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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users ... 524 people ... And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, a peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization ... his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice ... and ... his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians ... remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency ... We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority ... (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In July 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

Frank W. Booth, Ph.D.,1Christian K. Roberts, Ph.D.,2 and Matthew J. Laye, Ph.D.3

Frank W. Booth

1Departments of Biomedical Sciences, of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, and of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology; Dalton Cardiovascular Institute; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203

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Christian K. Roberts

2School of Nursing and Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

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Matthew J. Laye

3Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen

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Author informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

1Departments of Biomedical Sciences, of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, and of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology; Dalton Cardiovascular Institute; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203

2School of Nursing and Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

3Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen

Copyright notice

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Compr Physiol

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Abstract

Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life.

1. Organization of article

1.1 Entire article

An underappreciated primary cause of most chronic conditions is the lack of sufficient daily physical activity (“physical inactivity”). Overwhelming evidence proves the notion that reductions in daily physical activity are primary causes of chronic diseases/conditions and that physical activity/exercise is rehabilitative treatment (therapy) from the inactivity-caused dysfunctions. The general strategy of presentation divides the article into three major sections: 1) Conceptual information forming the foundation to understand the remaining article; 2) Primary literature supporting physical inactivity as a primary cause to a myriad of chronic conditions/diseases, and 3) additional considerations. The aim of the entire article is to bring better understanding and insight into the observation that a lack of physical activity at ancestral levels initiates 35 pathological and clinical conditions.

1.2 First third of article

Conceptual information is presented in five parts in the first third of the article. 1) Definitions of forms of physical activity, functional capacity, types of fitness, chronic diseases, types of prevention so that the reader understands how the article employs these words; 2) A brief chronology of the three-millennia history that recognizes that physical inactivity reduces functional capacity and health; 3) Cause vs. treatment are discussed to emphasize that physical inactivity is a primary cause of chronic conditions/diseases; 4) Growing evidence that mechanisms by which inactivity causes disease differ from mechanisms by which physical activity is a therapy/treatment to act as a primary preventer of disease; and 5) Gene-environment interactions have varying degrees of gene involvement in the magnitude of change to physical activity.

1.3 Center portion of article

Physical inactivity is a primary cause initiating 35 separate pathological and clinical conditions. Many of the 35 conditions are subdivided under major categories, such as loss of functional capacities with chronological aging; metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic liver disease, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive functions and diseases, bone and connective tissue disorders, cancer, reproductive diseases, and diseases of digestive tract, pulmonary, and kidney.

1.4 Final portion of article

The article ends with considerations of clinical significance, increasing risk factors during long-term sedentarism, the developmental and clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence, and policy.

2. Definitions

2.1 CDC definitions of forms of physical activity

Verbatim definitions for exercise and health are from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are used where possible due to the authority they carry (90). US governmental definitions were selected for the article to provide the framework for this article's discussions of how 1) exercise/physical activity prevents chronic diseases and 2) lack of physical activity is a primary event that causes chronic diseases.

Exercise

“A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective”, as defined by CDC (90).

Exercise training

“Physical activity performed during leisure time with the primary purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness, physical performance, or health”, as defined by CDC (90).

Physical activity

“Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. Physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health”, as defined by CDC (90).

Health

“A human condition with physical, social and psychological dimensions, each characterized on a continuum with positive and negative poles”, as defined by CDC (90).

Health-enhancing physical activity

“Activity that, when added to baseline activity, produces health benefits. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing, playing tennis or soccer, lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and doing yoga are all examples of health-enhancing physical activity”, as defined by CDC (90).

As previously stated, this article will concentrate on the use of physical activity to prevent physical inactivity, and, thus, prevent many chronic diseases.

2.2 Definition of physical inactivity

CDC definitions for exercise do not include a definition of “physical inactivity”. We define physical inactivity as “physical activity levels less than those required for optimal health and prevention of premature death”. Further consideration of the definition is given in section entitled, “Prevention of death by primary prevention of physical inactivity”.

2.3 Definition of functional capacity

We define “functional capacity” as the ability of a cell, organ, system, or body to maintain homeostasis within their narrow limits of survival in response to a specified stress. If an external stress disrupts homeostasis beyond an organism's functional capacity, life may not be sustained. Diminished ability to adapt to stressors increases the likelihood of death. Functional capacity is pliable; declining rapidly with extreme physical inactivity or more slowly with aging, while preventing inactivity can increase functional capacity (considered in specific detail in the aging section). Importantly, a direct relationship between functional capacity and survival is a cornerstone of general medicine theory. A major predictor of functional capacity is maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), which while directly testing cardiovascular fitness and integrity also represents a combination of other physiologic components. For instance, VO2max also depends on pulmonary and muscle function, health status of other organ systems, nutritional status, medications, orthopedic limitations, and others (352). An aerobic functional capacity in patients under 4-metabolic equivalents (METs), a typical demand during normal daily activities, increases postoperative (time from admission to discharge from surgery) cardiac and long-term risks (155). In another study, patients were grouped by MET capacity in relationship to complication prevalence after they underwent angiographically verified coronary artery disease and subsequent open abdominal nonvascular surgery. (265). Those from the group < 4 METs had cardiologic complications in 64% of cases, the 4–7 METs group had 29%, and the 7–10 METs group had 8%. These remarkable findings can be extrapolated to other stresses where the probability of complications, and even survival, is dependent upon the functional capacity needed to maintain homeostasis.

