.

Figure 1. A mixture of microgreens.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Mathematics


M ET H O D S

R E S U LT S

1. On 11SEP17 a mixture of Burpee Brand vegetable seeds were divided into three groups. In the control batch, basic potting mix and perlite were used with no fertilizer. In the commercial batch, Miracle Gro was used as the fertilizer and in the organic batch, vermicast was used as the fertilizer, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Over a 22-day period, the growth rates of all plants were observed approximately every 3-4 days. (The plants were grown in the Kapiolani Community College (KCC) greenhouse in Honolulu, HI and were watered automatically via an in ceiling sprinkler system three times a day for four minutes.) At the end of the 22-day period, the microgreens were harvested and sent to a facility on UH Manoa to be tested. Figure 2 shows the process from planting to harvesting.

The initial experiment indicated that nutrient levels were higher in the samples of microgreens than they are in mature plants. Shown in figure 4 are the amounts in mg/g of the microgreens from the study and USDA measurements of the mature vegetables. In the study, the microgreens were a mixture of Basil, Beets, Red Cabbage, Carrots, Collards, Spinach and Swiss Chard. Iron appeared to have higher concentrations than the mature plants versions of the plants used in the microgreens mixture.

11SEP17

19SEP17

22SEP17

25SEP17

25SEP17

02OCT17

Level of Nutrients in Microgreens vs Mature Plants in mg/g

Figure 2.

2. On 6OCT17 the initial experiment was repeated in an urban environment using individual mason jars for each batch (figure 3); we didn’t have access to vermicast so we used chicken manure as the organic fertilizer. This time the focus included the effects of red light and natural light on growth patterns. Research has shown that red light improves the nutritional quality of microgreens, causes stem elongation, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, increased fresh weight and decreased leaf area, but this varied between species (Brazaityte, 2016). There were two batches of control, commercial and organic. Each batch was sealed in a autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ jar to try and recreate a greenhouse effect for each plant.

Figure 3.

20NOV17 Figure 4. The autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ after the study was competed. While the Miracle Gro batch is still growing, the Organic and Control batch no longer have sprouts and have not grown further. It was speculated a few weeks prior that these two batches were eaten by insects and/or rodent. It is possible they may have found these plants to be more nutritious or better testing than the commercial batch.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H In order to conduct research more effectively in the future, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, it would be best to utilize one type of edible plant, that also grows quickly, such as spinach, to allow for time to repeat the experiment, measure more accurately and make adjustments. It would also be best to complete the entire experiment in an urban environment in order to better showcase how well the method would work for the purpose of this study. B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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L I T E R AT U R E R EV I EW 1. Andrejiova, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Alena, et al. “Content of Selected Bioac tive Substances In Dependence On Lighting In Microgreens.” Acta Hortivulturae Et Regiotecturaepp. 6–10., www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/ahr.2017.20. issue-1/ahr-2017-0002/ahr-2017-0002.pdf. 2. Barclay, Eliza. “Introducing Microgreens: Younger, And Maybe More Nutritious, Vegetables.” NPR, NPR, 30 Aug. 2012, www.npr.org/sections/ thesalt/2012/08/29/160274163/introducing-micro greens-younger-and-maybe-more-nutritiousvegetables. 3. Bliss, Rosalie Marion. “USDA ARS Online Magazine Vol. 62, No. 1.” AgResearch Mag, Jan. 2014, agresearch mag.ars.usda.gov/2014/jan/greens/. 4. Brazaitytė, A., Vir¿ilė, A., Samuolienė, G., Jankauskienė, J., Sakalauskienė, S., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Sirtautas, R., Novičkovas, A., Daba¿inskas, L., Va¿takaitė, V., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Miliauskienė, J. and Duchovskis, P. (2016), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Light quality: growth and nutritional value of microgreens under indoor and greenhouse conditions. Acta Hortic. 1134, 277284DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.37https:// doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1134.37 5. Brazaityte, A., Sakalauskiene, S., Virsile, A., Jankauskiene, J., Samuoliene, G., Sirtautas, R., Vastakaite, V., Miliauskiene, J., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Duchovskis, P., Novickovas, A. and Dabasinskas, L. (2016). The effect of short-term red lighting on Brassicaceae microgreens grown indoors. Acta Hortic. 1123, 177184DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1123.25https:// doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1123.25 6. Brazaityte, Ausra, et al. “The Effects of LED Illumination Spectra and Intensity on Carotenoid Content in Brassicaceae Microgreens.” Food Chemistry, Elsevier, 22 Oct. Backuptrans 3.2.45 serial key Archives, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0308814614016392?via%3Dihub.

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7. Kyriacou, Marios C., et al, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. “Microgreens as a Com ponent of Space Life Support Systems: A Cornucopia of Functional Food.” Frontiers, Frontiers, 29 Aug. 2017, journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/ fpls.2017.01587/full. 8. Lockney, Dan. “LED Systems Target Plant Growth.” NASA, NASA, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 2010, spinoff.nasa.gov/ Spinoff2010/cg_1.html. 9. Salzman, Nikki. “Using SNAP Benefits to Grow Your Own Food.” USDA, 6 June 2011, www.usda.gov/media/ blog/2011/07/6/using-snap-benefits-grow-your-ownfood. 10. Seagal, Laura M, et al. “Food Insecure Children.” Food Insecure Children - The State of Obesity, stateofobesity. org/food-insecurity/. 11. “Toolkit for SNAP Participants.” SNAP Gardens, www.snapgardens.org/snap-participant/. 12. USDA. “Key Statistics &amp; Graphics.” USDA ERS - Key Statistics &amp; Graphics, 4 Oct. 2017, www.ers.usda.gov/ topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-theus/key-statistics-graphics/. 13. USDA. “Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).” Food and Nutrition Service, 17 Nov. 2017, www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligible-food-items, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 14. Weber, Carolyn F. “Broccoli Microgreens: A Miner al-Rich Crop That Can Diversify Food Systems.” Fron tiers, Frontiers, 7 Mar. 2017, journal.frontiersin. org/article/10.3389/fnut.2017.00007/full. 15. Xiao, Zhenlei, et al. “Assessment of Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations of Emerging Food Products: Edible Microgreens.” ACS Publications, 18 July 2012, pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ jf300459b?tokenDomain=presspac&amp;tokenAccess= presspac&amp;forwardService=showFullText&amp;journal Code=jafcau&amp.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated in Vitro from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Device in Vivo Jessie Mattos Faculty Advisor: John Berestecy, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N Type I Diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the United States alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. Standard treatment of exogenous insulin is life-saving; however, extreme fluctuations autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ blood glucose levels are detrimental to the individual’s health. This leaves the type I diabetic vulnerable to complications including vascular and kidney disease, blindness, lower limb amputation, and death. This experiment describes the protocol for the production of insulin-secreting cells in vitro from the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. These cells can be loaded into a protective device that can then be implanted under the skin. The device is designed to protect the cells from immune rejection by the implant recipient. The implant is vascularized and engrafted via recipient blood vessels and surrounding tissue and can respond to glucose by secreting insulin thereby replacing the Beta-islet cells that are lost in patients with T1D.

DATA / R E S U LT S Resulting populations were analyzed by flow cytometry, RNA analysis, and immunofluorescence, and with proinsulin and C-peptide content.

P ROTO C O L O P T I M I Z AT I O N Modification of PEC-01 (pancreatic endoderm cell) protocol was achieved by the additional treatment of activin A, Wnt3A, heregulin Beta1 at stage 3 (days 5-7) and with activin A and heregulin Beta1 at stage 4 (days autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Stage 5 (days 13-15) was designed to maximize NGN3 induction. Stages 6 and 7 were designed for optimal expression of insulin and mature Beta-cell genes from the pancreatic progenitor cells.

Figure 1-i depicts digital RNA analysis for pancreatic gene expression during PEC-01 and IC protocols. RNA levels are shown for PP markers (PDX1, PTF1A*, NKX6.1, &amp; SOX9) (iA) and endocrine markers (CHGA, INS, GCG, &amp; SST) (iB) RNA levels of NGN3 over days 5-13 (stages 3 &amp; 4) (iC) NGN3 expression during stage 5 (days 13-15) &amp; into stage 6 (day 18) of IC protocol alone with treatment of gamma-secretase inhibitor (causes upregulation of NGN3 expression in cells).

B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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DATA / R E S U LT S C O N T.

Figure 1-ii. depicts digital RNA analysis of IC aggregates at stage 7 (of experiments 2 &amp; 3 out of 49) of differentiation comparing pancreatic gene expression in native ICs, ICs that have been cryopreserved/thawed, and reaggregated ICs in autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ with purified human islet cells.

C O N C LU S I O N S The development of an in vitro autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ protocol that produces pancreatic endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells were successfully achieved in this experiment. This new set of protocols optimized a previous 4-stage protocol by the modification of end stage (stages 3 and 4) differentiation of pancreatic endoderm cells (PECs) resulting in the net increase of autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ progenitor cells. These PPCs were then further differentiated (stages 5-7 of modified protocol) to become glucose-responsive beta islet-like cells (ICs) in vitro. The ability to form functional grafts that are protected from cell-cell interactions with the immune system is a critical aspect of potential allogeneic cell therapy for autoimmune disorders like T1D.

L I T E R AT U R E C I T E D

Figure 2-i. (left): depicts proinsulin processing by stage 7 IC aggregates and human islet cells. (A): ELISA for C-peptide content normalized to DNA content. (B): Percentage of proinsulin processed, calculated using the ratio of C-peptide to C-peptide plus proinsulin. Figure 2-ii. (right): depicts human C-peptide levels of sera in mice (via ELISA) implanted with Encaptra device (loaded with indicated cell aggregates) at indicated post engraftment times.

Agulnick, A. D., Ambruzs, D. M., Moorman, M. A., Bhou mik, A., Cesario, R. M., Payne, J. K., Damour, K. A. (2015). Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine,4(10), 1214-1222. doi:10.5966/sctm.2015-0079 Kroon, E., Martinson, L., Kadoya, K., Bang, A., Kelly, O., Eliazer, S., Young, H., Richardson, M., Smart, N., Cunningham, J., Agulnick, A., D&#39;Amour, K., Carpenter, M. and Baetge, E. (2008). Pancreatic endoderm derived from human embryonic stem cells generates glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells in vivo. Nature Biotechnology, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 26(4), pp.443-452. Baetge, E. (2008). Production of -cells from human embryonic stem cells. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 10, pp.186-194.

Figure 3 (left). Immunostaining of IC grafts in Encaptra devices at 22 weeks after implantation. (A): Immunofluorescence for co-localization of INS, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, NKX6.1, and PDX1 in grafts of native ICs and (B): re-aggregated ICs, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. (C): Immunofluorescence for INS, GCG, and SST in graphs of native ICs and (D): re-aggregated ICs.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Investigating Levels of Arsenic Found in Brown Rice to Determine Toxicity Portia Yee, Yuree Ku, Kayla Valera, and Kristen Mikami Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapiâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2DC;olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Before it was discovered as a toxic substance, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ was used for medicinal purposes. Research has shown that substances that are used daily, such as rice, have been found to contain traces of arsenic. Our research will investigate the presence of arsenic in brown rice. If there is arsenic present our next goal is to find a way to reduce it to a safe, consumable level.

The test strips tested negative for arsenic. We then sent samples of cooked brown rice to the Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center (ADSC) at the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources with ratios of 2:1 and 6:1 water to rice. The sample with a 6:1 ratio came back with 0.0002ug/g of arsenic, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The sample with a 2:1 ratio came back with 0.0003ug/g of arsenic.

Figure 1. Rice diagram showing location of arsenic

M ET H O D S Our first experiment was done through a test that incorporated the Gutzeit method. This method uses reagents, such as zinc, mixed with a brown rice milk sample to create arsine gas. The arsine gas converts mercuric bromide to mixed mercury halogens and causes the test strip to change color if tested positive.

