Media Archive | Assembly Internet

Media Archives s

Media Archives s

The results of our research revealed, among others, that there is an extended use of Facebook, YouTube and blogs by the archival services, while. Internet Archive is a non-profit digital library offering free universal access to books, movies & music, as well as billion archived web pages. In documenta archiv's Media Archive, analog and digital media from documenta exhibitions is acquired, collected, developed and preserved.

You can watch a thematic video

Mixed Media Frenzy - Old School

Media Archives

The mandate of the Media Commons Media Archives is to support the curriculum and research in various disciplines at the University of Toronto. While it serves primarily the faculty, staff, Media Archives s current students at the University, it is also available to UofT alumni and the broader community. 

The Media Archives acquires, preserves and makes available archival and special collection materials of Canadian national and regional significance relating to the audiovisual and media communities and popular culture. This includes, but is not limited to, historical and contemporary film/video production, advertising, electronic and print journalism, broadcasting, photographic arts, and multimedia and music production. These collections contain film, video, audio, Media Archives s, photographic, digital and printed media formats. 

To support the diverse Media Archives collection, the Media Commons continues to acquire appropriate current and non-current audio/video technology to allow creation of research copies from the Media Archives collections.

If you are interested in donating to the Media Archives, please contact us. 

Finding Aids

Archival Collections

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Features

LTFS Archive

Stay on top of your assets: anytime, anywhere

ELEMENTS ARCHIVE helps to maintain high-performance on the production storage by off-loading assets to LTO tapes. By providing unique features such as access via a web-based interface with full-text search engine and advanced management capabilities, ELEMENTS ARCHIVE becomes one-of-a-kind.

ELEMENTS ARCHIVE actively maintains the highest possible integrity of the data and stores all information in a centralized database that simultaneously provides detailed information about every project.

In addition, you can choose your favorite tapes and libraries, as ELEMENTS ARCHIVE has certified a broad-range of tape libraries, including Quantum, IBM, HP, Tandberg and Media Archives s more – feel free to build libraries with multiple drives and hundreds of slots at no additional costs.

How does it work exactly?

Without the need for a hardware client, ELEMENTS’ LTFS support makes LTFS tapes accessible through the web-interface, both for reading and writing. For each file pro tools crack 2020 Archives tape metadata is written to a database, establishing a fully indexed archive over time, allowing to search for any keyword and information stored in the archive – just like using a web search engine. Adding customized fields provides the option to include additional information, e.g. customer project IDs, tape location or reference numbers, enhancing the scope of the archive significantly.

What are the benefits of the job manager?

Complying with LTFS standards, the job manager will refuse to backup files that exceed the capacity of the tape. But it will allow to create jobs consisting of multiple files or folders that are bigger than one tape and will split them up accordingly. Even when a backup job was started already, with ELEMENTS it is possible to pause the backup job and execute a restore job – and resume the paused backup job Media Archives s the restore job was finalized. Unlike other archive applications, ELEMENTS allows for creating multiple copies even if only Adobe photoshop cc crack serial keygen tape drive is available. With the job manager, jobs can be executed asynchronously which is very important when removing the original files from disk or the recording media.

How does this help to keep track of files?

The LTFS job manager allows for creating backup and archive jobs while keeping track of your files. To align files that belong to a certain project or customer, tape groups can be created, while tapes can be added to a tape group at any time to increase capacity. Within a tape group the job manager will try to Cyberlink power director 18 crack serial keygen up tapes to use space optimally.

Источник: [arenaqq.us]
Narrative

Media Archive

11/16/ Assembly Select Committee on the State of Hate WatchListen 11/15/ Joint Hearing Orange County Oil Spill Select Committee Media Archives s Budget Subcommittee No. 3 on Climate Crisis, Resources, Energy & Transportation and Natural Resources Committee WatchListen 11/08/ Media Archives s Assembly Budget Subcommittee No.2 on Education Finance WatchListen 11/04/ Joint Committee on Fisheries and Aquaculture WatchListen 11/03/ Assembly Higher Education Committee WatchListen 11/03/ Joint Hearing Assembly Select Committee on Ports and Goods Movement and Senate Select Committee on Ports and Goods Movement WatchListen 10/28/ Joint Hearing Assembly Elections And Senate Elections And Constitutional Amendments WatchListen 10/27/ Assembly Joint Hearing Education And Select Committee On Native American Affairs WatchListen 10/25/ Assembly Joint Hearing Budget Subcommittee No. 4 On State Administration and Accountability and Administrative Review WatchListen 10/21/ Assembly Select Committee on Latina Inequities WatchListen 10/20/ Assembly Select Committee On Social Housing WatchListen 10/13/ Assembly Joint Hearing Education And Health And Budget Subcommittee No. 2 On Education Finance And Budget Subcommittee No. 1 On Health And Human Services WatchListen 10/13/ Assembly Select Committee on Economic Development in the Inland Empire WatchListen 10/06/ Assembly Select Committee On California’s Lithium Economy WatchListen 10/05/ Assembly Health Committee WatchListen 10/01/ Assembly Select Committee on Corporate Board and California Workforce Diversity WatchListen 09/20/ Assembly Select Committee on Streamlining Services for Victims of Interpersonal Violence WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Business and Professions Committee WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Governmental Organization Committee WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Housing and Community Development Committee WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Human Services Committee WatchListen 09/10/ Assembly Labor and Employment Committee WatchListen 09/09/ Assembly Appropriations Committee WatchListen 09/09/ Assembly Communications and Conveyance Committee WatchListen 09/09/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/09/ Assembly Privacy and Consumer Protection Committee WatchListen 09/08/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/08/ Assembly Insurance Committee WatchListen 09/07/ Assembly Budget Committee WatchListen 09/07/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/03/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/03/ Assembly Governmental Organization Committee WatchListen 09/02/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 09/02/ Assembly Jobs, Economic Development, And The Economy Committee WatchListen 09/02/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 09/01/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 08/31/ Assembly Elections Committee WatchListen 08/30/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 08/30/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 08/26/ Assembly Appropriations Committee WatchListen 08/26/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 08/26/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 08/25/ Assembly Select Committee on Emerging Technologies and Innovation WatchListen 08/25/ Assembly Select Committee on Native American Affairs WatchListen 08/25/ Assembly Utilities and Energy Committee WatchListen 08/24/ Assembly Elections Committee WatchListen 08/24/ Assembly Housing and Community Development Committee WatchListen 08/23/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 08/23/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 08/23/ Joint Hearing Assembly Water, Parks, & Wildlife and Agriculture Committees WatchListen 08/20/ Assembly Select Committee on Orange County Homelessness and Mental Health Services WatchListen 08/19/ Assembly Appropriations Committee WatchListen 08/19/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 08/19/ Assembly Rules Media Archives s WatchListen 08/18/ Assembly Emergency Management Committee WatchListen 08/18/ Assembly Select Committee on Clean Energy Economy WatchListen 08/18/ Assembly Select Committee on Native American Affairs WatchListen 08/18/ Joint Hearing Jobs, Economic Development, and the Economy and Select Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship WatchListen 08/17/ Assembly Select Committee on the Status of Boys and Men of Color WatchListen 08/17/ Joint Hearing Assembly Human Services and Senate Human Services WatchListen 08/17/ Joint Legislative Committee on Climate Change Policies WatchListen 08/16/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/27/ Joint Committee On Fisheries And Aquaculture Committee WatchListen 07/21/ Joint Legislative Committee On Emergency Management WatchListen 07/15/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/15/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 07/14/ Assembly Appropriations Committee WatchListen 07/14/ Assembly Business and Professions Committee WatchListen 07/14/ Assembly Revenue and Taxation Committee WatchListen 07/13/ Assembly Budget Committee WatchListen 07/13/ Assembly Health Committee WatchListen 07/13/ Assembly Insurance Committee WatchListen 07/13/ Assembly Judiciary Committee WatchListen 07/13/ Assembly Public Safety Committee WatchListen 07/12/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/12/ Assembly Governmental Organization Committee WatchListen 07/12/ Assembly Housing and Community Development Committee WatchListen 07/12/ Assembly Select Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship WatchListen 07/08/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/08/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen 07/08/ Assembly Select Committee on Cybersecurity WatchListen 07/07/ Assembly Appropriations Committee WatchListen 07/07/ Assembly Budget Committee WatchListen 07/07/ Assembly Media Archives s and Conveyance Committee WatchListen 07/07/ Assembly Education Committee WatchListen 07/07/ Assembly Natural Resources Committee WatchListen 07/06/ Assembly Business and Professions Committee WatchListen 07/06/ Assembly Health Committee WatchListen 07/06/ Assembly Judiciary Committee WatchListen 07/06/ Assembly Labor And Employment Committee WatchListen 07/06/ Assembly Military And Veterans Affairs Committee WatchListen 07/05/ Assembly Emergency Management Committee WatchListen 07/05/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/05/ Assembly Revenue and Taxation Committee WatchListen 07/05/ Assembly Transportation Committee WatchListen 07/01/ Assembly Budget Committee WatchListen 07/01/ Assembly Floor Session WatchListen 07/01/ Assembly Privacy and Consumer Protection Committee WatchListen 07/01/ Assembly Rules Committee WatchListen
Источник: [arenaqq.us]
  • Film & Media Archive

    Small boxes of Sony reel film from the Kartemquin Collection, most with labels reading "Hoops" or "Hoops Dreams."