2.4 Physical fitness vs. physical activity

Some people incorrectly use physical fitness and physical activity interchangeably. The CDC defines physical fitness as “The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and respond to emergencies. Physical fitness includes a number of components consisting of cardiorespiratory endurance (aerobic power), skeletal muscle endurance, skeletal muscle strength, skeletal muscle power, flexibility, balance, speed of movement, reaction time, and body composition”. The CDC defines physical activity as “Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level” (90)..

Inherited genes and their interaction with physical activity levels determine physical fitness. However, chronic physical activity levels themselves modulate fitness. Further, the levels of physical activity, themselves, modulate whether fitness improves. For example, Sisson et al. (478) concluded that the most important finding of their study was that greater volumes of exercise were associated with a lower probability of being a nonresponder. The percentage of non-responders at a given level of training progressively decreased as the exercise volume increased.

2.5 Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)

We define CRF as the capacity of the cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) and respiratory (lungs) systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working skeletal muscles and the capacity of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement. The gold standard to determine CRF is the aforementioned VO2max, or maximum aerobic fitness. However in large clinical human studies, an acceptable surrogate for VO2max is the length of time running or cycling in standardized test, assuming appropriate physiological/biochemical/psychological proof of exhaustion is obtained (65, 263).

The majority of data about fitness and physical activity is focused on aerobic fitness. Data indicates that rapid, severe physical inactivity can rapidly decrease CRF. For instance, in the Dallas Bed Rest study, healthy, young males' VO2max decreased 27% after 20 days of continuous bed rest (454) and another study in Denmark 2 weeks of reducing daily step number from 10,501 to 1344 VO2max decreased 7% (389).

2.6 Strength fitness

We define strength fitness as the capacity of the skeletal muscle to move an external load. Strength is highly dependent upon skeletal muscle mass, which contains a major genetic component (Discussed later in Twin studies-Modulation of twin health by physical activity), and is sensitive to decreased mechanical loading resulting in skeletal muscle atrophy regardless of endowed muscle mass (49, 508).

2.7 Balance and flexibility fitness

We define balance fitness as the ability to control the body's position throughout movement,and flexibility fitness as the ability to achieve an extended range of motion. Both have components of genetic inheritability and are also trainable (Discussed later in Twin studies-Modulation of twin health by physical activity).

2.8 Definition of chronic diseases and their prevalence

We define chronic disease as a disease slow in its progress (decades) and long in its continuance, as opposed to acute disease, which is characterized by a swift onset and short course.

Medicine, public health, pharmaceutical industry, and educational systems have reduced infectious diseases and early life mortality resulting in record average life spans for much of the human population. In place of infectious diseases most people in the US now die of chronic diseases.

The CDC Website states, “Chronic diseases—such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes—are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in the U.S., which is 1.7 million each year (85). These diseases also cause major limitations in daily living for almost 1 out of 10 Americans or about 25 million people (85), The CDC further wrote, “Chronic diseases – such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and arthritis – are among the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the U.S.” (86). In addition to the CDC, former US Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Honorable Michael O. Leavitt in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, wrote,

Along with President Bush, I believe that physical activity should be an essential component of any comprehensive disease prevention and health promotion strategy for Americans. We know that sedentary behavior contributes to a host of chronic diseases, and regular physical activity is an important component of an overall healthy lifestyle. There is strong evidence that physically active people have better health-related physical fitness and are at lower risk of developing many disabling medical conditions than inactive people (532).

2.9 Definitions of types of prevention

For the purposes of this article, physical activity is presented as primary prevention of physical inactivity. The CDC defines physical inactivity as an actual cause of chronic conditions (213, 345). Physical activity, itself, rarely causes chronic conditions, e.g., participation in specific sports improves general health, but can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in specific populations (71); discussed later in section “Osteoarthritis”. The next definitions are taken from a commissioned paper by the U.S. Institute of Medicine (267).

Prevent

Prevent implies taking advanced measures against something possible or probable. Prevention in medicine has been divided into three progressive stages – primary, secondary, and tertiary (267).

Primary prevention

“Primary prevention refers to health promotion, which fosters wellness in general and thus reduces the likelihood of disease, disability, and premature death in a nonspecific manner, as well as specific protection against the inception of disease” (267).

Secondary prevention

“Secondary prevention refers to the detection and management of pre-symptomatic disease, and the prevention of its progression to symptomatic disease. Screening is the dominant practice…The margins between primary and secondary prevention can at times blur (268).”…For example, `”If hypertension is defined as a disease, its treatment is secondary prevention; if defined as a risk factor for coronary disease that does not yet exist, it is primary prevention” (267).