Figure 3. Samples of arsenic mixture sent to the ASDC

Figure 4. Ground rice and water mixture with test kit

C O N C LU S I O N The rice that was cooked with a ratio of 6:1 water to rice has 33% less arsenic than the rice that was cooked with a ratio of 2:1. This means that if rice is cooked with more water, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the end product will contain less arsenic. Although the amount of arsenic is low, this could be useful for countries with rice that contains a higher level of arsenic.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H Figure 2. Rice milk (left), test strip and indicator (middle)

Our next step will be to engineer a device that will aid in removing arsenic from rice during the cooking process. B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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REFERENCES Antonio J. Signes-Pastor, Manus Carey, Andrew A. Me harg, Inorganic arsenic removal in rice bran by per colating cooking water, Food Chemistry, Volume 234, 2017, Pages 76-80, ISSN 0308-8146, http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.140. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0308814617307203) Keywords: Inorganic arsenic; Rice bran; Cooking water; Nutrient elements; Rice bran composition M. Azizur Rahman, H. Hasegawa, High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contami nated water is used for irrigation and cooking, Science of The Total Environment, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Volume 409, Issue 22, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 2011, Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 4645-4655, ISSN 0048-9697, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.068. (http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0048969711008400) Keywords: Arsenic; Rice; Dietary intake; Inorganic arsenic

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Petru Jitaru, Sandrine Millour, Marco Roman, Kaoutar El Koulali, Laurent No√´l, Thierry Gu√©rin, Exposure assessment of arsenic speciation in different rice types depending on the cooking mode, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 54, 2016, Pages 37-47, ISSN 0889-1575, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2016.09.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0889157516301570) Keywords: Food analysis; Food composition; Food safety; Risk evaluation of rice in France; Total and inorganic arsenic; DMA; Specia tion analysis; HPLC; ICP-MS Scavone, William. “Arsenic Leaching into Rice Process.” Arsenic in Rice, Kestrel Studio, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 9 Sept. 2013,www. kestrelstudio.com/portfolio/medical-illustration/edito rial-and-patient-education/arsenic-rice.php.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Thank you to Dr. Aaron Hanai, Kristen Mikami, Professor Marci Amii, Dr. Kathleen Ogata, and Li-Anne Delavega.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Sequencing of Monoclonal Antibody Binding Sites Directed Against Bacterial Pathogens Nghi Dam, Jovikka Antallan, Brien Haun, and Alan Garcia Faculty Advisor: Matthew Tuthill, Ph.D and John Berestecky, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is a widely used method in biomedical research. These antigen binding reagents are used to treat maladies ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. The Kapi’olani Community College Monoclonal Antibody Service Facility and Training Center (MASFTC) has developed a number of hybridoma cell lines producing mAbs against a variety of bacterial pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni, Burkholdaria pseudomallei and Xanthomonas campestris. Despite their versatility, the problems associated with hybridoma technology include high production costs, poor reproducibility, and an overall lack of standardization. At the MASFTC, work has begun to remedy these challenges through sequencing mAb variable domains (Fv) with the intent of offering UH researchers recombinant mAbs, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv), at a lower cost and with higher reliability. A major challenge in isolating antibody Fv genes stems from the surprisingly high expression of myeloma

fusion partner (P3) antibody genes. These pseudogenes serve as a barrier in isolating functional Fv sequences. In this study, various methods have been used to eliminate the nonfunctional P3 pseudogenes and successfully isolate functional genes, thereby allowing characterization and validation before

M ET H O D O LO G Y Total RNA was extracted from a MASFTC hybridoma cell line that produced antibodies against a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen protein antigen. Select mRNA was then converted into cDNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with Superscript III (Invitrogen). Amplification of cDNA using Fv primer pools [1] was performed and confirmed by gel electrophoresis. The functional genes were isolated through a targeted PCR technique [2], thereby depleting nonfunctional genes. Amplified products were cloned and plasmids with potential functional genes were purified and sequenced. ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for detecting and quantifying monoclonal antibody binding to the antigen

RN A Extraction Total RNA was extracted from mouse hybridoma B-cells by Trizol reagent

RT -PCR Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction converted mRNA into cDNA

Heavy Chain

PCR Amplification of V-genes with antibody primers

PCR

DIGEST

Isolation of functional V-genes by depletion method

Figure 1. Antibody structure. The antigen binding fragment (Fab) contains heavy and light chains with constant and variable domains. The variable fragment (Fv) has framework regions (FRs) and complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The CDRs are the point of contact allowing the antibody to bind to a target antigen.

Light Chain

Afl III Restriction enzyme

CLON E blue–white screening

SEQUEN CE

Figure 2. Methodology Flow Chart for the detection, isolation and validation of the functional V-genes.

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C O N C LU S I O N S

Figure 3. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay results indicate that the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the pathogenic bacterial antigen for the hybridoma colony of interest (C.O.I.) compared to species 2 and Escherichia coli (both are negative controls). Isolated Elimination of functional Negative V-genes pseudogenes V-genes control

2-log

500 bp

100 bp

Figure 4. Gel electrophoresis of PCR products that targeted and eliminated P3 genes for functional Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ isolation. 500 bp

2-log

In an attempt to isolate the functional mAb variable genes, there have been challenges in eliminating the P3 pseudogenes due to their high expression levels, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Despite current VL chain challenges, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, various methods have been successfully Advanced Installer Architect 17.6 Crack Archives to amplify the VH functional genes and suppress or eliminate the P3 pseudogene background. Thus, successful sequencing of functional VH mAb variable gene regions was achieved. Recently, a technique using the enzyme Afl III was developed and will be implemented for VL chain sequencing in the near future.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S We thank Colleen Allen for her laboratory and administrative support. Thank you KARM and everyone in the lab. This project was supported by grants from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, award number: P20GM 103466. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

PP2 PP2 Negative PP1 PP1 Digested PP2 Digested PP3 Digested control

REFERENCES

100 bp

Figure 5, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Gel electrophoresis of eliminated P3 genes by restriction enzyme digestion for functional V-gene isolation. CAGATCCAGTTGGTGCAGTCTGGAGCTGAACTGGTAAGGCCT GGGACTTCAGTGGAGGTGTCCTGCAAGGCTTCT GGATACACT TTCACTGATTACTTG ATAGAGTGGATAAAACAGGGGCCTGG ACAGGGCCTTGAGTGGATTGGAGTG ATTAATCCTGGAATTG GTGGTGCT CATTATAATGAGAAGTTCAAGGGCAAGGCAACA CTGACTGCAGACACATCTTCCAGCACTGCCTACATGCAGCTCA GCAGCCTGACATCTGATGACTCTGCGGTCTATTTCTGT GCAA GACACTATAGGTACGGATATTACTATGCTATGGACTAC TG GGGTCAAGGAACTTCAGTCACCGTCTCC CDR1

CDR2

1. Essono, S., et al., A general method allowing the design of oligonucleotide primers to amplify the variable regions from immunoglobulin cDNA. J Immunol Methods, 2003. 279(1-2): p. 251-66, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 2. Yuan, Xin, Michael J. Gubbins, and Jody D. Berry. &quot;A Simple and Rapid Protocol autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the Sequence Deter mination of Functional Kappa Light Chain CDNAs from Aberrant-chain-positive Murine Hybridomas.&quot; Journal of Immunological Methods 294.1-2 (2004): 199-207.

CDR3

QIQLVQSGAELVRPGTSVEVSCKASGYTFTDYLIEWIKQGPGQG LEWIGVINPGIGGAHYNEKFKGKATLTADTSSSTAYMQLSSLTS DDSAVYFCARHYRYGYYYAMDYWGQGTSVTVS

Figure 6, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Functional Antibody Variable Heavy Chain cDNA Sequence. CDR1

CDR2 CDR1

CDR3 CDR2 CDR3 SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

Figure 7. Translated sequence and predicted configuration of the functional antibody variable heavy chain (SAbPred structural antibody prediction software). CDRs indicate antigen contact points. 16

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody Nghi Dam Faculty Advisor: John Berestecky, Ph.D and Matthew Tuthill, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D O LO G Y

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus cause microcephaly in fetuses and neurological disease. Flavivirus envelop (E) protein is responsible for virus entry and represents a major target for neutralizing antibodies. Dai et al. report structures of ZIKV envelop (E) protein and its complex with a flavivirus broadly protective antibody 2A10G6, which reveals antibody recognition of a highly conserved fusion loop. The flavivirus broadly protective murine antibody 2A10G6 has previously been shown to exhibit in vitro neutralization activity against dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus, which also binds to ZIKV-E with high affinity and neutralizes currently circulating ZIKV strains in vitro and in mice.

• • • • • • •

Protein Preparation, Expression and Purification of ZIKV-E protein The hybridoma producing mAb 2A10G6 (IgG1) for functional analysis Analytical Gel Filtration and Purification of Fab/E Complex Neutralization Assay (using plaque reduction assay) Animal Protection Experiment Crystallization, Data Collection and Structure Determination Surface Plasmon Resonance Assay

R E S U LT S 2A10G6 binds to the tip of ZIKV-E protein domain II at a perpendicular angle, embedding the fusion loop of ZIKV-E with a high binding affinity and neutralizes the ZIKV infection in vitro. Significantly, 2A10G6 completely protects mice against the circulating ZIKV strain in vivo, indicating a therapeutic potential.

Figure 1. Graphical Abstract

Figure 2. Overall Structure of the ZIKV-E Protein. Its crystal structure resembles all the known flavivirus E structure which have 3 distinct domains: a central -barrel-shaped domain I, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, an elongated finger-like domain II and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain III.

Figure 3. Binding of ZIKV-E to a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody 2A10G6.

Figure 4. Complex Structure of 2A10G6 Fab Bound to ZIKV-E

B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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R E S U LT S C O N T. The antibody exhibited neutralizing activity, with a 50% plaque reduction titer of 249ug/mL. The fusion loop of ZIKV-E deeply inserts into a hole formed by both the heavy chain and light chain of 2A10G6, while the bc loop contacts only the heavy chain.

C O N C LU S I O N The researchers have shown 2A10G6 to be able to neutralize and provide protection against ZIKV via recognition of the ZIKV-E protein fusion loop autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. As autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ have previously shown 2A10G6 to be able to efficiently neutralize many other flaviviruses, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, which exhibit this highly conserved fusion loop, it is likely that the binding modes of 2A10G6 are the same as that of ZIKV in these flaviviruses. This antibody, especially after being humanized, may represent an auspicious therapeutic for the treatment of flavivirus infection.

REFERENCES

Figure 5, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Neutralization Activity and Protection of 2A10G6 against ZIKV

Figure 6. Analysis of the Detailed Interaction between the 2A10G6 and ZIKV-E

“Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody.” Lianpan Dai,Jian Song,Xishan Lu,Yong-Qiang Deng,Abednego Moki Musyoki,Huijun Cheng,Yanfang Zhang,Yuan Yuan,Hao Song,Joel Haywood,Haixia Xiao,Jinghua Yan,Yi Shi,Cheng-Feng Qin,Jianxun Qi,George F. Gao Cell Host &amp; Microbe, 2 May 2016, pp. 696–704.

Figure 7. Comparison with Other Fusion Loop-Targeting Neutralizing Antibodies

18

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Protective Effects of Antioxidants in UV-Induced Apoptosis Katherine Souza Faculty Advisors: John Berestecky, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N What are commonly known as “sunburn cells” are actually a type of epithelial cell called keratinocytes undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is one the two pathways of cell death, the other being necrosis. Necrosis is a passive event where severe trauma causes groups of cells to burst, spilling their contents and generally making a big mess inducing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis, by contrast, is an active cell mechanism of controlled cell destruction and disposal. Some of the morphological features of apoptosis include: cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and genomic DNA fragmentation. Apoptotic cells are eventually broken up into membrane enclosed fragments that are usually phagocytosed by neighboring cells. Apoptosis is a deliberate mechanism employed by the cell when there is too much DNA damage to be fixed, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. When apoptosis fails, damaged DNA can continue to replicate, creating a risk for cancer.

Figure 1. HaCaT cells exposed to UVB and observed at SEM (A,B), TEM (C) and CLSM (D). Apoptotic features, as well as a diffuse positivity to TUNEL reaction, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, appear. Autophagic vacuoles occasionally appear at TEM observation (C, inset). Scale bars: A,B) 10 µm; C and inset) 1 µm; D) 5 µm; E) 25 µm.