    The award-winning nonprofit production company Kartemquin Films donated the physical materials in its archives to Washington University Libraries’ Film & Media Archive.

    View Collection about Kartemquin Films Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Filmmaker Henry Hampton stands in front of a heavily occupied bookshelf with a seated Marian Wright Edelman nearby.

    Henry Hampton&#;s work in documentary film chronicled the 20th century’s great political and social movements focusing on the lives of

    View Collection about Henry Hampton Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Close-up on the "CIVIL RIGHTS PROJECT" sticker labels on the film boxes.

    Documentary materials tackling racism, poverty, and environmental issues focusing on “unheard voices, unserved voices.”

    View Collection about Jack Willis Collection
  • Digital CollectionsFilm & Media Archive

    Henry Hampton with Blackside colleagues Kenn Rabin and Cindy Kuhn. Kuhn looks to be taking copious notes while Hampton and Rabin discuss a topic. Eyes on the Prize and an interview play on two TVs in the background.

    A part series that is considered to be the definitive documentary on the Civil Rights Movement.

    View Collection about Eyes on the Prize
  • Film & Media Archive

    The Harlem Hellfighters in peacoats with arms raised in a cheer.

    William Miles was a documentary filmmaker whose work highlighted stories of African American achievements in the military, the arts, sports,

    View Collection about William Miles Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Primarily contains academic and educational films from the s and 70s along with supporting materials of teacher, study, and film

    View Collection about Educational Film Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    The Harry Wald Collection is an assemblage of burlesque films largely from the s to the s.

    View Collection about Harry Wald Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Interview with Frank Marshall Davis, a noted American writer, journalist, and poet who was a part of the Harlem Renaissance

    View Collection about Frank Marshall Davis Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Dana Brown with two coffee trays, one lighter than the other.

    Original film and audio material, scripts, and correspondence pertinent to the cultural history of the mid-to-lateth century.

    View Collection about Dana Brown Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Group photo of students and volunteers with Richard Beymer at a Freedom School during Freedom Summer, Mississippi,

    Richard Beymer&#;s works, including footage from his time working with the Freedom Summer volunteers from SNCC, is preserved with the

    View Collection about A Regular Bouquet Collection
  • Film Media Archives s Media Archive

    Judy Richardson made her mark as a film producer, editor, and lecturer and continues to conduct workshops for teaching the

    View Collection about Judy Richardson Personal Papers
  • Film & Media Archive

    Materials related to two Paradigm films dealing with issues of social justice and inclusion.

    View Collection about Paradigm Productions Collection

Collecting Areas

D.B. Dowd IObit Smart Defrag 7.0.0.62 Crack Download Serial key [Latest] Version Graphic History Library

The Media Archives s. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library at Washington University is comprised of original art and printed material from Media Archives s fields of popular American pictorial graphic culture.

View Collection D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library

Digital Collections

Digital Collections highlight those portions of the Julian Edison Department of Special Collections that have been made or born-digital.

View Collection Digital Collections

Film & Media Archive

The Archive is committed to the preservation of documentary film and other media which chronicles America's great political and social movements with a particular emphasis on the African-American experience.

View Collection Media Archives s & Media Archives s Archive

Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library Special Collections

The Art & Architecture Special Collections is a 3, volume collection of rare and unique art and design printed materials located at the Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library. The main focus is illustrated books, prints, and photographs from the 18th and 19th centuries.

View Collection Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library Special Collections

Manuscript Collections

Washington University Libraries' Julian Edison Department of Special Collections Manuscript collections contain a broad range of materials dating from the 2nd century BC through the present.

View Collection Manuscript Collections

Modern Literature Collection

The Modern Literature Collection includes more than authors, presses, and journals, with more than of these represented by manuscript materials.

View Collection Modern Literature Collection

Rare Book Collections

The Rare Book Collections include books from all Special Collection areas. The collections’ primary strengths are in the areas of literature; the material culture of the book, including the history of printing, graphic design, and Media Archives s book arts; and aspects of American and world history.

View Collection Rare Book Collections

University Archives

Washington University Archives chronicles the history of Washington University in St. Louis from to today, with over unique collections including campus publications, reports, photographic prints and negatives, books, film, sound recordings, oral histories, architectural plans, and artifacts.

View Collection University Archives

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Archive

Accumulation of historical records

For other uses, see Archive (disambiguation).

For the Wikipedia coordination point on archived pages, see Wikipedia:Historical archive.

For details on how to archive a talk page, see Help:Archiving a talk page.

"Digital archive" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Digital library. For other uses, see Digital archiving.

Shelved record boxes of an archive.

An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located.[1] Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated Media Archives s a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism",[2] and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity.

In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Media Archives s records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines of which many identical copies may exist. This means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.[3]

A person who works in archives is called an archivist, Media Archives s. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. The physical place of storage can be referred to as an archive (more usual in the United Kingdom), an Media Archives s (more usual in the United States), or a repository.[4][5]

The computing use of the term "archive" should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term.

Etymology[edit]

The English word archive is derived from the French archives (plural), and in turn from Latinarchīum or archīvum,[6] the romanized form of the Greekἀρχεῖον (arkheion). The Greek term originally referred to the home or dwelling of the Archon, a ruler or chief magistrate, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted; from there its meaning broadened to encompass such concepts as "town hall" and "public records".[7] The root of the Greek word is ἀρχή (arkhē), Media Archives s, meaning among other things "magistracy, office, government",[8] and derived from the verb ἄρχω (arkhō), meaning "to begin, Media Archives s, rule, govern" (also the root of English words such as "anarchy" and "monarchy").[9]

The word archive is first attested in English in the early 17th century, and the word archivist in the mid 18th century, although in these periods both terms are usually found used only in reference to foreign institutions and personnel. Not until the late 19th century did they begin to be used at all widely in domestic contexts.[5][10]

The adjective formed from archive is archival.

History[edit]

The practice of keeping official documents is very old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds (and sometime thousands) of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Mari, Media Archives s, Amarna, Hattusas, Ugarit, and Pylos. These discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages, literature, Media Archives s, and politics.

Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans (who called them Tabularia). However, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, Media Archives s, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches, kingdoms, and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have often kept their official status uninterruptedly until now. They are the basic tool for historical research on these ages.[11]

England after developed archives and archival research methods.[12] The Swiss developed archival systems after [13]

Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as A.D., were created in during the Revolution from various government, religious, and private archives seized by the revolutionaries.[14]

Users and institutions[edit]

Historians, Media Archives s, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, Media Archives s, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives.[15] The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are many kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types: academic, business (for profit), government, non-profit, and other.[16] There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, and tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans. These areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created.

Academic[edit]

See also: Institutional repository

Archives in colleges, universities, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist.[17][page&#;needed] Academic archives exist to preserve institutional history and serve the academic community.[18] An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records, personal and professional papers of former professors and presidents, Media Archives s, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies. Access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only; some have posted hours for Media Archives s inquiries. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help Media Archives s funds for their library or school.[19] Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions usually require an undergraduate diploma, but typically archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science (preferably certified by a body such as the American Library Association).[20] Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions.[21]

Business (for profit)[edit]

Archives located in for-profit institutions are usually those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which also owns the separate museum World of Coca-Cola), Procter and Gamble, Motorola Heritage Services and Archives, and Levi Strauss & Co. These corporate archives maintain historic documents and items related to the history and administration of their companies.[22] Business archives serve the purpose of helping their corporations maintain control over their brand by retaining memories of the company's past. Especially in business archives, records management is separate from the historic aspect of archives. Workers in these types of archives may have any combination of training and degrees, from either a history or library background. These archives are typically not open to the public and only used by workers of the owner company, though some allow approved visitors by appointment.[23] Business archives are concerned with maintaining the integrity of their company, and are therefore selective of how their materials may be used.[24]

Government[edit]

Main article: National archives

Government archives include those maintained by local and state government as well as those maintained Media Archives s the national (or federal) government. Anyone may use a government archive, Media Archives s, and frequent users include reporters, genealogists, writers, historians, students, and people seeking information on the history of their home or region. Many government archives are open to the public and no appointment is required to visit.[25]

In the United States, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) maintains central archival facilities in the District of Columbia and College Park, Maryland, with regional facilities distributed throughout the United States. Some city or local governments may have repositories, but their organization and accessibility varies widely.[26] Similar to the library profession, certification requirements and education also varies widely, from state to state.[27] Professional associations themselves encourage the need to professionalize.[28] NARA offers the Certificate of Federal Records Management Training Program for professional development.[29] The majority of state and local archives staff hold a bachelor's degree[30]—increasingly repositories list advanced degrees (e.g. MA, MLS/MLIS, PhD) and certifications as a position requirement or preference.[20]

In the UK, the National Archives (formerly known as the Public Record Office) is the government archive for Media Archives s and Wales. The English Heritage Archive is the public archive of English Heritage. The National Archives of Scotland, located in Edinburgh, serve that country while the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast is the government archive for Northern Ireland.

A network of county record offices and other local authority-run archives exists throughout England, Wales, and Scotland and holds many important collections, including local government, landed estates, church, and business records. Many archives have contributed catalogues to the national "Access to Archives" programme and online searching across collections is possible.