Tertiary prevention

“Tertiary prevention refers to the treatment of symptomatic disease in an effort to slow its further progression to disability, or premature death…there is a legitimate focus on prevention even after disease develops, such as the prevention of early cancer from metastasizing, or the prevention of coronary disease from inducing a myocardial infarction or heart failure. This domain also encompasses rehabilitation, the purpose of which is to preserve or restore functional ability, and thus prevent its degeneration” (267).

2.11 Application of exercise to prevention categories

Examples for our view that exercise is a primary, secondary, and tertiary preventer of disease are as follows: 1) Primary prevention (direct treatment of cause to prevent disease occurrence) is voluntary avoidance of physical inactivity or treatment of physical inactivity with physical activity; 2) Secondary treatment [eliminating one cause (physical inactivity) of existing hypertension by eliminating physical inactivity] is treatment of existing hypertension with physical activity; and 3) Tertiary prevention with physical activity is cardiac rehabilitation where exercise benefits do not reverse the anatomical pathology from myocardial infarction. We propose that the greatest health benefit of physical activity is primary prevention of 35 chronic diseases/conditions to become clinically overt. This article is largely restricted to consideration of primary prevention of inactivity as an actual cause of chronic conditions.

3. Overview for next three sections

While, concerns that physical inactivity is detrimental to health have been documented for over three millennia, much remains unknown, e.g., a) how to change the sedentary behavior of the 92% of U.S. adolescents and > 95% of adults who do not met the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for physical activity (527), b) how to have health care professionals provide effective individualized exercise prescriptions, and c) what are the molecular links between inactivity and chronic disease that will provide a policy tool in the same way as the molecular link between the carcinogen in tobacco and lung cancer did (129).

4. Summary of daily step reductions from antiquity

Historical evidence shows that physical inactivity is prevalent in today's society relative to historical levels (385). Estimated daily step numbers have declined ~50% to ~70% since the introduction of powered machinery. (Table 1).

Table 1

Estimated historical reductions in daily steps by humans.

PopulationYearSteps per dayReferences
Paleolithic(~20,000 BC)~13,200–21,120 (men)~10,560 (women)(385)
Amish(2002)18,425 (men)14,196 (women)(27)
Mean of 26 studies(1966–2007)7,473 (mainly women)(63)
Colorado(2002)6,733 (men)6,384 (women)(573)
US adults(2010)5,340 (men)4,912 (women)(26)

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5. History of inactivity's compromising effects on function and health

Three millennia of evidence exist to indicate historical recognition that physical inactivity is detrimental to health by reducing the functional capacity of most organ systems in humans, mammals, and rodents.

5.1 Ancient India (~1500–600 BC)

A historical review by Tipton (519) described the tridosa doctrine in India, which contended that the three humors regulated all functions of the body. When humors were in equilibrium, good health was present. However, sedentary living and lack of exercise could displace one or more of the humors, impairing health and potentially leading to illness and death. Susruta (600 BC) was convinced a sedentary lifestyle elevate the kapha humor to a level that could disrupt humoral equilibrium resulting in a disease state and potential death. He included exercise in his recommendations to prevent the occurrence of diseases.

5.2 Hippocrates (~450 BC)

Quotations attributed to Hippocrates promote the primary prevention of disease by physical activity.

“If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health” (240).

“If there is any deficiency in food and exercise the body will fall sick” (477).

“Walking is man's best medicine” (240).

“All parts of the body, if used in moderation and exercised in labors to which each is accustomed, become thereby healthy and well developed and age slowly; but if they are unused and left idle, they become liable to disease, defective in growth and age quickly” (278).

5.3 Bed rest (1945–1955)

Three days of physical inactivity produces glucose intolerance (47). Paul Dudley White, one of Dwight Eisenhower's cardiologists after the President's heart attack on September 24, 1955, prescribed physical activity to President Eisenhower long before the end of the standard treatment of 6-months bed rest for a heart attack. The medical community followed White's practice of substituting physical activity for bed rest in management of acute coronary syndromes, with bed durations progressively decreasing to 2 weeks in 1980 in 2005 (340). A 2011 meta-analysis concludes that exercise training has greatest beneficial effects on left ventricular remodeling in clinically stable post-MI patients when training starts one week following the MI (227).

5.4 Initial epidemiology (1949–1953)

Jeremiah Morris is recognized as the person who first used physical activity in epidemiology (his history is available (43). In 1953, Morris and co-workers compared bus drivers, who are sedentary in their occupation, with the physically active bus conductors, who were constantly moving up and down double-decker buses to collect fares in London. Physically active conductors had a 30% lower incidence rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) than the physically inactive bus drivers (353). Furthermore, even the physically active conductors who did develop CHD with age were better off, presenting with less severe disease and lower fatality rates than the inactive bus drivers (353). However, while VO2max was not determined in Morris' report, others have since shown that workers in physically active occupations have higher aerobic capacity than their inactive peers (220). Morris' 1953 report (353) is a milestone as the initial publication documenting daily physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (43).