One of the reasons UV radiation affects cells is because DNA absorbs UVB wavelengths, causing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts, which are extremely mutagenic. Other UVB radiation effects include erythema, immunosuppression, edema, and increasing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn do more damage to the DNA as well as to lipids and proteins. This study wanted to take chemicals with known ROS scavenger properties and test to see if they would reduce the apoptosis in UVB irradiated cells. 6 molecules are being tested for their effects on apoptosis in the HeCaT cell line, which is a spontaneously transformed immortal keratinocyte cell line developed from human skin. These molecules are being compared to 3 controls: 1 in which the cells are treated with molecules and no UVB radiation, 1 in which untreated cells are subjected to UVB radiation, and 1 in which HaCaT cells are untreated and not irradiated. The 6 molecules being tested are: Melatonin (Mel), Creatine (Cr), Hydroxytyrosol (HyT), Tyrosol (TyR), Hydroxytyrosol Laurate (Laur-HyT) and Hydroxytyrosol Myristate (Myr-HyT). Mel is a pineal hormone endongenous to tissues. Cr is an essential energy precursor that is sometimes insufficiently made by the body and can be supplemented by food intake. HyT is a phenylethanoid found in olive leaves and olive oil. TyR is another phenylethanoid found in olive oil and argon oil and wine. Both HyT and TyR are well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but have limited solubility in lipid media. Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT are synthetic hydroxytyrosyl esters that are both more soluble in lipid media and better able to penetrate human corneum stratum and viable epidermis membranes.

B I O LO G I C A L S C I E N C E S

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M ET H O D S A N D R E S U LT S HaCaT cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, 2mM glutamine, and 1% antibiotics. They were maintained at 37 C in humidified air with 5% C02. Apoptosis was induced after cells were cultured to 80% confluence by exposure to UVB lamp (range 290-320nm) for 10 minutes, then the cells were incubated for 2 hours. Different aliquots of the HaCaT cells were treated for 24 hours with the 6 different antioxidant molecules prior to UVB treatment (except one set that was not UVB treated as a control). For all treatments, morphology and functional analysis were performed after the 2 hour incubation post UVB radiation. Morphology and functional analysis were tested in the following ways: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TUNEL, Trypan Blue (TB) exclusion assay, and Western blotting. With SEM and TEM different morphological features can be compared. TUNEL is a staining method for detecting DNA fragmentation generated during apoptosis. TB exclusion assay give a quantitative value to apoptosis protection. Western blotting tested for the presence of caspases and PARP, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, enzymes that are up-regulated during apoptosis. Cells treated with Mel, Cr, HyT, TyR, Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT alone appeared very similar to control (non irradiated) HaCaT cells, which indicates that the individual compounds did not affect cell viability and/or proliferation. HaCaT control cells exposed to UVB radiation showed changes in monolayer organization, decrease in cell confluence and attachment, cell blebbing, chromatin condensation, proliferation of autophagic vacuoles, and TUNEL positive, fluorescent nuclei. All cells treated with the 6 antioxidant compounds showed significant decrease in apoptotic patterns. TUNEL positive nuclei underwent an evident numerical decrease, preservation of cell morphology could be observed, and intracellular junction could be seen. Antioxidant protection was confirmed and quantified by the TB assay. In particular, the olive oil polyphenols HyT and TyR were exceptional in counteracting death induced by UVB radiation.

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TB assay (A): percentage analysis of viable cells for each treatment. All pre-treatments reduced dead cell number in a significant way. Densitometric analysis of cleaved caspases-8, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, -9, -3 (B, C, D) and PARP(E) western blotting bands. Histograms evidenced no activation in untreated autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ (ctrl). Caspases and PARP activation could be observed after UVB exposure while it was reduced by the different pre-treatments. Data were expressed as ratio between mean optical density (OD) of cleaved caspase band and mean OD of actin band (protein control), in arbitrary units.

DISCUSSION This work demonstrates that massive DNA damage can WinZip Driver Updater 5.36.2.24 Features Key: inhibited by antioxidant administration. Moreover, these compounds had the capacity to prevent caspase activation, which was upregulated after UVB treatment alone. HyT and TyR are natural dietary polyphenols whose role in preventing UVB apoptotic cell death has been greatly enhanced. HyT derivatives with acyl side groups (Laur-HyT and Myr-HyT) less efficient to protect keratinocytes compared to HyT, but they still significantly counteracted cell death and are able to penetrate the outer layer of human epidermis more effectively. In conclusion, there is a need for safe and effective skin protection against UVB-induced oxidative cell damage. These compounds are able to reduce that in vitro, and further research could lead to applications to prevent skin cancer in vivo.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Kulms, D. and Schwarz, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, T. (2000), Molecular mechanisms of UV-induced apoptosis. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology &amp; Photomedicine, 16: 195–201. doi:10.1034/ j.1600-0781.2000.160501.x; Eur J Histochem. 2017 Sep 18;61(3):2784. doi: 10.4081/ejh.2017.2784.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Ahupua‘a of Waikīkī &amp; the Famous Beaches Within Feng-Jui Kuo Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, HI

B AC KG RO U N D

A N A LY S I S

In ancient Hawaii, land belonged to god, not to people. The islands are called mokupuni, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. For this project, research will be on the island of O‘ahu. O‘ahu is autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ into 6 moku: Ewa, Wai‘anae, Waialua, Kona, Ko‘olau Loa, and Ko‘olaupoko. Each Moku is further divided into ahupua‘a. The Moku (district) called Kona is currently the central location for O‘ahu Tourism. Within Kona, I live in the ahupua‘a (sub-district) called Waikīkī, the main tourist attraction for the beach and shops. The reason for this project is to find the geographic centroid of the Waikīkī ahupua‘a.

The ahupua‘a is gridded, and the area is broken down into known centroid shapes to help find the center, using the method of composite shapes. There is calculation error because of not being able to include every boundary of the map.

Figure 1. Waikīkī ahupua‘a into grid and shapes

FA M O U S B E AC H E S Waikīkī in Hawaiian means “spouting waters”. Waikīkī is famously known for its beaches: Queen‘s, Kūhiō, Wall‘s, Fort Derussy, Kaimana, and Kahanamoku beaches.

Figure 2. All of Waikīkī including the beach, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ into shapes

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FORMULAS Each shape is individually calculated, multiplied by the area, added together, then divided by the total area.

R E S U LT S For Kona‘s ahupua‘a Waikīkī, the land was broken down into a grid, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, then into multiple shapes, with each square representing approximately 0.5 miles. Each shape was individually calculated, and the centroid of the compound area was computed. Similarly, Waikīkī itself is also broken down into several shapes, not including Kapi‘olani Park.

C O N C LU S I O N Finding the centroid of land is very important as it helps to create maps for geographers, and guides for destinations.

REFERENCES http://www.ahamoku.org/index.php/maps/ http://www.avakonohiki.org/o699ahu.html

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Design and Fabrication of a Peristaltic Pump to Displace Viscous Liquid in Precise Increments Armani Aveina, Kevin Lee, and Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland, M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapiâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2DC;olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

F R A M EWO R K

The task for this project was to create a pump that could transfer a viscous liquid from one container to another. To add to the complexity, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the pump is also tasked to dispense in specific measurements accurately. The pump from which we based our model is a peristaltic pump. It uses compression to â&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x153;pressâ&amp;#x20AC;? the liquid through a tube which prevents the liquid from getting contaminated.

We first modeled the frame after the DC motorized pump. After observing the mechanics and output, we began to modify the design to best fit the parameters set for the project. The design change consisted autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ a larger motor that supplied a larger holding torque of 56 oz-in and larger housing for the tubing and rotor. After running a few tests, we encountered problems with maintaining compression throughout the rotation. We are still in the process of testing the compression.

Figure 1. Diagram of Peristaltic Pump

Figure 2. DC Peristaltic Pump Figure 6, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. 3-D printed assembly (press-fit based)

Figure 7. 3-D printed assembly(rotor based)

M ET H O D S For controls and programming, we went with an Arduino Uno microcontroller using the software provided by Arduino. As for the framework of the pump, solidworks and makerbot were used to design and assemble our peristaltic pump.

Figure 3. Solidworks representation

Figure 4. Breadboard w/motor driver

Figure 5. Arduino Uno

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C O D I N G / P RO G R A M M I N G

C O N C LU S I O N

Coding and programming was focused on getting the motor and LCD screen to work. We were able to code the motor shield to accurately power the motor. The LCD screen is in progress and we are trying synce it up to the volume desired with the power output from the motor. After running a few tests we believe that the motor doesnâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2122;t have the required torque to displace the liquid.

In terms of progress, we have made great leaps and are on track in fabricating a working prototype. Despite the project being a work in progress, we were able to learn skills that are outside the expected class outcomes.

Figure 9: Full Prototype Assembly

F Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ T U R E WO R K We are currently waiting for a stronger motor and motor driver to improve the compression. The motor will have 125 oz-in holding torque while the driver will have a larger amp rating. As for expansions to improve the design and functionality of the device, we could increase the output of liquid by increasing the amount of tubing in turn making the rotor longer in length.

REFERENCES Velodyne.The Basics of a Peristaltic Pump. Retrieved from http://velodynesystems.com/blog/2016/05/18/the-ba sics-of-a-peristaltic-pump/

AC K N OW Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ E D G M E N T S

Figure 8: Prototype Arduino Code

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We would like to thank Ms. Colleen Allen for her advice and financial support, as well as our professors Dr. Aaron Hanai &amp; Justin Carland for their guidance throughout our project.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Exploring the History Around the Centroid of My Ahupua‘a David Chuang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Historically, Hawai‘i was not only broken up by nature into an island chain, but also by the Native Hawaiians into different, resource-based districts that seamlessly contributed to one another. The whole island (mokupuni) was divided in smaller parts (moku), and each moku was then divided into smaller districts (ahupua‘a), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. This poster focuses on the centroid of the ahupua‘a of Pālolo.

I created a grid map of my ahupua‘a. The purpose of this map is to help calculate the centroid of the area. The black line marks the outline of my ahupua‘a. The white rectangle are what I will be using to find the centroid. The black indicates the coordinates for my map. Each block’s length and height has a distance of 0.5 kilometers, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. I can find the centroid of each shape, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and then add all of the centroids and divide by the total area to find the centroid of the entire compound shape.

PURPOSE The purpose autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ this project is to calculate and find the centroid of my ahupua‘a and to research any historically significant stories, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, songs, and particular locations around the centroid. I live in the division Kona and my ahupua‘a is Pālolo. I was raised in Liliha but now I live in Pālolo Valley so Pālolo is my current ahupua‘a.

R E S U LT S X bar is approximately around 7.902 Y bar is autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ around 7.902 Centroid is (7.902,7.902)

H I S TO RY O F PĀ LO LO A long time ago in Pālolo valley, there were two sisters. Their names were Awapuhi Melele and Awapuhi Ke‘oke‘o. Coincidentally, they both had feelings for the same kāne, jealous and angry,one turned the other into a stone in the Pālolo stream. The stone is near the middle of the stream and resembles the seated torso of a woman.

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FORMULAS

L I M I TAT I O N S The method that I used to calculate the centroid just provided a rough estimate of where it is. The mass of the area is not taken into account, and we may also assume that the area is flat. Due to these partial limitations on specifics, I was rendered with only a rough estimate on the location of Pālolo Valley’s centroid. To get a better approximation of the centroid, I would simply increase the number of shapes in the computation.

REFERENCES Hawaiian Legends Index. (n.d.). Retrieved Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 20, 2017, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, from http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hawaiiancollec tion/legends/subjectsearch.php?q=Palolo Valley Hui, K. (2014, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, December 16). Mo&#39;olelo of Palolo. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://prezi.com/ejp4iiim w9kt/moolelo-of-palolo U. (n.d.). Maps Kona. Retrieved November 22, 2017, from http://www.avakonohiki.org/maps-kona.html

AC K N OW L E D G M E Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ T S Big mahalo to Dr. Aaron Hanai for your support and guidance throughout this whole project.