In France, the French Archives Administration (Service interministériel des Archives de France) in the Ministry of Culture manages the National Archives (Archives nationales), which possess &#;km ( miles) of archives as of [update] (the total length of occupied shelves put next to each other), with original records going as far back as A.D, Media Archives s.as well as the departmental archives (archives départementales), located in the préfectures of each of the départements of France, which possess 2,&#;km (1, miles) of archives (as of [update]), and also the local city archives, about in total, which possess &#;km ( miles) of archives (as of [update]).[31] Put together, the total volume of archives under the supervision of the French Archives Administration is the largest in the world.

In India, the National Archives (NAI) are located in New Delhi.

In Taiwan, the National Archives Administration are located in Taipei.[32]

Most intergovernmental organisations keep their own historical archives. However, a number of European organisations, Media Archives s, including the European Commission, choose to deposit their archives with the European University Institute in Florence.[33]

Church[edit]

A prominent Church Archives is the Vatican Secret Archive.[34]Archdioceses, dioceses, and parishes also have archives in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. Very important are monastery archives, because of their antiquity, like the ones of Monte Cassino, Saint Gall, and Fulda. The records in these archives include manuscripts, papal records, local Church records, Media Archives s, photographs, oral histories, audiovisual materials, and architectural drawings.

Most Protestant denominations have archives as well, Media Archives s the Presbyterian U.S.A Historical Society,[35] The Moravian Church Archives,[36] The Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives,[37] the United Methodist Archives and History Center of the United Methodist Church,[38] and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).[39]

Films[edit]

Main category: Film archives

See also: List of film archives and Cinematheque

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October )

Non-profit[edit]

Non-profit archives include those in historical societies, not-for-profit businesses such as hospitals, and the repositories within foundations. Such repositories are typically set up with private funds from donors Media Archives s preserve the papers and history of specific persons or places. These institutions may rely on grant funding from the government as well as private funds.[40] Depending on the availability of funds, non-profit archives may be as small as the historical society in a rural town to as big as a state historical society that rivals a government archives. Users of this type of archive may vary as much as the institutions that hold them. Employees of non-profit archives may be professional archivists, Media Archives s, paraprofessionals, or volunteers, as the education required for a position at a non-profit archive varies with the demands of the collection's user base.[41]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archive

Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web and ensuring the collection is preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public. Due to the massive size of the Web, web archivists typically employ web crawlers for automated collection.

Similarly, software code and documentation can be archived on the web, as with the example of CPAN.

Other[edit]

Jean-Nickolaus Tretter Collection in Gay, Media Archives s, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Studies in May

Some archives defy categorization. There are tribal archives within the Native American nations in North America, and there are archives that exist within the papers of private individuals. Many museums keep archives in order to prove the provenance of their pieces. Any institution or persons wishing to keep their significant papers in an organized fashion that employs the most basic principles of archival Media Archives s may have an archive. In the census of archivists taken in the United States, % of archivists were employed in institutions that defied categorization. This was a separate Media Archives s from the % that identified themselves as self-employed.[42]

Another type of archive is the Public Secrets project.[43] This is an interactive testimonial, in which women incarcerated in the California State Prison System describe what happened to them. The archive's mission is to gather stories from women who want to express themselves, and want their stories heard. This collection includes transcripts and an audio recording of the women telling their stories.

The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records, or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain other types of records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondence, and meeting minutes. Some archives are made up of a compilation of both types of collections. An example of this type of combined compilation is The Transgender Archives at the University of Victoria which contain a multitude of collections of donations from both individuals and organizations from all over the world. Many of these donations have yet to be cataloged, but are currently in the process of being digitally preserved and made available to the public online.[44]

The Arctic World Archive is a commercially-run facility for data preservation located in the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, which contains data of historical and cultural interest from several countries, as well as all of American multinational company GitHub's open source code. The data is kept on reels of specially developed film in a steel vault buried deep beneath the permafrost, with the data storage medium expected to last for to years.[45]

Standardization[edit]

The International Council on Archives (ICA) has developed a number of standards on archival description including the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD(G).[46] ISAD(G) is meant to be used in conjunction with national standards or as a basis for nations to build their own standards.[47] In the United States, ISAD(G) is implemented through Describing Archives: A Content Standard, popularly known as "DACS".[48] In Canada, ISAD(G) is implemented through the Council of Archives[49] as the Rules for Archival Description, also known as "RAD".[50]

ISO is currently working on standards.[51][52]

Protection[edit]

The cultural property stored in archives is threatened by natural disasters, wars or other emergencies in many countries. International partners for archives are UNESCO and Blue Shield International in accordance with the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property from and its 2nd Protocol from From a national and international perspective, there are many collaborations between archives and local Blue Shield organizations to ensure the sustainable existence of cultural property storage facilities. In addition to working with the United Nations peacekeeping in the event of war, the protection of the archives requires the creation of "no strike lists", the linking of civil and military structures and the training of local personnel.[53][54][55][56]

Limitations and alternatives[edit]

Archives that primarily contain physical artifacts and printed documents are increasingly shifting to digitizing items that did not originate digitally, which are then usually stored away. This allows for greater accessibility when using search tools and databases as well as an increase in the availability of digitized materials from outside the physical parameters of an archive; but there may be an element of loss or disconnect when there are gaps in what items are made available digitally.[57] Both physical and digital archives also generally have specific limitations regarding the types of content that is deemed able to be preserved, categorized, and archived. Conventional institutionalized archive spaces have a tendency to prioritize tangible items over ephemeral experiences, actions, effects, and even bodies.[58][59] This type of potentially biased prioritization may be seen as a form of privileging particular types of knowledge or interpreting certain experiences as more valid than others, limiting the content available to archive users, leading to barriers in accessing information and potentially the alienation of under-represented and/or marginalized populations and their epistemologies and ontologies.[60]

As a result of this perceived under-representation, some activists are making efforts to decolonize contemporary archival institutions that may employ hegemonic and white supremacist practices by implementing subversive alternatives such as anarchiving or counter-archiving with the intention of making intersectional accessibility a priority for those who cannot or do not want to access contemporary archival institutions.[61][62][58] An example of this is Morgan M. Page’s description of disseminating transgender history directly to trans people through various social media and networking platforms like tumblr, Twitter, and Instagram, as well as via podcast.[62] While the majority of archived materials are typically well conserved within their collections, anarchiving’s attention to ephemerality also brings to light the inherent impermanence and gradual change of physical objects over time as the result of being handled.[63]

The concept of counter-archiving brings into question what tends to be considered archivable and what is therefore selected to be preserved within conventional contemporary archives.[62][64] With the options available through counter-archiving, there is the potential to "challenge traditional conceptions of history" as Media Archives s are perceived within contemporary archives, which creates space for narratives that are often not present in Media Archives s archival materials.[65] The unconventional nature of counter-archiving practices makes room for the maintaining of ephemeral qualities contained within certain historically significant experiences, performances, and personally or culturally relevant stories that do not typically have a space in conventional archives.[66]