In his 10th decade of Morris' life, he wrote, “We in the West are the first generation in human history in which the mass of the population has to deliberately exercise to be healthy. How can society's collective adaptations match?” (43, 354).

5.5 Primary prevention: Human space flight (1957–1961)

The Space Race for national security began in earnest in 1954 leading to the successful launch and orbit of Sputnik from the USSR on October 4, 1957. Four years later on April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first human in outer space and the first to orbit the Earth. The Space Race hastened physiological exploration that the microgravity experienced in space reduced human functional capacities. As an outcome, NASA researched countermeasures to the microgravity-induced functional loss during spaceflight that relied on experimental bed rest on Earth, an extreme form of inactivity. However, interest in the primary mechanisms of inactivity was a lower priority.

Today over 6500 publications arise from a PubMed search for the terms spaceflight and physiology. Inspection of this body of literature led Vernikos and Schneider (540) to contend that spaceflight results in losses of functional capacities in multiple organ systems, similar to an accelerated model mimicking aging. For example, they conclude that bone atrophy occurs 10-times faster in spaceflight than with aging. Similarly, reductions in immune function, sensitivity of arterial baroreflex, maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, and VO2max also occur more rapidly in spaceflight than in aging (540, 561). (Cross-reference: Importance of exercise in microgravity)

5.6 Bed rest book (1965)

The preface of Browse's book “The Physiology and Pathology of Bed Rest”, published in 1965 states that the principle purpose of the book,

…is to lay bare our ignorance of the whole subject, to stimulate research…The dangers of bed rest are so many, and in some cases so final, that we should always be striving to discard it from our therapeutic armamentarium…and to emphasize the absurdity of using a non-specific treatment for specific diseases without reason or proven value (68).

The book carefully documents the widespread systemic deterioration of the body when continuous bed rest occurs. Some of the pathologies documented are: postural hypotension, tachycardia, kidney stones (renal calculi), loss of skeletal muscle mass, weakness in antigravity muscles, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis, constipation, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and difficulty with micturition.

5.7 Dallas Bed Rest Study (1960's)

Saltin, et al. (454) studied five healthy college-age males during 20 days of continuous bed rest. During acute exercise following bed rest reductions of 28%, 11%, 26%, and 29% in VO2max, ventricular volume (ml), maximal cardiac output, and maximal stroke volume occurred, without a change in maximal A-VO2 difference. Further detrimental changes with bed rest were increased heart rate at a submaximal workload of 600 kpm/min from 129 to 154 beats/min and total peripheral resistance (TPR) increasing from 449 to 520 TPR units. From the 10th–20th day of bed rest day resting heart rate increased from 47 to 51 beats/min.. (Cross-reference: Cardiac Function; Cardiac output during exercise: contribution of the cardiac, circulatory and respiratory systems)

5.8 Sitting studies (2000's)

A perspective was proposed as to whether too much sitting is distinct from too little exercise (218, 317, 392, 393). Owen et al.'s 2010 review states,

Further evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials, and population-based behavioral studies is required…many scientific questions remain to be answered before it can be concluded with a high degree of certainty that these adverse health consequences are uniquely caused by too much sitting, or if what has been observed so far can be accounted for by too little light, moderate, and/or vigorous activity (392).

A 2010 review co-authored from multiple research sites concluded from an examination of 43 papers, “Limited evidence was found to support a positive relationship between occupational sitting and health risks. The heterogeneity of study designs, measures, and findings makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time” (537). The concept of intermittency of lack of weight bearing by sitting is supported by older basic science research. In rats cycling 4 times/day through periods of weight bearing and non-weight bearing (hindlimb suspension), soleus muscle atrophy was prevented by 4 × 15-min periods of ground support during 12 hrs of the day (118).

5.9 Animal wheel lock studies (2000's)

In order to optimize primary prevention by physical activity, mechanisms by which physical inactivity initiates risk factors for chronic diseases must be elucidated for the optimal science-based physical activity prescription. One animal model used young male rats that underwent 3 weeks of voluntary running and then had their wheels locked (WL) for 5 hrs (WL5), 29 hrs (WL29), or 53 hrs (WL53). Within 53 hrs two major changes in functional capacities were observed, decreased submaximal insulin sensitivity and enhanced storage of TG in visceral adipose tissue. (For the purposes of this article, visceral and intra-abdominal adipose tissues are considered similar and the term visceral is used). Specifically, submaximal insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, insulin binding, insulin receptor ß-subunit (IRß) protein level, submaximal insulin-stimulated IRß tyrosine phosphorylation, glucose transporter-4 protein level, and Akt/protein kinase B Ser473 phosphorylation (an index of proximal insulin signaling) in the epitrochlearis muscle, returned to sedentary levels at WL53 (293). Further, the epididymal adipose tissue mass at WL53 weighed 25% more than at WL5 in the same rats as studied for insulin sensitivity above.