C O N C LU S I O N My centroid is definitely not an accurate answer due to resource limitations and accuracy of the maps. If I could redo the project again, I would create smaller shapes for a better estimate of the centroid. However, this project helped me learn how to find a centroid of my ahupua‘a and learn about the history around it. It also taught me how to utilize math and physics in a real world problem.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate &amp; Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars Christopher Blake, JeďŹ&amp;#x20AC; Chen, and Jordan Li Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapiâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2DC;olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Mars is the most familiar planet to Earth in the Solar system, which has been our ideal target for planetary exploration. We have been planning and executing Mars exploration missions since 1960s. We started our investigation on Mars by sending flyby and orbiting space technology simulations. Previously solutions used for planetary landing have been to have a soft landing on the surface. Unfortunately, such landings are not precise. Some previous missions to mars include the Mars Science Laboratoryâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2122;s Curiosity rover, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, having a target area of a 20 x 7 km ellipse with previous landings having even larger target radii. In finding the trajectory based on changes in thrust and how fast fuel is consumed, it allows us to track position of a rocket in motion to determine where it will land. In continuing this research we hope to be add more realistic scenarios including accounting for drag or use of parachutes.

To Identify a viable mass flow rate ( ) Kg/s, which is the rate of the amount of fuel being expanded and specific thrust impulse (Isp) sec, which allows one to understand about more the thrust of the rocket, the equations of motions for a spacecraft were converted from second order diďŹ&amp;#x20AC;erential equations to first order diďŹ&amp;#x20AC;erential equations. This was done because MATLAB a high performance computational language is able to solve 1st ODE easily as well as plot the results in 2-D and 3-D.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

To create a trajectory capable of landing precisely on Mars, the đ?&amp;#x17E;Ť and Isp were varied individually and simulations were conducted plotting mass (Fig.1), velocity (Fig.2), height (Fig.3) &amp; position (Fig.4) vs time. During the simulations, external eďŹ&amp;#x20AC;ects such as drag and lift were neglected.

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R E S U LT S

REFERENCES

The results of the simulations conducted show an envelope of possible entry points into the Martian atmosphere as well as an envelope of possible landing coordinates on Mars (Figure 1-4).

1. Vallado, D, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. A., and McClain, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, W. D. (2001), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Fundamentals of Astrodynamics autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Applications. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic 2. Azimov, D. (2017). Analytical Solutions for Extremal Space Trajectories. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. 3. Pajola, M. (2016, April 16). Eridania Basin: An ancient paleolake autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ as the next landing site for the Mars 2020 rover. Retrieved November 25, 2017, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0019103516300331?via%3Dihub

C O N C LU S I O N This work is interesting because landing precisely on Mars would allow us to better achieve various goals. One example is finding water at Eridania Basin, an ancient paleolake floor that scientists believe to be one of the largest lake environments, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Other examples are the search for potential microbial life, or to improve our cost efficiency of transportation for future missions. Landing safely and as close as possible would reduce the use of fuel for rovers and quicker search missions. For future research, we could include more elements to find an optimal trajectory for more accurate results. From when vehicle enters the Mars atmosphere, declaration from aerodynamic drag, parachute and thrust to land our spacecraft.

Figure 3

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AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S This research was made possible by Minority University Research Program (MUREP). Special thanks to Dr. Aaron Hanai and Dr. Dilmurat Azimov.

Figure 4

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Investigation of Shear Strength of Common and Uncommon Structural Foundations Kyle Aukai, Siobhan Mercado, Alan Tupou Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapiâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2DC;olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Flooding is a natural disaster that can cost billions of dollars in damages, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and can also leave homes devastated, literally and figuratively. Wood base foundations which tie into concrete foundations play a big role in the structural integrity of a house and its ability to withstand flooding forces. The purpose of our experiment was to test the shear strength of common wood base foundations that you might see around your autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and uncommon wood base foundations that we students have designed to determine the all around best structure keeping in mind cost of material, square footage, and the ability to withstand shear force.

Structure #1:

M ET H O D S We each constructed an original architectural base using popsicle sticks, several strong adhesives (super glue, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, krazy glue, and industrial gel), and a general guide of area and number of sticks to use. We tested shear strength of our completed foundations by attaching a simple pulley to each unique beam and observing how much weight it could hold before breaking. We tested by dispersing weight evenly over the surface of our structures.

Weight (amount of material) = 74.5g Beams withstood about 7500g of weight placed on the pulley before breaking Square Footage = 22cm x 11cm = 242cm^2 Structure #2:

Weight (amount of material) = 70.2g Center side beam withstood about 6935 gof weight placed on the pulley before breaking Corner beam withstood about 5530g of weight placed on the pulley before breaking Square Footage = 22cm x 11cm = 242cm^2

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Structure #3:

Weight (amount of material) = 107.6g Beams withstood about 8000g+ of weight placed on the pulley without breaking then we ran out of weights Square Footage = 11cm x 11cm = 121cm^2

C O N C LU S I O N The design that did the best against shear force was the structure with the shortest beams. Short beams allow for less flex and more uniform of the structure’s base as a autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The other winning feature was the type of base; the continuous spread footing. Continuous spread footings allow for more sturdiness. This type of footing can be seen the most if you are to drive around your neighborhood, unless you live on a an incline. Spot footings are more for houses on an incline.

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REFERENCES 1. “Footings &amp; Foundations.” Raised Floor Living, 2017, raisedfloorlivingpro.com/construction-process/foot ings-foundations/. 2. Associate Professor, University of Waterloo School of Architecture, Canada. “AMPHIBIOUS FOUNDA TIONS AND THE BUOYANT FOUNDATION PROJ ECT: INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD-RE SILIENT HOUSING.” Nov. 2009, s3.amazonaws.com/ academia.edu.documents/34627070/ECEnglish_pa per_UFM_Paris_r5a.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKI AIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&amp;Expires=1511834908&amp;Sig nature=CaxbDsMCJzBaJ0puZft8RR3Gk4Y%3D&amp;re sponse-content-disposition=inline%3B%20file name%3DAMPHIBIOUS_FOUNDATIONS_AND_ THE_BUOYANT_F.pdf.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S A big mahalo to our mentor Dr. Aaron Hanai for providing us with the necessary materials and knowledge needed to complete this project, and to the KCC STEM Center for allowing us to use their facilities and classrooms to work on our project.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Kuapa Pond of Maunalua: A Center on Edge Mikayla Carias Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

M O KU P U N I O F O ‘A H U

KUA PA P O N D

Ancient Hawaiians followed a complex system of land division in which a whole island, or mokupuni, was divided into smaller parts, down to a section of land belonging to a single family2. Moku are the districts of each island2,4. Each moku is divided into ahupua‘a2. Each ahupua‘a were divided into two or three ‘ili2,4. The purpose of this project was to methodize a way of computing the centroid of the ‘ili I reside in. I live in the ‘ili of Maunalua.

The assumed centroid of Maunalua is just off the edge of the historical Keahupua-o Maunalua Fishpond, better known as the Kuapa Pond.

Figure 1: Topographic map of O‘ahu3

M ET H O D S Maunalua was then isolated and overlaid onto a grid (Figure 1, 3). The squares that contained 50% or more land were shaded to indicate the number (N) of squares. The centroid equations were used to calculate x, xi = center of the column, Ai = N per row.

Figure 1: Topographic map of O‘ahu3

C E N T RO I D A centroid is a weight average position of an area located by a Cartesian coordinate system, x = longitude, y = latitude0:

Figure 3: Maunalua in grid3

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C O N C LU S I O N

The same algorithm was carried out for. The inch value for the centroid in both the x- and y-direction are related to miles and a guestimation of the latitude and longitude was taken.

R E S U LT S The assumed centroid is off the perimeter of Kuapa Pond located in the current Hawaii Kai Marina, roughly (GPS): 21° 17’ 36.6756’’ N 157° 41’ 47.3964’’ W.

Reducing the size of the squares will allow for a more precise measurement from the method of calculations. The calculated centroid of Maunalua does not appear to be located at a specific point in the ‘ili, however it is near the historical fishpond. Additionally, due to the centroid measuring outside of the pond perimeter, an assumption was made as to where the measured centroid is located when determining the longitude and latitude.

REFERENCES

Figure 3: Maunalua in grid3

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1. Bedford, A., &amp; Fowler, W. (2008). Centroids and centers of mass. Engineering mechanics: statistics &amp; dynamics (312-313). NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. 2. Info Grafik Inc. (2017). Ahupua‘a. Retrieved from http://www.hawaiihistory.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ig. page&amp;CategoryID=299 3, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA) Kipuka Database. (n.d.). [Topographic map of O‘ahu]. Kipuka Database. Retrieved from http://kipukadatabase.com/kipu ka/#view2 4. Williams J.S. (1997). ‘Umi divides the land. In From the mountains to the sea: early Hawaiian Life (pp. 9-29). Retrieved from http://ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/ library?e=d-0english-000Sec--11en-50-20-framesetbook--1-010escapewin&amp;a=d&amp;d=D0.5&amp;toc=0 5. Latitude-Longitude. Retrieved from https://www.lat long.net/

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Measuring &amp; Calculating the Centroid of the Waimānalo Ahupua‘a with a Physics Approach Steven Washino Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

The goal of this project is to find the centroid of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a. An ahupua‘a is an enclosed region separating the island into several parts, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The purpose of finding the centroid is to understand where the center of the land division rests, as well as searching for ancient clues suggesting early native Hawaiian knowledge of centroids.

By cutting the ahupua‘a into small pieces of land with simple shapes, we can solve for the individual centroids. The equation used to solve for the centroid takes the sum of all centroids, plus sum of all areas, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the sum of all areas. To measure my pieces, I used a mapping tool that gives you the distance between two points you can drag on a map. With the lengths of all my pieces, I autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ solved for their areas and centroids given that they were simple shapes.

R E S U LT S In the 14th century, the Pahua Heiau was created. This heiau is a rock terrace dedicated to agricultural production, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The x-coordinate of this heiau happens to be very close to my computed xbar. According to city-data.com, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the total area of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a is only 5.8% off.

A H AWA I I A N P O E M O F WA I Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Ā N A LO Uluwehi Waimānalo ‘āina ho‘opulapula Ipu ia like ala ona pua like ‘ole Ho‘okahi pu‘uwai ho‘okahi mana‘o ‘Āina aloha o ka lehulehu Hanohano no ‘oe e Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Ho‘oko kauoha ‘oe na ka hana pololei

Lush, Waimānalo, homestead land Its fragrant flowers, incomparable One heart, one thought Land of love for the population You are the glory of (Prince Jonah) Kalaniana‘ole You fulfilled the trust with righteous deeds

Ha‘awi ka mae ma‘i e ia Waimānalo Kokua like mai na mana Kahikolu

Waimānalo gives health Help and power comes from Trinity

Kū kilakila na home u‘i Me ka kokua autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ na mana lani

Standing strong, the stalwart homes With help from the heavenly powers

Ha‘ina kēia mele no Waimānalo ‘Āina ho‘opulapula no Kalaniana‘ole

Tell this song of Waimānalo Homestead land of Prince Kalaniana‘ole PRE-ENGINEERING

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C O N C LU S I O N

REFERENCES

The goal of this project was to find the centroid of the Waimānalo ahupua‘a and any significance to that area. Some of the measurement data may have been slightly autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, as well as the method, due to significant figures, and available tools. However, the results should be deemed significant because they can be described somewhat close to a native Hawaiian heiau. This is important because if ancient Hawaiians built their heiaus around the centroids of their ahupua‘a, then that suggests that they knew about laws and principles of physics even when living in isolation from the rest of the world.

https://www.freemaptools.com/measure-distance.htm

All units in miles y1 = 1.17 x1 = 3.82 y2 = 1.05 x2 = 1.45 y3 = 0.845 x3 = 0.359 y4 = 2.93 x4 = 0.687 y5 = 3.35 x5 = 1.16 y6 = 5.98 x6 = 2.55 y7 = 5.52 x7 = 0.927 y8 = 7.73 x8 = 3.63 y9 = 6.44 x9 = 0.927

http://www.huapala.org/Wai/Waimanalo_Aina_Kaulana. html http://kipukadatabase.com/kipuka/Ahupuaa.html?ObjectID=561&amp;b=2 Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Ahupua&#96;a neighborhood in Waimanalo, Hawaii (HI), 96795, 96821, 96825 detailed profile http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Waimanalo-Ahupua-a-Waimanalo-HI.html

Area 1 = 4.83 2 = 6.06 3 = -0.714 4 = 1.29 5 = 5.80 6 = 6.38 7 = 0.959 8 = 0.907 9 = 0.59

Final results 2.13

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3.41

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Modularization of an Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle for Varying Scientific Experiments Yuuma Yamamoto, Chris Blake, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and Joni Hashizume Faculty Advisor: Justin Carland M.S. and Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M Minitool data recovery 10 keygen,serial,crack,generator H O D S

Underwater robotics is a field that can minimize the amount of injuries in the ocean due to being able to remove humans from having to dive to conduct research experiments. The main objective was to mount devices to the Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (UROV) and add features and functionality to the robot. Japan Agency For Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) researcher allowed the team to collaborate with him by attaching the camera to the UROV, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The camera system has two cameras to generate a 3D mapping of the ocean floor, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The ultimate objective was to assist researchers and professors that needed to use the UROV as a tool.