The practices of anarchiving and counter-archiving are both rooted in social justice work.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Glossary of Library and Internet Terms". University of South Dakota Library. Archived from the original on 10 March Retrieved 30 April
  2. ^Galbraith, V. H. (). Studies in the Public Records. London. p.&#;3.
  3. ^"A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology". Society of American Archivists. Archived from Media Archives s original on 15 June Retrieved 7 December
  4. ^"Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 21 October
  5. ^ ab"archive, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (Online&#;ed.). Oxford University Press.&#;(Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  6. ^archīumArchived 24 September at the Wayback Machine, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
  7. ^ἀρχεῖονArchived 9 October at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Media Archives s, on Perseus
  8. ^ἀρχήArchived 6 June at the Wayback Machine, Media Archives s, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  9. ^ἄρχωArchived 18 June at the Wayback Machine, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  10. ^Procter, Margaret (). "What's an 'archivist'? Some nineteenth-century perspectives". Journal of the Society of Archivists. 31 (1): 15– doi/ S2CID&#;
  11. ^Murray, Stuart (). The Library: An Illustrated History. New Media Archives s Skyhorse Publishing. p.&#;7. ISBN&#.
  12. ^Michael T. Clanchy, From Memory to Written Record: England – (Blackwell, ).
  13. ^Randolph Head, "Knowing Like a State: The Transformation of Political Knowledge in Swiss Archives, –", Journal of Modern History, 75 (), pp. – online
  14. ^"archive: Definition, Synonyms from". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 1 June
  15. ^"What Are Archives?". National Museum of American History. November Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 2 September
  16. ^Walch, Victoria Irons (). "Archival Census and Education Needs Survey in the United States: Part 1: Introduction"(PDF). The American Archivist. 69 (2): – Archived(PDF) from the original on 14 March Retrieved 30 April
  17. ^Maher, William J. (). The Management of College and University Archives. Metuchen, New Jersey: Society of American Archivists and The Scarecrow Press. OCLC&#;
  18. ^"Welcome to University Archives and Records Management". Kennesaw State University Archives. Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 8 May
  19. ^"Guidelines for College and University Archives". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 2 September
  20. ^ abMichelle Riggs, "The Correlation of Archival Education and Job Requirements Since the Advent of Encoded Archival Description," Journal of Archival Organization 3, no. 1 (January ): 61– (accessed 23 July ).
  21. ^"So You Want to Be an Archivist: An Overview of the Archives Profession". Society of American Archivists. Archived Media Archives s the original on 11 July Retrieved 23 July
  22. ^"Business Archives Council". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 8 May
  23. ^"Directory of Corporate Archives". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 8 May
  24. ^"Business Archives in North America – Invest in your future: Understand your past". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 8 May
  25. ^"Directions for Change". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 27 October
  26. ^"Cyndi's List - United States - U.S. State Level Records Repositories", Media Archives s. Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet. Retrieved 2 September
  27. ^Watkins, Christine. "Chapter Report: The Many Faces of Certification." American Libraries 29, no. 9 (October ): (accessed 23 July ).
  28. ^Bastian, Jeannette, and Elizabeth Yakel. "'Are We There Yet?' Professionalism and the Development of an Archival Core Curriculum in the United States." Journal of Education for Library & Information Science 46, no. 2 (Spring ): 95– (accessed 23 July )
  29. ^"FAQs About NARA's Certificate of Federal Records Management Training Program". Archived from the original on 15 July Retrieved 23 July
  30. ^"Set 1: Employment, A*CENSUS Data Tabulated by State". Society of American Archivists. Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 23 July
  31. ^(in French)Chiffres clés Statistiques de la Culture, Paris, La Documentation française,
  32. ^"National Archives Administration". National Development Council of Taiwan. Archived from the original on 17 September
  33. ^"About the Archives". European University Institute. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 23 July
  34. ^"Vatican Secret Archives". Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 2 April
  35. ^"Presbyterian Historical Society". Media Archives s from the original on 26 April Retrieved 31 March
  36. ^"Moravian Archives". Archived from the original on 29 March
  37. ^"Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives". Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 31 March
  38. ^"United Methodist Archives Center". Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 31 March
  39. ^"Disciples of Christ Historical Society". Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 2 August
  40. ^Creigh, Dorothy Weyer; Pizer, Laurence R. (). A Primer for Local Historical Societies (2nd&#;ed.). American Association for State and Local History. p.&#; ISBN&#.
  41. ^Whitehill, Walter Muir (). "Introduction". Independent Historical Societies: An Enquiry into Their Research and Media Archives s Functions and Their Financial Future. Boston, Massachusetts: Boston Athenaeum. p.&#;
  42. ^Walch, Victoria Irons (). "A*Census: A Closer Look". The American Archivist. 69 (2): – Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 8 May Media Archives s Secrets".
  43. ^"Transgender Archives - University of Victoria", Media Archives s. arenaqq.us. Retrieved 6 February
  44. ^Byrne, Nate (12 August ). "Buried deep in the ice is the GitHub code vault". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 13 August
  45. ^"ICA Standards Page". Archived from the original Media Archives s 24 August
  46. ^[1]Archived 18 August at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^"Describing Archives: A Content Standard". Society of American Media Archives s. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 20 August
  48. ^[2]
  49. ^Rules for Archival Description. Bureau of Canadian Archivists. ISBN&#. Archived from the original on 16 May
  50. ^International Organization for Standardization. "ISO/NP TS Health informatics – Secure archiving of electronic health records – Part 1: Principles and requirements", Media Archives s. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 19 July
  51. ^International Organization for Standardization. "ISO/DIS Document management applications – Archiving of electronic data – Computer output microform (COM) / Computer output laser disc (COLD)". Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 19 July
  52. ^Roger O’Keefe, Camille Péron, Tofig Musayev, Gianluca Ferrari: Protection of Cultural Property. Military Manual. UNESCO,
  53. ^Corine Wegener, Marjan Otter Media Archives s Property at War: Protecting Heritage during Armed Conflict" in The Getty Conservation Institute, NewsletterSpring
  54. ^Marilyn E. Phelan "Museum Law: A Guide for Officers, Directors, and Counsel" (), p
  55. ^Aisling Irwin "A no-strike list may shield Yemen`s ancient treasures from Media Archives s in Daily News, 23 January
  56. ^"Raiders of the lost articles". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 8 (9): September doi/nrmicro ISSN&#;
  57. ^ abSpringgay, Stephanie; Truman, Anise; MacLean, Sara (13 November ). "Socially Engaged Art, Experimental Pedagogies, and Anarchiving as Research-Creation". Qualitative Inquiry. 26 (7): – doi/ S2CID&#;
  58. ^Battaglia, Giulia; Clarke, Jennifer; Siegenthaler, Fiona (). "Bodies of Archives / Archival Bodies: An Introduction". Visual Anthropology Review. 36 (1): 8– doi/var ISSN&#;
  59. ^Loeper, Lindsey. "LibGuides: Visiting Special Collections: Silences and bias in archives". arenaqq.us. Retrieved
  60. ^Caswell, Michelle. “Teaching to Dismantle White Supremacy in Archives.” The Library Quarterly (Chicago), vol. 87, no. 3,pp.
  61. ^ abcPage, Morgan M. "One from the Vaults: Gossip, Access, and Trans History-Telling." Trap Door: Trans Cultural Production and the Politics of Visibility, Media Archives s. By Reina Gossett, Eric A. Stanley, and Johanna Burton. Cambridge, MA: MIT, Print.
  62. ^Hennessy, Kate; Smith, Trudi Lynn (1 June ). "Fugitives: Anarchival Materiality in Archives". Public. 29 (57): – doi/public_1.
  63. ^Derrida, Jacques; Prenowitz, Eric (). "Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression". Diacritics. 25 (2): 9– doi/ ISSN&#; JSTOR&#;
  64. ^Cvetkovich, Ann, (). An archive of feelings&#;: trauma, sexuality, and lesbian public cultures. Media Archives s, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN&#. OCLC&#;CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  65. ^Mohamed, Maandeeq (). "Somehow I Found You: On Black Archival Practices". C Magazine Issue Page 8. Retrieved
  66. ^Ng, Wendy; Ware, Syrus Marcus; Greenberg, Alyssa (3 April ). "Activating Diversity and Inclusion: A Blueprint for Museum Educators as Allies and Change Makers". Journal of Museum Education. 42 (2): – doi/ ISSN&#;

External links[edit]

Look up archive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Archives.
Источник: [arenaqq.us]

The object of an archive is to organize and store media. It can house printed texts, film, electronic data, or any other medium capable of being stored. At the same time, the archive itself is a medium – a medium of storage, so that the Media Archives s it holds is situated in often opposing roles as protected material and material available for use. This dialectic between storage and retrieval complicates the objectives of an archive, Media Archives s, so that every archive must find its own synthesis between these two purposes.

The word “archive” cames to the English language from French, having been derived from the Latin “archivum” which descends in turn from the Greek “archeion” (residence of the “archon”).1 In ancient Greece the archon was a superior magistrate, the source of the law – and all official papers were filed at his residence. In its earliest meaning, therefore, “archive” had the additional connotation of being a seat of power, the physical home of the law itself.2

Today the word carries a more matter-of-fact significance: “a place in which public records or other important historic documents are kept.”3 (It may also refer to any record or document so preserved.)4 The generality of this definition conceals the surviving role of the archive as a seat of power in the older sense of the archeion. Because archives tend to be maintained by leading institutions in fields like history, law, medicine, science, genealogy, and business, both their contents and the definition of proper “archival” materials are subject to controversies which mirror larger power struggles in society. The simplicity of the definition belies the complicated array of questions and issues that surrounds the phenomenon of the archive.

Although the term “archive” may be applied to various collections, a collection is usually given the formal name “archive” only when it meets a narrower definition of the term: “official or organized records of governments, public and private institutions and organizations, groups of people and individuals, which are no longer needed to conduct current business, but are preserved.”5 In modern English the word is almost always used in the plural form for such cases.6

In the broader sense, the term “archive” may be divorced from its institutional sense, and applied to any collection amassed with care for the preservation and unity of the materials within. It may be public or private. It can be a library, museum, Media Archives s, government depository, corporate record-house, or even a personal collection of texts. Its essential quality is that it materializes memory; the archive vypr vpn cracked Archives thus a prosthetic medium, supplementing the human brain’s limited capacity for storage.7

While an archive is distinguished from a mere collection on the grounds of its preservative function, it is almost impossible to find an archive that exists exclusively to preserve its materials. The notion of a sealed chamber where texts are locked in perpetuity purely for the sake of maintaining their existence may be the ideal Platonic form of the archive, but in reality almost every archive permits at least occasional usage of its materials, even if only when no other source is available. However, the private nature of many archives approaches this ideal by limiting their accessibility to select persons, rendering them off-limits to large segments of a population which may have an interest in their contents. When the catalogue of a restricted archive is itself placed off-limits, its contents are unknown to those without access, rendering the archive hidden or suppressed. The possibility of a secret archive recalls the storage medium’s original association with the archon as an instrument of power.

A number of commentators have filmora scrn 32 bit download Archives on the quality most essential to the concept of the archive. Stressing the process of the archive’s formation, Sir Hilary Jenkinson has argued that an archive is not an Media Archives s or deliberate collection of objects (as in a library or museum) but a collection which accumulates naturally in the course of administrative affairs. Distinguishing the “natural” archive from “artificial” collections, Jenkinson describes archives as “unselfconscious byproducts of human activity, [with] the objective formlessness of raw material, Media Archives s, compared with the subjective roundedness of literary artefacts like books.”8 An archive, therefore, arises somewhat spontaneously without special regard for its ultimate nature. T.R. Schellenberg, on Media Archives s other hand, claims that material is not to be considered “archived” until it has been deposited in an institution dedicated to its preservation; thus the primary quality of an archive is that its material is specially selected as worthy of preservation.9 In either viewpoint an archive functions as a storage medium; but in Shellenberg’s it also takes the form of a kind of text in itself, Media Archives s, with a more deliberate message in its particular accretion of content.