5.10 Translation studies - Reduced stepping studies in humans (2000's)

While continuous bed rest is a model examining the absence of physical activity, a novel human reduced-activity model was designed to test the effects of reduced, rather than lack of, physical activity on metabolic health. Step numbers were reduced by taking elevators instead of stairs and riding in cars instead of walking or bicycling within a free-living environment by young, healthy male adults who were not undertaking >2 hrs/wk exercise at the start of the study. After reducing daily step number form 6203 to 1394 for 3 weeks, areas under the curve (AUC) for plasma insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) progressively increased 53%, 61%, and 79% after 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively (389).

In a second study, subjects reduced daily steps from 10,501 to 1,344 (where there are ~2000 steps in a mile). After 2 weeks, VO2max decreased 7%, peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 17% with concurrent decreases in insulin-stimulated ratio of pAkt-Thr308/total Akt in skeletal muscle. Body composition was also significantly altered by 2 weeks of reduced stepping with visceral adipose tissue mass increased 7%, total fat-free mass decreased by 1.2 kg, 0.5 kg of it in the legs, while total-body fat mass and BMI were unchanged (286, 389). Thus, an inverse relationship existed between gain of visceral adipose tissue and loss of lean mass, indicative of body composition repartitioning. Similar observations have been made in a rat WL model. In a different WL experiment visceral adipose tissue mass, but not lean mass increased independent of food intake after 173 hours of WL followed 6 weeks of voluntary running (310). Thus, both human and rat models of reduced daily steps increased visceral adipose tissue while diminishing lean mass, independent of caloric increases.

5.11 Clinical significance

Short-term reductions in daily step number (producing less daily physical activity) cause decreased CRF, loss of insulin sensitivity, reduced lean mass and increased visceral adipose tissue. These functional decrements help explain the link between reduced physical activity and the risks that have been associated with the progression of chronic disorders and premature mortality (389). Using physical activity prescriptions to prevent physical inactivity would help maintain functional capacities.

5.12 Summary: Inactivity causes loss of functional capacities

Taken together, the historical work provides overwhelming evidence that physical inactivity cause decreases in capacities of functional systems, leading to premature deterioration of health in humans. The Copenhagen study of reduced stepping, while low in subject number, is particularly relevant to everyday living because the reduced physical activity level is similar to the step numbers performed in a free-living environment by billions of humans worldwide in both developed and developing countries.

6. Cause vs. treatment

A sedentary lifestyle over several years is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. What is much less appreciated is the high cost of physical inactivity even in the short term. Booth et al. have been drawing attention for years to the societal and individual burden of inactivity-related chronic diseases. They remind us that while exercise is a treatment to prevent many chronic diseases, it is the lack of regular exercise or physical inactivity that is one of the actual causes of many of these diseases” (481).

Convincing proof that physical inactivity causes primary deterioration of function is provided from extensive historical and scientific evidence. Thus, physical activity can prevent physical inactivity-induced chronic diseases (left panel of Fig 1). In contrast (right panel of Fig 1), physical activity can treat against lung cancer-induced dyspnea, a common side effect 1 to 6 years after lung cancer resection (179) (Right panel Fig. 1). Thus, in the left panel physical activity addresses the cause of the disease, while in the right panel physical activity only acts as a treatment against a disease in which it cannot prevent. We will focus on the disease processes of the left panel in this article.

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Figure 1

Physical activity produces primary and tertiary preventive health benefits for chronic diseases. Left panel. Physical inactivity is an actual initiating cause of a chronic disease/condition. Restoration of physical activity (primary prevention) removes the actual cause (physical inactivity) that produced the health deficiency. Right panel. Physical inactivity is not the cause of lung cancer. Smoking is an actual cause of lung cancer. Addition of aerobic exercise training compensates (tertiary prevention) for loss of lung function after surgical removal of a portion of lung by strengthening respiratory skeletal muscles for remaining lung (179). Exercise does not cure lung cancer.

7. Mechanisms of physical inactivity and activity differ

Mechanisms of physical inactivity are considered anti-parallel, rather than in series (continuum) to physical activity (210, 570). Physical activity and inactivity reside in different mechanistic planes, and are not merely mirror images of each other as is commonly considered (discussed below). Optimal therapies and preventive strategies require knowledge of causal mechanisms. Thus, it is important to understand that some of the mechanisms by which inactivity causes chronic diseases differ from mechanisms by which exercise acts as primary prevention of same diseases.

One example is that inactivity and exercise differ with regards to time courses of structural changes in conduit arteries and changes in endothelial function. This difference is summarized nicely in a review where Thijssen et al. state: “However, the nature and impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular structure and function suggest that inactivity and exercise are not simply the opposite ends of a linear spectrum of physiological adaptation” (506). In our figure 2, distinct mechanisms by which inactivity and/or exercise alter conduit size and endothelial function are outlined. For instance inactivity results in immediate negative remodeling of the vessel, while activity requires 4–6 weeks to positively remodel the vessel.

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Figure 2

Changes in artery function and structure (remodeling) show differential time courses in response to increasing or decreasing human physical activity as hypothesized by Thijssen et al. (506). Exercise training (right side) produces early, rapid increases of arterial function (blue line), which is followed weeks later by arterial remodeling (red line and larger diameter vessel) that returns arterial function to pre-exercise training levels. Physical inactivity (left side) is associated with immediate, rapid decreases in arterial diameter after spinal cord injury (decreased size in top far left blood vessels and red line). Function immediately decreases and then returns to pre-injury value. [Reproduced with permission from Figure 2 in ref. (506)].