To accomplish the task of modularizing the UROV the engineering design process was closely followed. The tasks were to attach a 20 ½” x 7 3⁄8” x 9 7⁄8” (Figure 1) stereoscopic camera which has the ability to display an image in 3-D image to the UROV as well as an Ocean Optics STS-VIS miniature spectrometer. Attaching the stereo camera was achieved through multiple iterations with different designs as well as field test (Figure 2-4,6). Ranging from paper and WebcamMax 8.0.7.8 Crack For Windows [2021] Latest Free, cardboard and then upgraded to wood. The same method was followed for attaching the spectrometer. To remotely operate the spectrometer (Figure 5) a Raspberry Pi 3 was connected to the camera as the main computer using SeaBreeze an open source software for ocean optics.

Figure 1.

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

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R E S U LT S

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

The final iteration of the stereo camera mount consisted of a 20 ½” x 4 ½” wood mount with two 1” diameter holes 18 ½” apart mounted slightly above the top of the UROV (Figure 7) with zip ties and two metal pole which allowed the camera to be level with the water. The final iteration for the spectrometer mount was a 4” x 3” foam PVC stand (Figure 8). There is a commercial off the shelf waterproof box for housing the spectrometer and its remote operation is an ongoing effort.

C O N C LU S I O N

Figure 6.

Figure 7.

The research consisted of trying to attach a stereoscopic camera to the UROV so that the camera could operate while the UROV was being remotely operated. Attaching the camera took up majority of our class time, as we made that our autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ priority until the spectrometer arrived. As of now, we have not been able to attach the spectrometer or the camera for the spectrometer to the ROV.

REFERENCES

Figure 8.

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Li, Y., Guo, S., &amp; Wang, Y. (2017). Design and character istics evaluation of a novel spherical underwater robot. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 94, 61-74. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2017.03.014 Johnsen, G., Ludvigsen, M., Sørensen, A., &amp; Aas, L. M. (2016). The use of underwater hyperspectral imag ing deployed on remotely operated vehicles - methods and applications. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 49(23), 476-481. doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.10.451 Kreuzer, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, E., &amp; Pinto, F. C. (1996). Controlling the po sition of a remotely operated underwater vehicle, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 78(2-3), 175185. doi:10.1016/0096-3003(96)00007-0

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


The Approximation of the Centroid of the Kalihi Apuhua‘a Brendan Cha Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

This project is to find the centroid of the ahupua‘a that we live in and see if there is a historical site or a special event that has happened at the found centroid.

My method is to trace the yellow outlines that indicates the boundaries of my ahupua‘a in Autodesk Inventor. Once I have traced the outline of the ahupua‘a, then I can have the program calculate the center of mass of the 2D drawing. Next step is to cross reference the 2D drawing with a map from KIPUKA, which indicates the boundaries of the ahupua‘a

B AC KG RO U N D The ahupua‘a is a traditional autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ unit that usually starts from the summit of the mountains all the way to the outer edges of reef. The ahupua‘a system made sure that everyone had access to natural resources, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Kalihi is the name of the ahupua‘a that I live in, and was known as the most fertile valley. The location of the ahupua‘a was ideal for agriculture and fish farming practices.

Figure 1. Kalihi Ahupua‘a

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R E S U LT S Figure 2 shows the Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawing of the ahupua‘a with the center of mass (centroid) which is a yellow dot. In figure 3, the blue color represents the CAD drawing, which I made a best-fit onto the actual map on KIPUKA, and the centroid is a red colored dot. The centroid landed in a ‘ili called Ka‘ahaloa.

C O N C LU S I O N In conclusion, this method isn’t as accurate because this is hand-drawn, and the computer had to find a centroid of a mass object that is in 2D with no evaluation of the land. If it was possible to create a graphical function that can graph the ahupua‘a precisely, then Telestream Wirecast Pro 10.0.0 Full Version Download centroid will be more accurate.

Figure 3: Centroid Formula

REFERENCES Retrieved November 27, 2017, from http://kipukadatabase, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. com/kipuka/#view3 POE Centroids. (n.d.). Retrieved Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ 27, 2017, from https://aerospaceporterhs.wikispaces.com/POE Centroids

Figure 4: KIPUKA Map with Centroid Drawing

Figure 2: Autodesk CAD Drawing

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


The Analysis and Significance of the Centroid About the Ahupua‘a: Waikīkī Kevin Williams Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

In this project, we are tasked to find the centroid that may have some significance to how the ahupua’a was divided amongst each moku or district. The moku that will be observed is Kona and in particular, the ahupua‘a known as Waikīkī.

Using the two equations before, the x-bar and y-bar were to be 6.32km and 4.71km respectively.

Figure 1. Ahupua‘a Map of O‘ahu

A N Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ LY T I C A L M ET H O D

Figure 3. Grid map of O’ahu with centroid

By gridding out a map of the ahupua‘a, we can apply the two equations on the right to find an approximated geometric centroid.

The method used consisted of 2 assumptions. One being that the ahupua‘a was a flat 2-D shape. The other considered that the shape was massless. Both were needed to find a centroid through software that was available. By doing this, research and conclusions can be made between the centroid and hawaiian historical sites, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The centroid found was geography found to be in the area known as Pālolo.

Figure 2. Grid of O‘ahu with approximated shapes

Figure 4. Map of Pālolo Valley

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C O R R E L AT I O N TO H AWA I I A N H I S TO RY

C O N C LU S I O N

In the moku of Kona, there is a story of the mo‘o (ancestral god) water spirits that lie in the streams of Mānoa. These water spirits are said to help their descendants with health/wellness and protect them from danger.

The centroid found through the analysis of the ahupua‘a was located deep within Pālolo valley. The site near the centroid had no tale or history that complemented the correlation between the two. Despite the result, the research still proves as a great way to further understand concepts discussed in class and be used in the real world.

REFERENCES

Figure 5: Water Lizard

Alan Takano.O‘ahu Ahupua‘a Map. Retrieved from http:// gigapan.com/gigapans/135099. Kipuka.Kipuka Database. Retrieved from http://kipukada tabase.com/kipuka/#view3. Dennis Kawaharada.Traditions of O‘ahu. Retrieved from http://apdl.kcc.hawaii,edu/oahu/stories/kona/aumakua. htm.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Quantifying Magnetic Properties in Order to Assess the Viability of an Earth-Magnet Powered Railway Mahealani Kini, Matthew Kohatsu, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and Cassidy Siegrist Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O Video Archives In planning this experiment, we wanted to know if it would be possible to make a railway using only Earth-magnets. Permanent earth-magnets are generally either iron based or rare earth element based (Minowa (2008)). Similar poles repel each other, and we surmised that it could be possible to propel vehicles along a magnetic track. To do so, we needed to know, empirically, how much force can be generated by a standard set of magnets. If successful, we could use this measured force constant autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ calculate the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ and strength of rare Earth-magnets that would be needed to make our hypothetical railway, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ eventuality the techniques with which we would propel vehicles traveling on such a railway.

In our initial setup, we placed two Vernier magnetic carts on our extended cart track with the same magnetic 1poles facing each other, so that they would repel. We lifted the far end of the track with a metal block so that gravity could help the carts settle into their truest position once weights were placed on them, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. The autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ of incline we determined mathematically using the inverse sin of the height of the ramp over the length of the ramp. It was determined that the angle was 0.98791 degrees.

M ET H O D S For this experiment, we used: • Copper Weights • Vernier Magnetic Carts • Cart Track • Metal Block

Figure 1. Initial Ramp Set up

Figure 2. Close up of experiment with weights

For the experiment, we determined that we could measure magnetic force by seeing the change in distance between the two carts as weight was added on, top of the left cart. We started with, the measurement with no weight added, and added 25 grams of weight on the cart for each test . Each weight was tested three times, and during each test we agitated the cart to allow it to settle at the distance where magnetic force overcame the weight of the cart. AH were recorded. averaged, and plotted.

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R E S U LT S

REFERENCES

The average data points were plotted and showed an indirect relationship. The more weight was added, the shorter the distance between the two carts became. Conversely, the lighter the cart autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the greater the distance between the two carts became. The equation for the relationship of magnetic force can be described as f(x)=-634x+11361 with x representing distance.

1. Friedmanl B. M., Abraham, M. G., Paetkau, M., Taylor, S .R .&amp; Ross Friedman1 C. (2013). Use of a varying turn-density coil (VTDC) to generate a constant-gradient magnetic field and to demonstrate the magnetic force on a perm,anent magnet. Canadian Journal Of Physics, 91(3). 226-230. doi:10.1139/cjp-2012-0405 2. Toshniwal, N . G., &amp; Pawar, K. D, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. (2015). Magnets in dentistry. Pravara Medical Review; 7(4)1 10-16. 3. Minowa, T. (2008), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Rare Earth Magnets: Conservation of Energy and the Environment. Resource Geology, 58(4 ), 414-422. doi:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2008.00073.x

Figure 3. Distance vs Weight

C O N C LU S I O N An Earth-magnet powered railway presents questions that must be answered before it can be seriously considered. Through repeated, trials an almost constant magnetic force was found. The ability to measure magnetic force establishes a baseline into further research.

F U T U R E R E S E A RC H For future iterations of this project the angle of inclination could be increased while also increasing the strength of the magnets and decreasing the weights applied to the cars in order to achieve more exact 1measurements.

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Figure 4. Magnetic rail concept

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S We would like to thank Dr. Aaron Hanai for his excellent expertise and guidance on this project. We would also like to thank the Kapi&#39;olani Community College STEM center for their continued support.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Biodiesel Production Travis Sherman Faculty Advisor: Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

A B S T R AC T

DATA / R E S U LT S

Temperatures are increasing to levels that are unhealthy for our planet(1). Greenhouse gases (CO2) introduced by harvesting and refining fossil fuels are speeding up this warming. By re-using cooking oil we can eliminate the need to harvest and refine such fuel. Our experiment will also produce biodiesel that is less toxic to the environment when combusted(2).

After transesterification the biodiesel is tested to ensure that all cooking oil has been converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel then separates from the glycerin (Figure 1). The biodiesel is then washed (Figure 2) and dried (Figure 3). The biodiesel is then put through a series of tests, designed to ensure the purity and quality of the fuel. One such test is the density test (Figure 4). Results of our biodiesel tests compared with the ASTM Standards are listed in Table 1.

I N T RO D U C T I O N Biodiesel is sourced from plant-based oil. These oils, called triglycerides, will be modified from their vegetable oil state to biodiesel by a process known as transesterification. Recycling the refined vegetable oil will reduce our carbon footprint by eliminating waste. Our biofuel replaces a fossil-fuel, further reducing our carbon footprint.

P RO C E D U R E The procedure was adapted from Kywe, Tint Tint &amp; Mya Mya Oo, from their article, “Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Pilot Plant,” published in 2009, with the following exceptions: 1. Reduced dryng time of cooking oil prior to transesterification. 2. Allowed temperature of oil to reach ~75°C for 20 minutes during transesterification. 3. Stir bar used instead of hand stirring during the washing process.