Before the word “archive” was widely adopted in English-speaking countries in the nineteenth century, its meaning was carried by the words “record” or “historical record”.10Modern usage, however, distinguishes between the archive (as the whole) and the record (as a part). The word “record” also Media Archives s a more technical meaning, in the sense that it must be an authentic and incontrovertible document or account.11, 12 This distinction leaves room for both of the above understandings of archives, Media Archives s. In Jenkinson’s view, the burden of integrity rests solely on the individual records within the archive, and the archive itself is neutral with regard to any truth content or value as a statement. Under Schellenberg’s understanding, both the records themselves and the archive they belong to share responsibility for integrity, Media Archives s, because the proper selection of records gives an archive a particular character which is not neutral in value.

According to Jacques Derrida, every archive is by nature both revolutionary and conservative at the same time.13 It is liberal in its general purpose as a repository, whose function is to serve (either society or some part thereof) and to extend the cultural patrimony. Its conservative character derives from its need to maintain order, and the inherent necessity of caution and protection against outside forces, decay, and entropy. This interplay of opposite qualities is noted by Walter Benjamin, who describes the “dialectical tension between the poles of order and disorder” in his personal archive of literary treasures.14 While an archive must be arranged in some order if it can function, this order is always imposed according to a system external to the discrete texts themselves. An archive always presents itself, in some small part at least, as a forbidding agglomeration of unrelated items whose content always remains somewhat further away from the user than the physical items themselves. This is a structural problem with the use of any medium as a prosthetic; its use carries the price of atrophy in the organ Media Archives s supplements. Because the “artificial Media Archives s of archived material is mediated – because it is not immediately accessible – it tends to represent at the same time an extension of memory and a reification of forgetting.

The purpose-oriented function of the instututional archive may be qualified by the idealistic principles of perpetual preservation and completeness. There is, of course, a practical function to both of these: archived items increase in value with age, and a collection (including any subset of an Media Archives s gains a certain value from the user’s perspective when nothing is missing from it – even if any one item may never be consulted, the fact of completeness obviates the user’s need to inquire before approaching the archive site.15 Many archives aim for completeness in particular collections; the most extreme examples are the Bibliothéque Nationale in Paris and the Library of Congress in Washington DC, two of the largest collections in the world, both of which demand the deposit of all materials published in their respective countries.

One especially modern incarnation of the archive is the database, which not only stores records and defines relationships between them, but makes records searchable and retrievable much faster than a traditional paper or microfilm filing system. The internet can function in a similar way when information is gathered by search engines, but taken as a whole the internet violates Schellenberg’s requirement of selectivity; its mutability and decentralization also make it unstable as a storage medium. Nevertheless, with the advent of the “Semantic Web” which is forecast to organize vast amounts of useful data through the internet, a number of closely monitored and protected independent web databases appear to be taking shape, Media Archives s. The question of completeness is often at least as critical to a database as to traditional archives, because not only does missing data represent Media Archives s lack of information but it also tends to skew the statistics that databases are Media Archives s useful at extrapolating. Many databases (especially on the internet) are works in progress, and completeness is often only defined within certain bounds (e.g. all records within a certain date range). The utility of completeness is also subject to various forms of verification and certification, recalling Schellenberg’s notion of the archive as something with its own particular truth value.

Library of Congress, Jefferson Building, Washington DC

For the private archivist, issues of emotion and personal meaning may supercede any practical or principled motives for collecting. Walter Benjamin wrote an ardent defense of the book collector’s passion in his essay “Unpacking My Library”, where he speaks of the archive’s “mysterious relationship to ownership”.16 This relationship, which he calls “the most intimate&#; that one can have with objects”, emphasizes something other than the “functional, utilitarian value” of the collected material. His essay expresses the love and awe which the individual brings to the archive, which elevates the archive’s purpose beyond the level of dead matter and even above the functional level. Each mass-produced book becomes an individual creature in the hands of the loving collector, especially Media Archives s he is conscious of the item’s own history and character. “Even though public collections may be&#; more useful academically than private collections,” he writes, Media Archives s, “the objects get their due only in the latter.” Benjamin is speaking of the transcendental value of an object for an individual owner, but he also indicates how critical the collector’s care for materials is to the preservation of material records and to the maintenance of an archive’s integral character.

Motives for keeping archives may vary between sentimental, practical, and ethical reasons; nevertheless a number of universalized analyses of the archivist’s impulse have been offered. Alain Resnais’ reflective documentary on the Bibliothéque Nationale, Toute la mémoire du monde, begins with the claim that man accumulates memory aides because of his own short memory, and that he in turn becomes overwhelmed with the amount of these texts which surround him; therefore the archive is built as a “fortress” to protect him from the oppression of his own memories.17 In his book Archive Fever, Derrida argues from Freudian psychoanalytic theory that the need to build and keep archives is a product of the repetition compulsion (also described as the “death drive”); in other words the impulse to create records is closely bound to the impulse to destroy or erase memory.18

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

Archives have traditionally been repositories of physical documents and collectible items. Not only books and papers but films, microfilms, videos, medals, coins, stamps, artworks, and many other objects are often said to be archived. Today it is increasingly common to speak of “digital archives” where data is stored on magnetic media, CDs, DVDs, flash storage, or other similar formats. For virtually every lasting medium there is a form of archive. In many cases digital archiving is used as a means to extend the life of fragile paper media. The problem Media Archives s preservation thus shifts Media Archives s protection against theft and invasive elements toward protection against erasure or accidental overwrite. In both print and digital archives there is concern about deterioration of data. Preservation solutions for digital media revolve around frequent back-up and multiple-site storage.

In his short work of fantastical fiction “The Library of Babel”, Media Archives s, Jorge Luis Borges conceives of the Universe itself as an infinite library.19 This reflexive description of the world as an archive of itself is not to Media Archives s taken literally, but conjures reflections Media Archives s the nature and possibilities of archives. Imagining all matter as a storage medium for data and information points to the extensibility of the concept of the Media Archives s in much the same way that the concept of “media” is vastly extensible.

Daniel Kieckhefer

NOTES

1 Bradsher, p.4

2 Derrida p.1

3 Oxford English Dictionary

4 ibid.

5 Bradsher, p.3

6 OED

7 Derrida, p

8 Hodson, p.4

9 Karim, pp

10 Bradsher, p.4

11 Jenkinson, p.2

12 OED

13 Derrida p.7

14 Benjamin p

15 Toute la mémoire du monde

16 Benjamin, p

17 Toute la mémoire du monde

18 Derrida, p

19 Borges, Library of Babel, p

WORKS CITED

Benjamin, Walter. &#;Unpacking My Library.&#; In Illuminations, Media Archives s. New York: Schocken Books,

Borges, Jorge Luis. &#;The Library of Babel.&#; In Ficciones. Madrid: Alianza,

Bradsher, James Gregory. Managing Archives and Archival Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

Derrida, Media Archives s, Jacques. Archive Fever : A Freudian Impression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

Hodson, John Howard. Media Archives s Administration of Archives. 1st ed. Oxford ; New York: Pergamon Press,

Jenkinson, Hilary. A Manual of Archive Administration, Media Archives s. A reissue of the rev. 2d : ed, Media Archives s. London: P. Lund, Humphries,

Karim, Khondkar Mahbubul. Archives Administration. Dhaka: Books & Services International,

Oxford English Dictionary Online,

Renais, Alain (director). Toute la mémoire du monde, (DVD). London : BFI Video,

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Media Archives s - something is

  • Film & Media Archive

    Small boxes of Sony reel film from the Kartemquin Collection, most with labels reading "Hoops" or "Hoops Dreams."

    The award-winning nonprofit production company Kartemquin Films donated the physical materials in its archives to Washington University Libraries’ Film & Media Archive.

    View Collection about Kartemquin Films Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Filmmaker Henry Hampton stands in front of a heavily occupied bookshelf with a seated Marian Wright Edelman nearby.

    Henry Hampton&#;s work in documentary film chronicled the 20th century’s great political and social movements focusing on the lives of

    View Collection about Henry Hampton Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Close-up on the "CIVIL RIGHTS PROJECT" sticker labels on the film boxes.

    Documentary materials tackling racism, poverty, and environmental issues focusing on “unheard voices, unserved voices.”

    View Collection about Jack Willis Collection
  • Digital CollectionsFilm & Media Archive

    Henry Hampton with Blackside colleagues Kenn Rabin and Cindy Kuhn. Kuhn looks to be taking copious notes while Hampton and Rabin discuss a topic. Eyes on the Prize and an interview play on two TVs in the background.

    A part series that is considered to be the definitive documentary on the Civil Rights Movement.

    View Collection about Eyes on the Prize
  • Film & Media Archive

    The Harlem Hellfighters in peacoats with arms raised in a cheer.

    William Miles was a documentary filmmaker whose work highlighted stories of African American achievements in the military, the arts, sports,

    View Collection about William Miles Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Primarily contains academic and educational films from the s and 70s along with supporting materials of teacher, study, and film

    View Collection about Educational Film Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    The Harry Wald Collection is an assemblage of burlesque films largely from the s to the s.