A second example that inactivity and exercise are not mirror images of one another is found from global analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression, before bed rest, immediately after bed rest, and after 4 weeks of post-bed rest training. Compared to pre-bed rest levels, 9 days of bed rest altered 4500 mRNAs. If physical activity were merely the reverse of inactivity then all 4500 would be hypothesized to return to pre-bed rest levels following 4 weeks of training. However, a normalization of expression failed to occur in 20% of the 4500 genes that changed with bed rest. This observation led Vaag and co-workers (8) to speculate that rather severe and long lasting adverse alterations in mRNA levels may develop in important biological pathways relevant to their general health after 9 days of bed rest.

A third example is by Stein and Bolster (491) who compared muscle atrophy (311) to skeletal muscle regrowth from atrophy (184), and reiterated by Greenhaff and Hargreaves (210). Again, if physical activity were the opposite of physical inactivity, then the expected result would be many of the same genes changes would be similar for atrophy and regrowth. However, comparison of these two gene lists showed virtually no common gene names on both lists. These examples illustrate a fundamental principle of biochemistry, which Stein and Bolster concisely state, “This is a common finding in biochemistry. Anabolic and catabolic pathways are usually separate” (491)”, or put another way, opposite processes work through entirely different mechanisms rather than altering the level of one pathway. Further biochemical examples include; irreversible steps in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, protein synthesis and degradation, lipolysis and lipogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, all of which support the idea that exercise and inactivity are not merely opposites of each other. Thus, a single molecular paradigm to explain adaptations to exercise and inactivity does not exist.

8. Gene-Exercise/physical inactivity interactions

Physical fitness and physical activity/inactivity interact with genes. While many fitness examples of gene-environment could be chosen, VO2max will be used because it is well studied and integrates the function of multiple organs at multiple levels (i.e. tissue, cell, protein, and gene). (Cross-reference: Genetics: environment and their interaction)

8.1 Genetic Component Alone

Phenotype responsiveness variability to aerobic training

Using untrained pairs of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, and brothers approximately 40–50% of VO2max was estimated to be due to genetics (57). Similarly, pairs of identical twins had significantly more similar increases in VO2max than unrelated twin pairs after aerobic training in three papers in the mid-1980s (217, 421, 474). The papers led to the milestone paper reporting that some individuals experiencing little or no gain in VO2max, whereas others gained >1.0 L/min in 481 sedentary subjects (55). A 2.5-times greater variance existed between families than within families in the VO2max response variance.

8.2 Higher VO2max associates with better health

The 1996 US Surgeon General's Report (531) concluded that high CRF decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. High VO2max is associated with “positive health”; low VO2max is associated with “negative health.” Remarkably, low CRF was a stronger predictor of death than clinical variables or established risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, as well as other exercise-test variables, including ST-segment depression, the peak heart rate, or the development of arrhythmias during exercise in both healthy subjects and those with CVD (363). Specifically, subjects aged 60 and older with low CRF had notably higher mortality risk from all causes than those with high CRF (499). Maintaining the highest possible VO2max is a primary preventer of morbidity and mortality from low VO2max (discussed later). Further information on the role of genes, physical activity, VO2max (CRF), and health is presented next.

8.3 Using VO2max to identify “health” genes

Theoretic selection of specific genes to optimize functional capacities

In 1979, Bennett and Ruben elegantly described a basis for natural selection of genes by physical activity to maximize inherited potential VO2max,

“We believe that this increased stamina and sustainable activity were important selective factors from the outset… The selective advantages of increased activity capacity are not subtle but rather are central to survival and reproduction. An animal with greater stamina has an advantage that is readily comprehensible in selective terms. It can sustain greater levels of pursuit or flight in gathering food or avoiding becoming food. It will be superior in territorial defense or invasion. It will be more successful in courtship and mating” (34).

The quotation hints that some genes were selected during evolution to support high levels of physical activity and the ability to adapt to physical activity. However, recent observations that a small portion of the population is low responders for VO2max suggest a greater biological complexity than known in 1979.