TEST

BIODIESEL

ASTM STANDARD

Glycerin Test

0.0900%

0.240%

Soap Test

32ppm

41ppm

Water test

396ppm

500ppm

Density

0.86g/mL*

0.86-0.90g/mL

Free Fatty Acid

0.2256%

0.7760%

*Adjusted to density at 15°C. Density taken at 23°C=0.8675g/mL

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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C O N C LU S I O N Refining our biodiesel was a simple process. Testing was extensive, to ensure quality. Our biodiesel passed all 5 tests. Biodiesel should never exceed ~65°C during transesterification, as methanol begins boiling at 64.7°C. Despite this, our process was still successful. Water autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ by heating and stirring is effective. Ensure complete emulsification of biodiesel and water. Water is removed when biodiesel temperature exceeds 110°C. Our process refined cooking oil into quality biodiesel. You can make your own at home, including the testing!!

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REFERENCES Potter, Sean. “NASA/NOAA Data Show 2016 Warmest Year On Record Globally.” NASA. 18 Jan 2017. Web. 25 Jan 2017. Roos, Dave. “Biofuels vs. Fossil Fuels.” HowStuffWorks. N.d. Web. 19 Apr 2017. Kywe, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Tint Tint &amp; Mya Mya Oo, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. “Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) in Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Plant.” 2009. Web. 17 Jan 2017. “Volume correction factors—diesel, bio-diesel and diesel blends. ” Government of Canada. 2 Feb 2017. Web. 19 Apr 2017. Utah Biodiesel Supply - Graydon Blair. &quot;Quality Tests For Biodiesel - Utah Biodiesel Supply.&quot; Quality Tests For Biodiesel - Utah Biodiesel Supply. N.d. Web. 22 Mar 2017.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Creating Biodiesel: From Your Kitchen to Your Car Jaelynn Lopez, Mia Melamed, Sita Om, and Louisa Yang Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kathleen Ogata, Ph.D Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

PURPOSE

M ET H O D S

The purpose of this experiment was to produce a usable autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ of biodiesel from vegetable cooking oil.

The drying process, density-test, free-fatty acid test, and soap titration were adopted from Dr. McMahon at Central Carolina Community College1. We modified the drying process, using a higher temperature and longer time period, at 200°C and 22 min. The biodiesel was washed 10 times in contrast to single washing performed by Loyola University2. Biodiesel water content was performed according to Brae Laboratories3. Our tests values were compared to ASTM values from Biofuel Systems Group⁴.

I N T RO D U C T I O N Vegetable oils, waste cooking oil, animals fats and tallow, are a number of products that can be converted into a usable form of biodiesel. Oils/fats are composed of triglycerides, which in the presence of an alcohol and a base catalyst, the oils/fats are converted into biodiesel, known as transesterification. The transesterification reaction is where the glycerol molecule is replaced by the alcohol ion (Figure 1). In this study we demonstrate a reaction that occurs between virgin vegetable oil and methanol (alcohol) in the presence of a catalyst, potassium hydroxide (KOH). Triglycerides have a viscosity not conducive for a car engine, and transesterification generates a friendly mix for car parts. And so the following methods were performed to ensure the quality of biodiesel.

R E S U LT S Test

Limits

Units

Soap Titration 48

Data

66

mL/L

Total glycerin 0.09

0.240 max

% mass

Density

0.875-0.90

g/cm3

Free Fatty Acid 0.3

0.877

0.5 max

mg KOH/g

Water

0.05

% vol

0.06

PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

A usable form of biodiesel was successfully created. After the washing process (Figure 4), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, our biodiesel passed 5 out of autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ tests, except for the water test. The failed water test may be resolved by heating the biodiesel at a higher autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ ( &gt; 200°C) and for a longer time (&gt;22°C). Among all our final values, our density value was closest to the ASTM value. The first 3/27 test for bound glycerin had failed, and so we ran transesterification process with half the amount of KOH, which led to a successful conversion Education Archives - 10 (Ten) Crack Software Collection biodiesel.

Dr. McMahon October 2017. Dr. McMahon at Central Carolina Community College shared his knowledge and instruction in the drying process, free fatty acid test, density test and the soap titration test. Utah Biodiesel Supply - Graydon Blair. Biodiesel Process ing Supplies, Equipment, Processors and Information - Biodiesel Homebrewing.” Utah Biodiesel Supply, www.utahbiodieselsupply.com/. Spring, Robert. Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Test Kits, www.sandybrae.com/Wa ter_Test_Kit.html Biofuel Systems Group Limited. Biodiesel Standards, Biofuel Systems Group LTD, http://www.biofuelsys tems.com/specification.htm Hossain, Md A, et al, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Biodiesel from Coconut Oil: A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine. World Academy of Science Engineering, and Technology, In ternational Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineer ing, waset.org/publications/2808/biodiesel-from-coco nut-oil-a-renewable-alternative-fuel-for-diesel-engine Green Travel with On-Time, Quality Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Travel. North field Lines Inc. http://northfieldlines.com/safety/gogreen/

C O N C LU S I O N In this experiment, we successfully produced a usable form of biodiesel from cooking vegetable oil. All tests: density, soap, free-fatty acid, and total glycerin, passed, except the water test, as compared to ASTM …….values. For those interested in creating biodiesel from vegetable oil, it is suggested to heat for a longer period of time …….(&gt; 22 min) and temperature (&gt;200°C) during the drying process. We are interested in testing with another starting material such as coconut oil due to the abundance of the fruit …….throughout the Pacific Islands.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Mahalo nui loa to Dr, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Kathleen Ogata for sharing her knowledge from experience. Mahalo to Kapi&#39;olani Community College for providing resources, the laboratory and the Stem center.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Flight Time: Earth To Mars Leiolani Malagon-Leon Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

R E S U LT S

Going back to the planet Mars has been one of the top priorities for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (2017). The process of going there involves advanced theoretical orbital dynamics calculations in order to predict the trajectory, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, the amount of fuel needed to get there, the landing path, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the time needed to jump from the earth’s orbit to Mars’ orbit. This project is a continuation of my past internship with the NASA Community College Aerospace Scholars that I participated in last Spring 2017.

Applying the above Newton’s law to a satellite orbiting the sun along Mars’s orbit, calculating the time it takes resumes to using Kepler’s third law. The assumptions made in this analysis are 1) that the thrust used is short and high to allow our satellite to jump on Mars’s orbit in a very short period of time 2) the circumference of the elliptical orbit is approximately the same as for a circular one in the present orbit. Hence, for a entire period, the distance traveled can be written as: (3)

PURPOSE The purpose of this research is to calculate the time required to fly to the planet Mars.

Substituting the gravitational force into equation (2):

M ET H O D The method employed in this project involved learning Calculus-based Physics throughout most of the semester! Specifically, the following physics theories and methods had to be self-taught to complete this project:

(4)

Substituting the radial acceleration from equation (1) into equation (4) gives:

Kinematics and the relationship between kinematic variables such as position, velocity and acceleration

Substituting equation (3): 2) Circular motion and the relationship between velocity and radial acceleration (1)

3) And Newton analysis, the second laws and the concept of forces.

If you rearrange the equation and solve for the period, you are left with…

(2)

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One way that this equation can be applied is when calculating the time that it would take to go from Earth to Mars. Take the Mass of the Sun and the Semi major axis of Mars in order to get how many seconds it will take to get from Earth to Mars. From their in order to get how many days it will take, convert seconds to days to receive the final simplified answer. The time is then divided by a factor of 2 since we are calculating the time for half a round trip. The constant needed are Mass of Sun:

Semi Major Axis of Mars:

Gravitational constant:

So Nitro Pro 13.24.1.467 Crack Archives the period is:

Which corresponds to approximately to autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ days.

F U RT H E R R E S E A RC H The next stages of this project are to 1) estimate the change of impulse required to get to Mars, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, using fast thrust engine to estimate the amount of fuel required 2) learn Matlab to run simulations on the best stable orbit to use to get there.

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Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


How fo&#39; solve one Atwood System in Pidgin Jusden Keli‘ikuli Faculty Advisor: Dr. Herve Collins Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

Physics is a difficult subject that I struggled to understand. But I was able to succeed with the help and encouragement of Dr. Herve Collin who allowed me to write this physics research paper in Hawai‘i Creole English (HCE), also known as Pidgin in Hawai‘i. I consider Pidgin as my rst language because I grew up on the west side of Oahu where Pidgin is commonly spoken. Writing in Pidgin helped to bridge the language gap between Pidgin and English, thus making it easier for me to clarify and comprehend physics concepts and problem solving methods. Not only has writing in Pidgin increased my physics comprehension, but it also made physics and writing more enjoyable for me. I hope that this report will help my fellow kanakas and Pidgin-speaking students succeed in physics and inspire other kanakas to purse a career in STEM. Wats da magnitude of da velocity fo one atwood system, da one with two blocks and one pulley. Try picha block A stay on one incline plane connected to one string dat no can stretch and da odda block B is at da end of da string hangin&#39; look laddat below, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Wit dis info: da mass fo block A is 2 kg, da mass fo block B is 7kg, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, da Adobe Photoshop 7.0 Crack Free Download With Serial Number [2021] fo da incline place is 30 degrees, da static friction is 0.5, da kinetic friction is 0.2, da mass fo da pulley is 5 kg, and da distance dat each block wen travel from rest is 0.5 meters, try ga out da nal velocity.

Figure 1. Atwood System Type tree (inclined plane).

Da first ting we go do is write all da known and given variables and dea values. We only get one known variable, da acceleration due to gravity (g) and all da rest stay given values. Now da given values is da mass of block A (mA), mass of block B (mB), mass of da pulley (mp), distance travel (d), given angle (), kinetic friction (k), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and static friction (s). Jus&#39; write em all down so goin be easy layta on.

Fo&#39; dis problem, we gon&#39; use da method fo&#39; Energy Conservation Law so dat we can nd out da velocity of da atwood system starting from rest after it wen move by da distance d.

Firs&#39; gotta identify all da systems in da whole atwood system. So, we get tree&#39; massive systems: block A, block B and da pulley. Da next ting fo&#39; do is pick da 2 points, da initial and nal point wea&#39; you gon&#39; use da energy method and we Macdrive Serial Archives call it 1 and 2 in ga (2) on da diagram, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Da ting gon look laddat below.

Figure 2. Diagram wit chosen points

Next ting&#39; go pick youa coordinate system fo&#39; each system. Rememba dat fo&#39; energy oua coordinate system gotta be wit da positive y axis in da up direction so dat we can use da PEg term in oua energy equation. We go start with da blocks rs&#39. Fo&#39; each block you get da choice fo&#39; put da coordinate system at point 1 or at point 2. We go pick point 2 fo da origin of dea coordinate system fo&#39; both block A autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ B. Now fo&#39; da pulley, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, cuz we dealin&#39; wit someting dat rotates da rst question we gotta ask oua self is da axis of rotation xed or no? In oua question da pulley got one xed axis of rotation. But in oua case cuz its one pulley, da axis of rotation stay at da center of mass and dat gon&#39; be da origin of da coordinate system. All da origins gon&#39; be used fo&#39; get PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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da PEg terms in equation (11). Da overall diagram gotta look someting laddis below.

Figure 3. Da whole Atwood System Diagram wit da points and coordinate systems

Next we go autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ down oua generic energy equation fo oua systems.

We go tro away some terms. Da rst ting we go tro away is da work due to da weight fo&#39; each system A and B cuz we gon put da PEg in oua equation (10), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. We can tro away da work due to da normal force acting on block A and da work due to da pulley cuz dey stay equal to zero. We can also ignore da work due to da tension on block A, block B, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, and da pulley cuz da ting gon cancel each oda. Now only get one term left das work due to friction acting on block A. We got talk about da details why dey get trown away. So fo da Work done by da weight fo block A dat is goin&#39; UP and using da ga (4) to express WA along da displacement d:

(1)

wea da terms stay laddis: • • • •

W is da Work done by all da external forces PEg is da Potential Energy due to da gravity PEs is da Potential Energy due to one spring KE is da Kinetic Energy fo both rotational and translational

Figure 4. Free Body Diagram: Block A

Cuz oua problem no mo&#39; one spring in da atwood system we can tro&#39; away da ∑ PE s terms on both sides of da equation (1). So da equation gon&#39; look laddis:

Da work done by da weight of A is:

(2)

Now we gotta ga out haw many work terms get. We expect da work terms to be one long list. Fo da pulley, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, cuz we dealin wit one massive pulley we expect da work done by da weight of da pulley (WWP ), da work done by da\ tension on da pulley from block A (WTAP ), da work done by da tension on da pulley from block B (WTBP) and da work done by da normal force from da table acting on da pulley (WNT ). Fo&#39; block B we expect da work done by its weight (WWB ) autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ da work done by da tension acting on block B (WTB ). Fo&#39; block A we expect work done by its weight (WWA ) and da work done by da tension acting on block A (WTA ), work due to kinetic friction (Wf kA ), work due to da normal force acting on A (WNA ).