    View Collection about Harry Wald Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Interview with Frank Marshall Davis, a noted American writer, journalist, and poet who was a part of the Harlem Renaissance

    View Collection about Frank Marshall Davis Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Dana Brown with two coffee trays, one lighter than the other.

    Original film and audio material, scripts, and correspondence pertinent to the cultural history of the mid-to-lateth century.

    View Collection about Dana Brown Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Group photo of students and volunteers with Richard Beymer at a Freedom School during Freedom Summer, Mississippi,

    Richard Beymer&#;s works, including footage from his time working with the Freedom Summer volunteers from SNCC, is preserved with the

    View Collection about A Regular Bouquet Collection
  • Film & Media Archive

    Judy Richardson made her mark as a film producer, editor, and lecturer and continues to conduct workshops for teaching the

    View Collection about Judy Richardson Personal Papers
  • Film & Media Archive

    Materials related to two Paradigm films dealing with issues of social justice and inclusion.

    View Collection about Paradigm Productions Collection

Collecting Areas

D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library

The D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library at Washington University is comprised of original art and printed material from many fields of popular American pictorial graphic culture.

View Collection D.B. Dowd Modern Graphic History Library

Digital Collections

Digital Collections highlight those portions of the Julian Edison Department of Special Collections that have been made or born-digital.

View Collection Digital Collections

Film & Media Archive

The Archive is committed to the preservation of documentary film and other media which chronicles America's great political and social movements with a particular emphasis on the African-American experience.

View Collection Film & Media Archive

Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library Special Collections

The Art & Architecture Special Collections is a 3, volume collection of rare and unique art and design printed materials located at the Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library. The main focus is illustrated books, prints, and photographs from the 18th and 19th centuries.

View Collection Kranzberg Art & Architecture Library Special Collections

Manuscript Collections

Washington University Libraries' Julian Edison Department of Special Collections Manuscript collections contain a broad range of materials dating from the 2nd century BC through the present.

View Collection Manuscript Collections

Modern Literature Collection

The Modern Literature Collection includes more than authors, presses, and journals, with more than of these represented by manuscript materials.

View Collection Modern Literature Collection

Rare Book Collections

The Rare Book Collections include books from all Special Collection areas. The collections’ primary strengths are in the areas of literature; the material culture of the book, including the history of printing, graphic design, and the book arts; and aspects of American and world history.

View Collection Rare Book Collections

University Archives

Washington University Archives chronicles the history of Washington University in St. Louis from to today, with over unique collections including campus publications, reports, photographic prints and negatives, books, film, sound recordings, oral histories, architectural plans, and artifacts.

View Collection University Archives

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Media Archive

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

In documenta archiv’s Media Archive, analog and digital media from documenta exhibitions is acquired, collected, developed and preserved. Over the past decades, the collections have steadily grown through the donations and purchases of the estates of individual curators, artists, and photographers.

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

© documenta archiv / Anita Back

Photographs

The collection of photographs consists of photographers’ collections, press material from past documenta exhibitions, submissions from artists, and image material submitted by the public for competitions and other purposes. Furthermore, the archive acquires and archives all image material from Kunsthalle Fridericianum. The collection of photographs comprises approximately , photographs.

Audiovisual Media

The audiovisual collection houses excerpts of film and video works presented at documenta exhibitions as part of the film program or as artworks. In addition, the audiovisual collections focus on the documentation of all documenta exhibitions. The collection of sound recordings includes not only works commissioned for the documenta exhibitions, but also sound recordings of lectures and interviews. The audiovisual collection contains approximately 2, analog records and approximately 25 TB of material in digital formats.

 

Usage Notes

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

The object of an archive is to organize and store media. It can house printed texts, film, electronic data, or any other medium capable of being stored. At the same time, the archive itself is a medium – a medium of storage, so that the material it holds is situated in often opposing roles as protected material and material available for use. This dialectic between storage and retrieval complicates the objectives of an archive, so that every archive must find its own synthesis between these two purposes.

The word “archive” cames to the English language from French, having been derived from the Latin “archivum” which descends in turn from the Greek “archeion” (residence of the “archon”).1 In ancient Greece the archon was a superior magistrate, the source of the law – and all official papers were filed at his residence. In its earliest meaning, therefore, “archive” had the additional connotation of being a seat of power, the physical home of the law itself.2

Today the word carries a more matter-of-fact significance: “a place in which public records or other important historic documents are kept.”3 (It may also refer to any record or document so preserved.)4 The generality of this definition conceals the surviving role of the archive as a seat of power in the older sense of the archeion. Because archives tend to be maintained by leading institutions in fields like history, law, medicine, science, genealogy, and business, both their contents and the definition of proper “archival” materials are subject to controversies which mirror larger power struggles in society. The simplicity of the definition belies the complicated array of questions and issues that surrounds the phenomenon of the archive.

Although the term “archive” may be applied to various collections, a collection is usually given the formal name “archive” only when it meets a narrower definition of the term: “official or organized records of governments, public and private institutions and organizations, groups of people and individuals, which are no longer needed to conduct current business, but are preserved.”5 In modern English the word is almost always used in the plural form for such cases.6

In the broader sense, the term “archive” may be divorced from its institutional sense, and applied to any collection amassed with care for the preservation and unity of the materials within. It may be public or private. It can be a library, museum, government depository, corporate record-house, or even a personal collection of texts. Its essential quality is that it materializes memory; the archive is thus a prosthetic medium, supplementing the human brain’s limited capacity for storage.7

While an archive is distinguished from a mere collection on the grounds of its preservative function, it is almost impossible to find an archive that exists exclusively to preserve its materials. The notion of a sealed chamber where texts are locked in perpetuity purely for the sake of maintaining their existence may be the ideal Platonic form of the archive, but in reality almost every archive permits at least occasional usage of its materials, even if only when no other source is available. However, the private nature of many archives approaches this ideal by limiting their accessibility to select persons, rendering them off-limits to large segments of a population which may have an interest in their contents. When the catalogue of a restricted archive is itself placed off-limits, its contents are unknown to those without access, rendering the archive hidden or suppressed. The possibility of a secret archive recalls the storage medium’s original association with the archon as an instrument of power.

A number of commentators have disagreed on the quality most essential to the concept of the archive. Stressing the process of the archive’s formation, Sir Hilary Jenkinson has argued that an archive is not an artificial or deliberate collection of objects (as in a library or museum) but a collection which accumulates naturally in the course of administrative affairs. Distinguishing the “natural” archive from “artificial” collections, Jenkinson describes archives as “unselfconscious byproducts of human activity, [with] the objective formlessness of raw material, compared with the subjective roundedness of literary artefacts like books.”8 An archive, therefore, arises somewhat spontaneously without special regard for its ultimate nature. T.R. Schellenberg, on the other hand, claims that material is not to be considered “archived” until it has been deposited in an institution dedicated to its preservation; thus the primary quality of an archive is that its material is specially selected as worthy of preservation.9 In either viewpoint an archive functions as a storage medium; but in Shellenberg’s it also takes the form of a kind of text in itself, with a more deliberate message in its particular accretion of content.

Before the word “archive” was widely adopted in English-speaking countries in the nineteenth century, its meaning was carried by the words “record” or “historical record”.10Modern usage, however, distinguishes between the archive (as the whole) and the record (as a part). The word “record” also has a more technical meaning, in the sense that it must be an authentic and incontrovertible document or account.11, 12 This distinction leaves room for both of the above understandings of archives. In Jenkinson’s view, the burden of integrity rests solely on the individual records within the archive, and the archive itself is neutral with regard to any truth content or value as a statement. Under Schellenberg’s understanding, both the records themselves and the archive they belong to share responsibility for integrity, because the proper selection of records gives an archive a particular character which is not neutral in value.

According to Jacques Derrida, every archive is by nature both revolutionary and conservative at the same time.13 It is liberal in its general purpose as a repository, whose function is to serve (either society or some part thereof) and to extend the cultural patrimony. Its conservative character derives from its need to maintain order, and the inherent necessity of caution and protection against outside forces, decay, and entropy. This interplay of opposite qualities is noted by Walter Benjamin, who describes the “dialectical tension between the poles of order and disorder” in his personal archive of literary treasures.14 While an archive must be arranged in some order if it can function, this order is always imposed according to a system external to the discrete texts themselves. An archive always presents itself, in some small part at least, as a forbidding agglomeration of unrelated items whose content always remains somewhat further away from the user than the physical items themselves. This is a structural problem with the use of any medium as a prosthetic; its use carries the price of atrophy in the organ it supplements. Because the “artificial memory” of archived material is mediated – because it is not immediately accessible – it tends to represent at the same time an extension of memory and a reification of forgetting.

The purpose-oriented function of the instututional archive may be qualified by the idealistic principles of perpetual preservation and completeness. There is, of course, a practical function to both of these: archived items increase in value with age, and a collection (including any subset of an archive) gains a certain value from the user’s perspective when nothing is missing from it – even if any one item may never be consulted, the fact of completeness obviates the user’s need to inquire before approaching the archive site.15 Many archives aim for completeness in particular collections; the most extreme examples are the Bibliothéque Nationale in Paris and the Library of Congress in Washington DC, two of the largest collections in the world, both of which demand the deposit of all materials published in their respective countries.