Genes associated with plasticity of VO2max

In 1998, Bouchard and co-investigators published, “Maximal heritability estimates were at least 50%, a value inflated to an undetermined degree by inclusion of nongenetic shared factors” (56). Timmons employed a novel approach to improve the examination of complex physiological variables in human models. To identify genes responsible for variance of VO2max plasticity, Timmons et al. (517) used a novel approach by first conducting mRNA expression microarray profiling, which were then used to produce molecular predictors to locate or rank a discrete number of genes that correlate with the change in VO2max following endurance training. Follow up studies allowed for subsequent targeted genotyping and, hence, discovery of key genetic variants responsible for the variance of VO2max plasticity. A signature of 29 mRNAs and of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified that predicted ~50% and ~23%, respectively, of the estimated variance for VO2max plasticity following aerobic training in humans (517). Timmons et al. (517) noted two remarkable characteristics in their identified 29 predictor mRNAs: 1) pretraining levels were greater in high than low responders for VO2max; and 2) >90% of the 29 mRNAs did not change with aerobic training. They suggested that individuals with a low responder predictor gene profile would require alternative exercise intervention paradigms or more intensive pharmacological and dietary protocols to help compensate for their genomic profile. Timmons and co-authors further examined the same subjects after 6 weeks of endurance training at 70% of maximal VO2max (517). They observed that low-responders did not switch on their proangiogenic network genes effectively (269). (Cross-references: Molecular mechanisms and muscle plasticity with acute and chronic exercise; Muscle plasticity: energy demand and supply processes; Regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle by contractile activity).

Timmons et al.'s (517) development and validation of mRNA predictors to hunt for genetic markers have many advantages over existing approaches of SNP. Each SNP seems to contribute only weakly for chronic complex human diseases. For example, after genome-wide association analysis in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, 18 robust SNPs explain <7% of the total disease variance (484). As to generalization of a low responder to all of tens of health benefits from exercise training from VO2max alone, Timmons cautions, “No systematic analysis allows us to be certain that a `nonresponder' for one trait does not cluster with a poor response for another” (516). Thus, additional research is needed to determine whether low responders for gain in VO2max with endurance training respond to other “positive health” benefits of physical activity, such as improved cognitive function, bone density, skeletal muscle strength, visceral adipose tissue quantity and quality, and the tens of other “positive health” benefits detailed later in this article (52). Blair, Church, and co-workers (478) reported that non-responders to for increase in VO2max comprised a total of 44.9%, 23.8%, and 19.3% of the 4-, the 8-, and the 12-kcal/kg/wk treatment groups, respectively. They concluded that greater volumes of exercise were associated with a lower probability of being a nonresponder. In summary then, additional research is needed to determine if low responders to aerobic exercise are low or high responders to high-intensity interval training, to resistance training, balance, or flexibility training.

Proof due to experimental selection of physical aerobic-fitness genes in animals

Britton and Koch's experimental selection, based upon a single volitional/behavioral forced running test to exhaustion, provided experimental evidence that natural selection for high aerobic capacity during evolution is a feasible concept (569). Selection of rats on the basis of the longest or shortest running distances during a single exercise test resulted in selection of a 58% higher aerobic capacity in the high-distance line than the short-distance line over 11 generations. Rats with high VO2max had healthier cardiovascular systems (12% lower mean 24-hr blood pressures and 48% better acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation), and healthier metabolic risk factors (16% less fasting plasma glucose, 39% less visceral adipose tissue, 63% lower plasma triglyceride levels, and greater mitochondrial protein concentrations). These data provides evidence of a genetic role in inter-animal variation in VO2max that is correlated with better health outcomes.

8.4 Phenotype responsiveness variability to resistance training (RT)

In addition to VO2max variance among subjects in response to aerobic training, RT also has a tremendous amount of variability in adaptive responsiveness. In 585 subjects undergoing 12 weeks of RT, changes from 2 to +59%, 0 to +250%, and −32 to +149% occurred in cross sectional area, one repetition max, and maximal isometric contraction, respectively (250). The variability in muscle mass may, in part, be related (but not limited) to inter-individual differences in genome code (as with IGF2 in the aforementioned porcine model) (377), the individual's ability to activate intramuscular mTORC1 signaling within skeletal muscle in response to exercise (333), and/or different responses of microRNA (miRNA) to RT(120). Successful RT-induced hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle was associated with specific differences in miRNA expression to RT in high- and low- responders, respectively, which Davidsen et al. (120) suggest means that miRNAs may play a role in regulating the translation of key gene networks responsible for human skeletal muscle growth. One possible pathway is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is up-regulated during skeletal muscle hypertrophy in humans, and related to the ability for satellite cells to proliferate and/or differentiate (411).

8.5 Pharmacogenetics interactions with exercise

The efficacy of drugs is affected by physical fitness/activity status (104, 328) in addition to genetic disposition. For instance, in patients with abnormal left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preserved LV ejection fraction, exercise and weight loss plus drug reduced the LV relaxation dysfunction that was not reduced by the drug alone (104). Martin et al. (328) speculate that drugs with good efficacy in sedentary overfed (overweight) animal models may be less effective in active normal weight animals.

8.6 The future of personalized human medicine

The findings of the previous sections have led Timmons et al. (517) to predict that they could apply gene data for changes in VO2max in personalized medicine to tailor exercise prescription. Medicine will continue to become more personalized with the looming question of how to optimize how it is applied to ensure the greatest patient benefit. Carl Sagan wrote, “It is the tension between creativity and skepticism that has produced the stunning and unexpected findings of science” (452). It is the spirit of Sagan's quotation that we now raise issues about which we are skeptical. We are skeptical that exercise experts will be used to inform health care professionals on how to make personalized exercise prescriptions based on science. The fear is that a patient will be informed that they have low-responder genes for VO2max, which may lead to failure of the patient to exercise or lack of compliance to alternative exercise prescriptions. We hope that solutions, such as encouraging low responders to aerobic exercise or to engage in resistance exercise, can lead to striking improvements in personalized health.