(4)

but no need dis cuz get PEg already in da equation (2) and da ting goin look da same like da functional form fo&#39; PEgAI as da equations (10) and (11) way down below. Da work done by da weight of B stay goin DOWN, try look at ga (5) below to express WB along da displacement:

(3) Figure 5. Free Body Diagram fo Block B

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Da work done by da weight of B is:

(5)

No need dis cuz we get PEg in da equation (2) and same ting fo da Work done by the weight of block A. da ting gon&#39; get da same functional form fo&#39; PEgBI as da equations (10) and (11) way down below. Now get da work done by da normal force on da pulley (NP ). Da pulley no move so da displacement (ds&#39;) stay zero.

Figure 6. Free Body Diagram Pulley

Da work done by da normal force is:

Da pulley not goin&#39; go anywea so da displacement (ds&#39;) stay zero and da work done by da weight (WP ) of da pulley gon be da same.

dis gon&#39; be PEgP1 and PEgP2 in equation (9). Get foa moa work terms: one from TA acting on A, den TB acting on B, and da odda two TA and TB stay acting on da pulley. We go do da linear ones rs&#39;, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Da work done by TA acting on object A das TRANSLATING: TA stay in da same direction like da displacement ds&#39;:

Da work done by TB acting on object B stay TRANSLATING: TB stay in da opposite direction from da displacement (ds&#39;):

So we know dat TB &gt; TA cuz da pulley get one angular acceleration so da torque stay non-zero so dey not gon cancel. yet! We gon look at da Net (faster) work done by TA and TB on da pulley. Da angular displacement we gon use look laddis = S R. S mo betta fo use but we gon change em to s = R. So we get: d(R = s) = dR + Rd = ds but R stay constant yeah so da rs term gon be gone: Rd = ds and now we get d jus laddat: d = ds R Da pulley rotates (wit one angular acceleration) so autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ go use da sum of da torques not da sum of da forces (like wit object A and B dat translate). Cuz TB &gt; TA, da torque fo&#39; TB stay mo big so gon be da positive one.

Add this to WTB and WTA and you now get ZERO, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. So only get da workdue to da friction acting on block A:

(6)

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We gotta use Newton&#39;s Method to gure out da friction term. Rememba daga (4), da free body diagram fo block A we go use dat.

Next ting, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, pani (replace) all da energy terms wit dea funtional form inequation (10) laddis below.

Newton&#39;s second law is:

We go ga out wea da height fo each block stay at. Based on ga (3) we gon get hA1= —dsin and hB1 = d. Cuz dis problem get one non-slipping pulley we can use da formula fo&#39; angular velocity ( = v ⁄R) fo replace so we get all oua kinetic energy terms wit&#39; velocity, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. We go drop all da subscripts for velocity cuz dey gon&#39; all be da same magnitude. Da last ting, we gotta do is ga out da moment of inertia (I). Cuz one pulley is one solid disk about one central axis (das da center of mass) da moment of inertia stay I = 1⁄2mR2. So oua new equation gon&#39; look ladis:

Write dea equations wit Newton&#39;s second law.

Cuz k = kN and we kno&#39; dat N = mAgcos autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, so we get m gcos. We go ga our da work due to friction k A

k

=

(11)

Now try look da second and third terms! Dey stay equal to da work terms from equations (4) and (5) cuz PEgA2 and PEgB2 stay zero! Solve fo da velocity (v): Now we kno oua work terms we go write out da full equation from equation numba (2). In da equation we go put in all da kinetic terms: translational fo block A and B (KET ) and rotational fo da pulley (KER) (7) (8) (9)

Now we go make small dis equation cuz of oua chosen coordinate system. Dea is tree&#39; questions dat we go ask oua self. Da rst question, fo&#39; da PEg, is da block on da x axis? if yes, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, PEg = 0. Da next question, fo&#39; KETis da block moving at dat point? if no, KET = 0. Is da pulley rotating at dat point? if no, KER = 0. Cuz we wen pick oua coordinate system at point 2 and cuz its on da x axis so da PEgA2 =0 and PEgB2 =0, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Also, cuz oua system is not moving or rotating at point 1, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, we get KETA1 =0 and KETB1 =0, and KERP1 =0. And da las&#39; ting, cuz PER is at da origin and da ting no move so get PEgP1 and PEgP2 both equal zero.

PAU ! AC K N OW L E D G E M E N T S : I&#39;d like give a special mahalo to Ashley Tibunsay and the Tibunsay ‘Ohana for their love, encouragement, and support through my studies, to Dr. Herve Collin for his time, mentorship, encouragement, support, and dedication, and to Li-Anne Delavega for her revisions, time, and support.

Oua shorten equation gon be: (10)

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Process of Determining Curie Temperatures of Multiferroic Materials Aaron Pacheco Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Multiferroics are materials that have both ferroelectric and magnetic properties. To have both qualities are rare because very few ferroelectrics exhibit long range magnetic order. Recently, there has been a particular interest growing towards multiferroics to understand the fundamental aspects that give rise to magnetic ferroelectric coupling in device applications such as the magnetic media that hard drives in computers use to store data, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Many of the magnetic domains (as depicted in Table 1) controlled by applied electrical fields occur at temperatures too low for most practical uses, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Temperatures that occur on an average hard drive range from 40ºC to 50ºC and overheating occurs at 100ºC. As the temperature exceeds 100ºC, data loss begins. By experimenting with multiferroic materials a new threshold beyond existing maximum temperatures can be found.

The process of the experiment consisted of using DC power through a coil to heat the top portion of the device up to high temperatures. In this experiment, the temperatures went up to 500ºC in order to find the curie temperature. The two different types of material compounds used were NiFeWCu and FeBaTi.

Each compound had to be grinded and pressed by two separate machines. The grinding time could take up to an hour or more depending on the material used. The press used up to 4000 kg/cm² to create a 1cm wide disk sample to be used in the experiment (refer to Table 2). Once the autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ was created, it was suspended by high heat resistant glass into the device at the source of heating. Beneath the heating element was a large wound coil for generating an magnetic field. The magnetic field was initiated in 20ºC intervals in a series of trials, ranging from 200ºC to 500ºC. The data was recorded until curie temperatures were reached.

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C O N C LU S I O N The results show that between the two types of multiferroics used, the FeBaTi had the higher curie temperature (As shown in the graphs below). This would be the better application for the hard drive replacement. Furthermore, a widely unknown material could possess an even higher curie temperature that may exist if graphene was used in unison with Fe. Graphene is a new material made of carbon one atom thick. Its magnetic and ferroelectric properties could unlock new heat thresholds while still managing to recover data. More research needs to be done in the realm of multiferroics.

Works Cited R.K. Kremer, M.G, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Banks, A. Simon 54

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Temperature Gradient Monitor for the ProtoDUNE Leah McCabe Faculty Advisor: Radovan Milincic Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

E X P E R I M E N TA L S ET- U P

The protoDUNE (figure 1) is an experiment designed to test applications before the construction of the DUNE(1). The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 34 kiloton liquid argon (LAr) detector that be built in the next few years. The DUNE will be used to detect neutrinos and antineutrinos to give a better understanding of the origin of matter and to study black hole formation using neutrinos from supernova explosions within our galaxy. The temperature gradient (figure 2) indirectly measures the purity of the LAr in the detector. The purity of LAr makes it possible to tank particles(2). Temperature fluctuations in the tank as a low as autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ mK affect the results.

The 3 meter high cryostat cylinder that was used to do preliminary testing on the monitor was filled with liquid nitrogen (liquid nitrogen is readily available and close in temperature to LAr), autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Four sensors were mounted 10 cm apart, to an aluminum bar. The bar can be moved vertically through the cylinder to cross calibrate the sensors (figure 3) thus increasing the precision of the sensors. The cylinder is double walled with a valve to attach a vacuum pump. The air between the walls is removed to insulate the cylinder. As seen in figures 4 and 5, when the pump is turned off, air fills the walls, and condensation is accumulated on the outside of the cylinder, showing that the contents inside the cylinder are heating.

Figure 1. Outer Vessel of ProtoDUNE Photo credit: International Journal of High-Energy Physics Figure 3. Temperature Sensors

Figure 2. Gradient Monitor in progress

Figure 4. Cryostat Nero Platinum Suite 2021 v23.0.1010 Full Version with vacuum pump

Figure 5. Roughly 2 minutes after removing vacuum pump

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R E S E A RC H O B J EC T I V E S

REFERENCES

Assemble temperature gradient monitor. Test commercial temperature sensors manufactured with an accuracy of about 100 mK to see if a precision of 10 mK can be obtained. Become familiar with ROOT Data Analysis Framework to analyze data.

Abi, B., et al. (2017, June 23). The Single-Phase Proto DUNE Technical Design Report. Retrieved from arX iv:1706.07081. Adamowski, M. et al. (2015). Development of Cryogenic Installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 101, 012029. doi:10.1088/1758899x/101/1/012029.

R E S U LT S Results with a precision of 10 to 15 mK were previously found with cross-calibration. Further improvements are still being made to the apparatus. Additional measurements are in progress. Once the precision of the temperature monitor is satisfactorily met, research may begin on circulation systems to ensure the purity of LAr in the cryostat.

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AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S This research has been supported by the Office of Science, in the Department of Energy, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Mahalo to Radovan Milincic, Jelena Maricic, and Yujing Sun for guidance and support on this project.

Pueo O KĹŤ Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Waves in a Flute Clare Ann Ronquillo Faculty Advisor: Jacob Tyler, M.S, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N : The flute is an open pipe shaped instrument that is a member of the woodwind instrument family. The flute is the only woodwind instrument that does not require a reed to produce sound. Rather, air is blown directly into the hole of the mouthpiece. This hole is called the bore. Air blown into the bore resonates to create sound.

WAV E S OV E RV I EW:

N O D E S A N D S TA N D I N G WAV E S :

Sound waves are viewed as longitudinal waves. These waves are seen as the displacement in a medium in which is parallel to the wave&#39;s’ direction of travel. A wave is measured in terms of frequency, f, which is defined as 1/T or how many cycles occur in one second. Its unit is Hertz (Hz), in which 1 Hz can represent 1 cycle each second. Wavelengths defined by the Greek letter lambda,is the distance measured between points on various pulses of a autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Waves are defined as a pattern of oscillation, when two waves move in opposite directions causing the wave appear to not move and the nodes to remain in the same place. Node is found within standing waves where there is no motion. Antinodes are points, that are found within a standing wave with the greatest amplitude.

A I R V I B R AT I O N S I N A F LU T E : When the flutist blows a stream of air from their lips’ embouchure, the stream is blown against the edge of the mouthpiece bore. If the stream is disturbed, it becomes autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ wave-like displacement which then travels along the bore and will either enter or deflect out of the bore. The sound vibration of the flute is the basis of the disturbance in the air stream. This action leads to air flowing in and out of the mouthpiece hole. To produce a sustained note, the speed, v, of the airstream must be adjusted by increasing or decreasing pressure when blowing so that the frequency of the note is played. When this is successfully achieved, the stream will fill the body of the flute. A slow airstream is produced to play low notes and a fast airstream for higher notes.

T H E F LU T E I S A N O P E N P I P E : The flute is an open cylindrical tube shaped instrument that is open at both ends. When played, the total pressure is the atmospheric pressure. In other words, the acoustic pressure of the flute is equal to zero. This is due to the existence of pressure nodes, which are points that are located at the end of the tube. In terms of standing waves and frequency, the flute at the length of 66 cm, would have a node located in the center and antinodes at each end.