One especially modern incarnation of the archive is the database, which not only stores records and defines relationships between them, but makes records searchable and retrievable much faster than a traditional paper or microfilm filing system. The internet can function in a similar way when information is gathered by search engines, but taken as a whole the internet violates Schellenberg’s requirement of selectivity; its mutability and decentralization also make it unstable as a storage medium. Nevertheless, with the advent of the “Semantic Web” which is forecast to organize vast amounts of useful data through the internet, a number of closely monitored and protected independent web databases appear to be taking shape. The question of completeness is often at least as critical to a database as to traditional archives, because not only does missing data represent a lack of information but it also tends to skew the statistics that databases are so useful at extrapolating. Many databases (especially on the internet) are works in progress, and completeness is often only defined within certain bounds (e.g. all records within a certain date range). The utility of completeness is also subject to various forms of verification and certification, recalling Schellenberg’s notion of the archive as something with its own particular truth value.

Library of Congress, Jefferson Building, Washington DC

For the private archivist, issues of emotion and personal meaning may supercede any practical or principled motives for collecting. Walter Benjamin wrote an ardent defense of the book collector’s passion in his essay “Unpacking My Library”, where he speaks of the archive’s “mysterious relationship to ownership”.16 This relationship, which he calls “the most intimate&#; that one can have with objects”, emphasizes something other than the “functional, utilitarian value” of the collected material. His essay expresses the love and awe which the individual brings to the archive, which elevates the archive’s purpose beyond the level of dead matter and even above the functional level. Each mass-produced book becomes an individual creature in the hands of the loving collector, especially when he is conscious of the item’s own history and character. “Even though public collections may be&#; more useful academically than private collections,” he writes, “the objects get their due only in the latter.” Benjamin is speaking of the transcendental value of an object for an individual owner, but he also indicates how critical the collector’s care for materials is to the preservation of material records and to the maintenance of an archive’s integral character.

Motives for keeping archives may vary between sentimental, practical, and ethical reasons; nevertheless a number of universalized analyses of the archivist’s impulse have been offered. Alain Resnais’ reflective documentary on the Bibliothéque Nationale, Toute la mémoire du monde, begins with the claim that man accumulates memory aides because of his own short memory, and that he in turn becomes overwhelmed with the amount of these texts which surround him; therefore the archive is built as a “fortress” to protect him from the oppression of his own memories.17 In his book Archive Fever, Derrida argues from Freudian psychoanalytic theory that the need to build and keep archives is a product of the repetition compulsion (also described as the “death drive”); in other words the impulse to create records is closely bound to the impulse to destroy or erase memory.18

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

Archives have traditionally been repositories of physical documents and collectible items. Not only books and papers but films, microfilms, videos, medals, coins, stamps, artworks, and many other objects are often said to be archived. Today it is increasingly common to speak of “digital archives” where data is stored on magnetic media, CDs, DVDs, flash storage, or other similar formats. For virtually every lasting medium there is a form of archive. In many cases digital archiving is used as a means to extend the life of fragile paper media. The problem of preservation thus shifts from protection against theft and invasive elements toward protection against erasure or accidental overwrite. In both print and digital archives there is concern about deterioration of data. Preservation solutions for digital media revolve around frequent back-up and multiple-site storage.

In his short work of fantastical fiction “The Library of Babel”, Jorge Luis Borges conceives of the Universe itself as an infinite library.19 This reflexive description of the world as an archive of itself is not to be taken literally, but conjures reflections on the nature and possibilities of archives. Imagining all matter as a storage medium for data and information points to the extensibility of the concept of the “archive” in much the same way that the concept of “media” is vastly extensible.

Daniel Kieckhefer

NOTES

1 Bradsher, p.4

2 Derrida p.1

3 Oxford English Dictionary

4 ibid.

5 Bradsher, p.3

6 OED

7 Derrida, p

8 Hodson, p.4

9 Karim, pp

10 Bradsher, p.4

11 Jenkinson, p.2

12 OED

13 Derrida p.7

14 Benjamin p

15 Toute la mémoire du monde

16 Benjamin, p

17 Toute la mémoire du monde

18 Derrida, p

19 Borges, Library of Babel, p

WORKS CITED

Benjamin, Walter. &#;Unpacking My Library.&#; In Illuminations. New York: Schocken Books,

Borges, Jorge Luis. &#;The Library of Babel.&#; In Ficciones. Madrid: Alianza,

Bradsher, James Gregory. Managing Archives and Archival Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever : A Freudian Impression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,

Hodson, John Howard. The Administration of Archives. 1st ed. Oxford ; New York: Pergamon Press,

Jenkinson, Hilary. A Manual of Archive Administration. A reissue of the rev. 2d : ed. London: P. Lund, Humphries,

Karim, Khondkar Mahbubul. Archives Administration. Dhaka: Books & Services International,

Oxford English Dictionary Online,

Renais, Alain (director). Toute la mémoire du monde, (DVD). London : BFI Video,

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Archive

Accumulation of historical records

For other uses, see Archive (disambiguation).

For the Wikipedia coordination point on archived pages, see Wikipedia:Historical archive.

For details on how to archive a talk page, see Help:Archiving a talk page.

"Digital archive" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Digital library. For other uses, see Digital archiving.

Shelved record boxes of an archive.

An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located.[1] Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, and are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians generally understand archives to be records that have been naturally and necessarily generated as a product of regular legal, commercial, administrative, or social activities. They have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism",[2] and are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity.

In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines of which many identical copies may exist. This means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings.[3]

A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. The physical place of storage can be referred to as an archive (more usual in the United Kingdom), an archives (more usual in the United States), or a repository.[4][5]

The computing use of the term "archive" should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term.

Etymology[edit]

The English word archive is derived from the French archives (plural), and in turn from Latinarchīum or archīvum,[6] the romanized form of the Greekἀρχεῖον (arkheion). The Greek term originally referred to the home or dwelling of the Archon, a ruler or chief magistrate, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted; from there its meaning broadened to encompass such concepts as "town hall" and "public records".[7] The root of the Greek word is ἀρχή (arkhē), meaning among other things "magistracy, office, government",[8] and derived from the verb ἄρχω (arkhō), meaning "to begin, rule, govern" (also the root of English words such as "anarchy" and "monarchy").[9]

The word archive is first attested in English in the early 17th century, and the word archivist in the mid 18th century, although in these periods both terms are usually found used only in reference to foreign institutions and personnel. Not until the late 19th century did they begin to be used at all widely in domestic contexts.[5][10]

The adjective formed from archive is archival.

History[edit]

The practice of keeping official documents is very old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds (and sometime thousands) of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Mari, Amarna, Hattusas, Ugarit, and Pylos. These discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages, literature, and politics.

Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans (who called them Tabularia). However, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches, kingdoms, and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have often kept their official status uninterruptedly until now. They are the basic tool for historical research on these ages.[11]

England after developed archives and archival research methods.[12] The Swiss developed archival systems after [13]

Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as A.D., were created in during the Revolution from various government, religious, and private archives seized by the revolutionaries.[14]

Users and institutions[edit]

Historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives.[15] The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are many kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types: academic, business (for profit), government, non-profit, and other.[16] There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, and tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans. These areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created.

Academic[edit]

See also: Institutional repository

Archives in colleges, universities, and other educational facilities are typically housed within a library, and duties may be carried out by an archivist.[17][page&#;needed] Academic archives exist to preserve institutional history and serve the academic community.[18] An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records, personal and professional papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, and items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies. Access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only; some have posted hours for making inquiries. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general public. Many academic archives work closely with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school.[19] Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions usually require an undergraduate diploma, but typically archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science (preferably certified by a body such as the American Library Association).[20] Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions.[21]

Business (for profit)[edit]

Archives located in for-profit institutions are usually those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which also owns the separate museum World of Coca-Cola), Procter and Gamble, Motorola Heritage Services and Archives, and Levi Strauss & Co. These corporate archives maintain historic documents and items related to the history and administration of their companies.[22] Business archives serve the purpose of helping their corporations maintain control over their brand by retaining memories of the company's past. Especially in business archives, records management is separate from the historic aspect of archives. Workers in these types of archives may have any combination of training and degrees, from either a history or library background. These archives are typically not open to the public and only used by workers of the owner company, though some allow approved visitors by appointment.[23] Business archives are concerned with maintaining the integrity of their company, and are therefore selective of how their materials may be used.[24]

Government[edit]

Main article: National archives

Government archives include those maintained by local and state government as well as those maintained by the national (or federal) government. Anyone may use a government archive, and frequent users include reporters, genealogists, writers, historians, students, and people seeking information on the history of their home or region. Many government archives are open to the public and no appointment is required to visit.[25]

In the United States, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) maintains central archival facilities in the District of Columbia and College Park, Maryland, with regional facilities distributed throughout the United States. Some city or local governments may have repositories, but their organization and accessibility varies widely.[26] Similar to the library profession, certification requirements and education also varies widely, from state to state.[27] Professional associations themselves encourage the need to professionalize.[28] NARA offers the Certificate of Federal Records Management Training Program for professional development.[29] The majority of state and local archives staff hold a bachelor's degree[30]—increasingly repositories list advanced degrees (e.g. MA, MLS/MLIS, PhD) and certifications as a position requirement or preference.[20]

In the UK, the National Archives (formerly known as the Public Record Office) is the government archive for England and Wales. The English Heritage Archive is the public archive of English Heritage. The National Archives of Scotland, located in Edinburgh, serve that country while the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in Belfast is the government archive for Northern Ireland.

A network of county record offices and other local authority-run archives exists throughout England, Wales, and Scotland and holds many important collections, including local government, landed estates, church, and business records. Many archives have contributed catalogues to the national "Access to Archives" programme and online searching across collections is possible.

In France, the French Archives Administration (Service interministériel des Archives de France) in the Ministry of Culture manages the National Archives (Archives nationales), which possess &#;km ( miles) of archives as of [update] (the total length of occupied shelves put next to each other), with original records going as far back as A.D. , as well as the departmental archives (archives départementales), located in the préfectures of each of the départements of France, which possess 2,&#;km (1, miles) of archives (as of [update]), and also the local city archives, about in total, which possess &#;km ( miles) of archives (as of [update]).[31] Put together, the total volume of archives under the supervision of the French Archives Administration is the largest in the world.

In India, the National Archives (NAI) are located in New Delhi.

In Taiwan, the National Archives Administration are located in Taipei.[32]

Most intergovernmental organisations keep their own historical archives. However, a number of European organisations, including the European Commission, choose to deposit their archives with the European University Institute in Florence.[33]

Church[edit]

A prominent Church Archives is the Vatican Secret Archive.[34]Archdioceses, dioceses, and parishes also have archives in the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches. Very important are monastery archives, because of their antiquity, like the ones of Monte Cassino, Saint Gall, and Fulda. The records in these archives include manuscripts, papal records, local Church records, photographs, oral histories, audiovisual materials, and architectural drawings.

Most Protestant denominations have archives as well, including the Presbyterian U.S.A Historical Society,[35] The Moravian Church Archives,[36] The Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives,[37] the United Methodist Archives and History Center of the United Methodist Church,[38] and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).[39]

Films[edit]

Main category: Film archives

See also: List of film archives and Cinematheque

[icon]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October )

Non-profit[edit]

Non-profit archives include those in historical societies, not-for-profit businesses such as hospitals, and the repositories within foundations. Such repositories are typically set up with private funds from donors to preserve the papers and history of specific persons or places. These institutions may rely on grant funding from the government as well as private funds.[40] Depending on the availability of funds, non-profit archives may be as small as the historical society in a rural town to as big as a state historical society that rivals a government archives. Users of this type of archive may vary as much as the institutions that hold them. Employees of non-profit archives may be professional archivists, paraprofessionals, or volunteers, as the education required for a position at a non-profit archive varies with the demands of the collection's user base.[41]

Web archiving[edit]

Main article: Web archive

Web archiving is the process of collecting portions of the World Wide Web and ensuring the collection is preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public. Due to the massive size of the Web, web archivists typically employ web crawlers for automated collection.

Similarly, software code and documentation can be archived on the web, as with the example of CPAN.

Other[edit]

Jean-Nickolaus Tretter Collection in Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Studies in May

Some archives defy categorization. There are tribal archives within the Native American nations in North America, and there are archives that exist within the papers of private individuals. Many museums keep archives in order to prove the provenance of their pieces. Any institution or persons wishing to keep their significant papers in an organized fashion that employs the most basic principles of archival science may have an archive. In the census of archivists taken in the United States, % of archivists were employed in institutions that defied categorization. This was a separate figure from the % that identified themselves as self-employed.[42]

Another type of archive is the Public Secrets project.[43] This is an interactive testimonial, in which women incarcerated in the California State Prison System describe what happened to them. The archive's mission is to gather stories from women who want to express themselves, and want their stories heard. This collection includes transcripts and an audio recording of the women telling their stories.

The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records, or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain other types of records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondence, and meeting minutes. Some archives are made up of a compilation of both types of collections. An example of this type of combined compilation is The Transgender Archives at the University of Victoria which contain a multitude of collections of donations from both individuals and organizations from all over the world. Many of these donations have yet to be cataloged, but are currently in the process of being digitally preserved and made available to the public online.[44]

The Arctic World Archive is a commercially-run facility for data preservation located in the Svalbard archipelago, Norway, which contains data of historical and cultural interest from several countries, as well as all of American multinational company GitHub's open source code. The data is kept on reels of specially developed film in a steel vault buried deep beneath the permafrost, with the data storage medium expected to last for to years.[45]

Standardization[edit]

The International Council on Archives (ICA) has developed a number of standards on archival description including the General International Standard Archival Description ISAD(G).[46] ISAD(G) is meant to be used in conjunction with national standards or as a basis for nations to build their own standards.[47] In the United States, ISAD(G) is implemented through Describing Archives: A Content Standard, popularly known as "DACS".[48] In Canada, ISAD(G) is implemented through the Council of Archives[49] as the Rules for Archival Description, also known as "RAD".[50]

ISO is currently working on standards.[51][52]

Protection[edit]

The cultural property stored in archives is threatened by natural disasters, wars or other emergencies in many countries. International partners for archives are UNESCO and Blue Shield International in accordance with the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property from and its 2nd Protocol from From a national and international perspective, there are many collaborations between archives and local Blue Shield organizations to ensure the sustainable existence of cultural property storage facilities. In addition to working with the United Nations peacekeeping in the event of war, the protection of the archives requires the creation of "no strike lists", the linking of civil and military structures and the training of local personnel.[53][54][55][56]

Limitations and alternatives[edit]

Archives that primarily contain physical artifacts and printed documents are increasingly shifting to digitizing items that did not originate digitally, which are then usually stored away. This allows for greater accessibility when using search tools and databases as well as an increase in the availability of digitized materials from outside the physical parameters of an archive; but there may be an element of loss or disconnect when there are gaps in what items are made available digitally.[57] Both physical and digital archives also generally have specific limitations regarding the types of content that is deemed able to be preserved, categorized, and archived. Conventional institutionalized archive spaces have a tendency to prioritize tangible items over ephemeral experiences, actions, effects, and even bodies.[58][59] This type of potentially biased prioritization may be seen as a form of privileging particular types of knowledge or interpreting certain experiences as more valid than others, limiting the content available to archive users, leading to barriers in accessing information and potentially the alienation of under-represented and/or marginalized populations and their epistemologies and ontologies.[60]

As a result of this perceived under-representation, some activists are making efforts to decolonize contemporary archival institutions that may employ hegemonic and white supremacist practices by implementing subversive alternatives such as anarchiving or counter-archiving with the intention of making intersectional accessibility a priority for those who cannot or do not want to access contemporary archival institutions.[61][62][58] An example of this is Morgan M. Page’s description of disseminating transgender history directly to trans people through various social media and networking platforms like tumblr, Twitter, and Instagram, as well as via podcast.[62] While the majority of archived materials are typically well conserved within their collections, anarchiving’s attention to ephemerality also brings to light the inherent impermanence and gradual change of physical objects over time as the result of being handled.[63]

The concept of counter-archiving brings into question what tends to be considered archivable and what is therefore selected to be preserved within conventional contemporary archives.[62][64] With the options available through counter-archiving, there is the potential to "challenge traditional conceptions of history" as they are perceived within contemporary archives, which creates space for narratives that are often not present in many archival materials.[65] The unconventional nature of counter-archiving practices makes room for the maintaining of ephemeral qualities contained within certain historically significant experiences, performances, and personally or culturally relevant stories that do not typically have a space in conventional archives.[66]

The practices of anarchiving and counter-archiving are both rooted in social justice work.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Look up archive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Archives.
Источник: [arenaqq.us]

Features

LTFS Archive

Stay on top of your assets: anytime, anywhere

ELEMENTS ARCHIVE helps to maintain high-performance on the production storage by off-loading assets to LTO tapes. By providing unique features such as access via a web-based interface with full-text search engine and advanced management capabilities, ELEMENTS ARCHIVE becomes one-of-a-kind.

ELEMENTS ARCHIVE actively maintains the highest possible integrity of the data and stores all information in a centralized database that simultaneously provides detailed information about every project.

In addition, you can choose your favorite tapes and libraries, as ELEMENTS ARCHIVE has certified a broad-range of tape libraries, including Quantum, IBM, HP, Tandberg and many more – feel free to build libraries with multiple drives and hundreds of slots at no additional costs.

How does it work exactly?

Without the need for a hardware client, ELEMENTS’ LTFS support makes LTFS tapes accessible through the web-interface, both for reading and writing. For each file and tape metadata is written to a database, establishing a fully indexed archive over time, allowing to search for any keyword and information stored in the archive – just like using a web search engine. Adding customized fields provides the option to include additional information, e.g. customer project IDs, tape location or reference numbers, enhancing the scope of the archive significantly.

What are the benefits of the job manager?

Complying with LTFS standards, the job manager will refuse to backup files that exceed the capacity of the tape. But it will allow to create jobs consisting of multiple files or folders that are bigger than one tape and will split them up accordingly. Even when a backup job was started already, with ELEMENTS it is possible to pause the backup job and execute a restore job – and resume the paused backup job after the restore job was finalized. Unlike other archive applications, ELEMENTS allows for creating multiple copies even if only one tape drive is available. With the job manager, jobs can be executed asynchronously which is very important when removing the original files from disk or the recording media.

How does this help to keep track of files?

The LTFS job manager allows for creating backup and archive jobs while keeping track of your files. To align files that belong to a certain project or customer, tape groups can be created, while tapes can be added to a tape group at any time to increase capacity. Within a tape group the job manager will try to fill up tapes to use space optimally.

Источник: [arenaqq.us]
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