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P I TC HH A R M O N I C Sautocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, &amp; F R Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ U E N C Y:

OV E R B LOW I N G :

Harmonic refers to a mixture of pitches for the note played depending on how high or low the frequency is. Pitch is a musical term that defines the depth of a tone. A low frequency equals to low notes and a higher frequency equal to high notes. While nodes are separated by the distance of half of the interfering waves that create standing waves, this sets up the idea harmonics. The temperature on any given day affects the speed of sound which then affects the frequency in the flute, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Speed, frequency, and wavelength all relate to each other through; v = f. An important aspect of harmonics is the principle of superposition where there are waves on top of other waves.

Pressing down on the keys of the flute or releasing them can result in making the tube short or long which thereby affects the fundamental frequency and harmonics as shown in figure 5. When the flutist is playing low notes, majority of the keys are down which makes the flute long. As the flutist plays the scale going up, less keys are pressed which results in a shorter tube or flute. Going up the scale can also be achieved by forcing the air stream blown into the instrument. The action will force the sound created, into the second harmonic register, this is viewed as “overblowing.” The autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ of tube also contributes to low and high frequency.

As shown in figure 5, all of the frequencies travel through the same flute at the same time. Therefore, with the understanding of the v = fthe frequency of the fundamental harmonic is represented as; f = v ⁄ ,= v /2L. In this equation, the variable L, represents the length of the flute.

REFERENCES Griffith, W.T. and Brosing, J.W, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. (2014).” The Physics of Everyday Phenomena. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Boehm, Theobold, The Flute and Flute Playing, New York: Dover, 1964. Toff, Nancy, The Flute Book. New York: Oxfore, 1996. Quantz, Johann Joachim, On Playing the Flute, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1966. Ryde, S, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. (1995). The density of a gas and the speed of sound. Australian Science Teachers Journal, 41(2), 51.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Using Parallel Processes and Numerical Methods Applied to the Planetary Landing Problem Jonathan Wallen Faculty Advisor: Dr. Aaron Hanai Kapi‘olani Community College, Honolulu, HI

I N T RO D U C T I O N

M ET H O D S

Planetary landing is an active engineering problem being faced by many space agencies and organizations around the world, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Planetary landing technology1(PLT) is a broad term that incorporates every asspacecraft on a planetary body in a autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ manner. This incorporates many technical disciplines; orbital mechanics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, thermodynamics, fluid mechanic, etc. A fantastically successful example of planetary landing is the Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover).pect of technical detail required to land some

When faced with such a dynamic problem, one way to begin is to simplify it then add more and more variables. The basic skeleton used to solve this problem are the equations for gravity: Fg=(GMeM)/r^2 After simplifying constants, integrating Newton’s second law and solving for velocity: V = (sqrt(mu/r)) (G=gravitational parameter, Me=mass of earth, M=mass of spacecraft, r=distance from planetary surface, mu=G*Me) With this established numerical methods autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ be employed to solve the more complicated differential equations by turning a 2nd order differential equation into coupled first order differential equation. Matlab was used to compute states over time that a spacecraft takes and PLT the results.

Mars Science Laboratory planetary landing Plan focused from entry to touchdown2.

There are many moving pieces in the whole package of planetary landing. The figure above highlights the tactile engineering disciplines of the PLT problem. However in this research, the focus has been on the orbital mechanics that arrive a spacecraft to a planetary body in way that the landing can be controlled.

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R E S U LT S After using numerical differential equation solving methods from the Matlab library, the states of the spacecraft over time can be plotted, such as position and speed:

C O N C LU S I O N Thus far, these computations and numerical methods have been applied to “solve” the problem one variable at a time. The next steps of this research will be employing parallel processing3 to improve the computing power needed to solve these numerical methods. This will enable running more iterations in less time, which in turn enables researchers to analyze more possible solutions to the PLT problem.

REFERENCES 1. Delaune, J., Le Besnerais, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, G., Voirin, T., autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, Farges, J., &amp; Bourdarias, C. (2016). Visual–inertial navigation for pinpoint planetary landing using scale-based landmark matching. Robotics &amp; Autonomous Systems, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, 7863-82. doi:10.1016/j.robot.2016.01.007 2. NASA.Entry, Descent, and Landing, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. https://mars.nasa. gov/msl/mission/technology/insituexploration/edl/ 3. Ayguadé, E., &amp; Mueller, M. (2007, October). Introduc tion. International Journal of Parallel Programming. pp. 437-439. doi:10.1007/s10766-007-0055-0.

AC K N OW L E D G M E N T S Thanks to the HESTEMP grant program and Dr Dilmurat Azimov for providing the content, funding, and opportunity for this research.

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Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Student Reflections Explore Kapi’olani’s STEM experience

A N D R EW C H A N G Physical Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College

Aloha, my name is Andrew Chang and I am the student artist who created the cover illustrations for the Pueo O Kū STEM research publication, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. I’m a student and ASNS degree recipient in physical science at Kapi‘olani Community College. After graduating with my ASNS degree, I transferred to UH Mānoa where I am currently majoring in chemistry and minoring in art. Producing the illustrations for the STEM publication merges my two passions of art and science. I’ve been lucky enough to have been given the opportunity to illustrate this publication, which this will be the third cover I have done for the STEM publication. This year, the illustration for the publication of Pueo O Kū represents how the Pueo, the Hawaiian short-eared owl, travels back and forth autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ Mauka (mountain) to Makai (by the sea), overseeing the Kānaka (people). For me, this represented students, just like myself, who have transferred from Kapi‘olani CC to Mānoa, and are still involved with STEM here at Kapi‘olani. I have been involved in STEM since I graduated high school and participated in many research projects during my time here at Kapi‘olani STEM. When I transferred over to Mānoa, I continued to stay involved with the STEM program here. I will be graduating from Mānoa this spring, and I hope that incoming STEM students will embrace the opportunity to get involved in the Kapi‘olani CC STEM program.

My name is Katie Gipson and I am currently getting my Associates in Science Jogos de NSFW de Graça para Baixar Natural Sciences degree - Concentration in Life Sciences, but will get transfer to a mainland university to get a Zoology Degree. I am interested in behavioral ecology and hope to work with wolves one day. I have participated in research on the Manu-o-ku (White Fairy Terns) monitoring their nesting and parental care behaviors as well as the chick’s growth rates. I have also participated in research on algae in Maunalua Bay monitoring both native and invasive species. Working on my project I’ve learned that research takes a lot of work and dedication, but is very rewarding at the end if you enjoy the work that you’re doing.

K AT I E G I P S O N Natural Sciences with Concentration in Life Sciences Kapi‘olani Community College

Working on this Journal, I realized that not everyone is at the same stage in their work and there is a wide range of subjects that I never thought to research. My contribution to the Pueo O Kū Journal (reviewing and scoring the projects that were submitted to be published in the journal) has helped me to understand how to better present my research and given me ideas on what I can work on in the future.

Student Reflections

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My name is Ronnie Kauanoe and I am a peer mentor for computer science at the KCC STEM Center seeking my degree autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ computer science. I’m interested in software development and hoping to help others by creating new programs, whether that’s through the medical field or self-driving cars. I’ve never done official research like what’s been done through the Pueo O Kū Journal but I’m really glad that Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ could take part in this opportunity. I was a peer reviewer for the journal and looked at projects from the engineering, physics, and biology departments. I especially liked the project describing how an Atwood System functions that was written in Hawaiian Pidgin.

RO N N I E K AUA N O E Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College As a Kapi‘olani Community College student who graduated with a ASNS in Pre-engineering, I recently transferred to the University of Hawai‘i at Manoa continuing my education and am currently pursuing a Bachelor&#39;s of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. I am still exploring my career options. I have a passion for data analysis and visualization and see myself working with a team to design, code, problem solve, and constantly learn something new. I participated in several STEM related research projects: Identifying A Viable Mass Flow Rate and Specific Thrust Impulse for Precision Spacecraft Landing on Mars and Artificially Induced Oscillations In A Liquid Medium For Coastal Flood Prediction, to name a few. These experiences have taught me how to: print using the 3D printer, program in Arduino to make a wave tank, and use ordinary differential equations to create simulations in Matlab.

J O R DA N L I Electrical Engineering Major University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

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Being a board member on the Pueo O Kū Journal allowed me to gain insights in various topics of STEM research. It also allotted me the opportunity to witness a student’s growth through their performance of the research. While on the board, I examined all the submitted STEM research projects and selected outstanding research to be showcased in the journal, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. I hope to use my learned experiences to reviewing the journal, to improve my own research projects in the future.

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


‘Alohi Madrona is a Native Hawaiian student double majoring in AA in Hawaiian Studies and ASNS in Biological Sciences. A graduate of Ke Kula Kaiapuni ‘o Ānuenue, ‘Alohi is fluent in ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i and brought valuable cultural insight and knowledge to the Pueo O Kū Peer Review Committee. ‘Alohi has participated in a number of undergraduate research experiences that have merged her cultural knowledge and biological sciences interest, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. She is a current a KapCC peer mentor for Ka Pōhaku Kihi Pa‘a Peer Mentoring Program in Hawaiian Language and Botany, and is an ‘Ike Wai Undergraduate Scholar.

‘A LO H I M A D RO N A Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College I am Leah McCabe and I am pursuing my B.S. in Astrophysics. I plan to get a Ph.D. and plan to be involved in research. I also would really enjoy teaching. My first semester at KapCC, I got involved in a research project and have found something to dabble with every semester since, from biodiesel to orbital mechanics and dark matter. Working on the Pueo O Kū Journal has shown me that there are many ways to present research. It really stressed how important it is to give a good background on the subject for someone that might not autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ the same background in science. The figures and images are great for reference and make the material approachable. This project stretched me in that it made me focus on topics that aren&#39;t in my sphere of influence. Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ at ideas that I don&#39;t work with daily helped to reshape my understanding of how to convey difficult concepts in a meaningful and relatable way.

LEAH MCCABE Astrophysics Major University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

Student Reflections

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K E A N U RO C H ET T E -Y U Biological Science Major Kapi‘olani Community College

Ia Orana Tātou, My name is Keanu. I am from Tahiti, and I started college at Kapi‘olani Community College (KCC) during the Fall of 2017. I am currently an ASNS in Biological Science Major at KCC. I am interested in Marine Biology. I am a student Kāko’o at the STEM center. My job in the Pueo ‘O Kū Journal was to articulate and organize tasks concerning the posters ranking operation. In a nutshell, I was a liaison between the Outreach Event Coordinator, Keōmailani Eaton and the Peer Review Committee. I had collected the poster slides that were submitted to the submission manager through the Board of Student Publications, and ensured that they were anonymous. Then, autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌, I would send them to the Peer Review Committee so that they were able to review the research projects and rank the posters. After each peer reviewer completed the ranking process, we had to decide which projects would be published in the journal by using a 5-point scale ranking system. We averaged the results from the Peer Review Committee ranking to determine the posters “score”. Once the projects were reviewed and ranked, I sent the original poster files to Allyson, the Art Director, for her to layout. The quality of the research was great. I was surprised it is the work of undergraduate students. It made my realize that researches are not reserved to Master and PhD students only. It made me want to start doing some undergraduate research as well.

First off, I&#39;d like to congratulate the students that were chosen to be featured in this publication. Your commitment to continuations growth and discovering the unknown is inspiring.

A L LY S O N V I L L A N U EVA Interface Design Major Kapi‘olani Community College

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I am a second-year Interface Design student in the New Media Arts autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌. Working on Pueo O Kū has been both challenging and rewarding in many ways. Each paper had it&#39;s own unique character to them and it was my responsibility to pair the body copy (text) with imagery. Autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌ fonts and seeing how they live together on paper brings me great designing bliss. The papers were selected weekly and I would receive them in increments. As I opened each file, it felt like Christmas. I didn&#39;t know what to expect and felt excited to be able to reconstruct and play with a new toy. In a sense, I&#39;m humbly grateful to receive such presents and hope that when you read this publication that you receive the gift of curiosity, knowledge, and motivation. Kūlia i ka nu‘u: “Strive for the highest”

Pueo O Kū Journal of Science, Technology, Engineering &amp; Mathematics


Kapiâ&amp;#x20AC;&amp;#x2DC;olani Community College 4303 Diamond Head Road Honolulu, Hi 96816

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Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
autocad 2017 [november 2020]  ❌

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