8.7 Clinical significance

In a statement in Science, NIH Director Francis Collins wrote,

However, the best opportunity to reduce risk in genetically susceptible people for the foreseeable future will not be to re-engineer their genes, but to modify their environment. We need to understand how genetic factors and environmental exposures interact in individuals to alter normal biological function and to affect the risk of disease development (464).

The clinical significance of low- and high-responders for a given dosage and type of exercise, implies that individualized medicine, if exclusively restricted to viewing genetic background in vacuum, will result in less than optimal prescriptive therapy. Rather, individualized medicine for primary prevention of disease and premature death must also be based on individualized variation of inherited genes for: a) disease susceptibility, b) responsiveness to exercise training and type of exercise, and c) drug-exercise interactions, if appropriate. Thus, fully capturing personalized gene-environment interactions.

Kujala et al. (289) wrote, “When tailoring clinical physical activity interventions, we must remember that not all individuals are suited to the same guidelines for exercise intensity, because the ability to exercise seems to vary not only by training background but also by genetic predisposition.”

9. Twin studies - Modulation of twin phenotype by physical activity

Claude Bouchard has extensively used the experimental approach of MZ twins to minimize genetic variability for estimating the percentage contribution of environmental (physical activity) interventions since the mid-1980s. In addition to studies where twins were subjected to exquisitely controlled exercise protocols, a number of studies used overfeeding protocols to look at the effect of excess calories (not included in the following tables). The twin approaches have been critical to our ability to separate genetic from environmental effects related to health and chronic disease in humans. Future, twin-activity studies will contribute to prescription of exercise types and of dose-response thresholds for primary prevention of chronic diseases.

9.1 Comprehensive presentation of twin-activity (gene-environment) studies

In this section, we take the approach of searching the literature for all articles (that we could find) that have examined a variety of health outcomes in monozygotic twins (MZ) to attempt to control for genetic variation.

9.2 MZ twin-activity comparisons show high mortality component

To summarize the most important health outcome, mortality, Table 2 is presented to show the mortality outcome in MZ twins discordant for physical activity in a large cohort of Swedish twins (77). The higher physically active MZ had a 36%–66% lower mortality than their inactive MZ pair.

Table 2

Tendency for dose-response between higher physical activity level and lower mortality in Swedish monozygotic twins [modified from (77)].

SexPhysical activity levelAll-cause mortalityCardiovascular mortality
Hazard ratio95% confidence intervalsHazard ratio95% confidence intervals
MenLow11
Moderate0.840.72, 0.980.860.68, 1.08
High0.640.50, 0.830.550.36, 085
WomenLow11
Moderate0.820.70, 0.960.850.64, 1.13
High0.750.50, 1.140.340.1,0.95

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9.3 MZ twin activity comparisons show variable chronic disease component

These studies have taken the approach of either a priori separating pairs of MZ that are discordant for physical activity (Table 3), looking at exercise responses in MZ twins relative to dizygotic twins (Table 4), correlating health parameters with physical activity or fitness levels in MZ twins (Table 5), and looking at the genetic component of physical fitness and activity parameters (Table 6). By evaluating this approach, we can obtain an idea about which factors are controlled mainly by genetics and which are most modifiable for physical activity levels. However, it should be noted that many of these studies have methodological limitations including a wide range of physical activity levels and outcomes that differ from classical exercise physiology adaptations.

Table 3

Studies with Twin Discordant for Physical Activity Levels.

OutcomesPhysical Inactivity EffectMZ (n)Other (n)SexPA MeasurementCommentsRef
MRI Visceral Fat↑ 50% in inactive Twin16BQuestionnaireAge 50–74 years and Followed for over 32 years. Subset for Finnish twin study.(316)
MRI Liver Fat Score↑ 170% in inactive Twin
MRI Intramuscular Fat↑ 54% in Inactive Twin
BW changes from 1975 to 2005↑ 5.4 kg for the inactive twin42 twins MZ to DZ proportions unclearBPhone InterviewUnclear about proportion of MZ vs. DZ, but states no differences between MZ and DZ. Subset of Finnish twin study. Twins not discordant for PA had no difference in BW.(545)
WC changes from 1975 to 2005↑ 8.4 cm in inactive twin
BMI↑ 0.33 BMI in non-vigorously active twin614MSelf Reported Vigorous ActivityAll males (mean age 41.1) that fought in Vietnam war. When looking at all twins modeling predicted no genetic effect on the relationship between vigorous activity and BMI.(335)
Weight Gain↑ 5.4 kg inactive twin42BQuestionnaire showing Discordant PA in 1975, 1981, and 2005Finnish twin study(545)
Waist Circumference↑ 8.4 cm in inactive twin
Total Body fat in women with similar weight↑ 1.0 kg& 1.4 kg fat for 1-hr or 2-hr less activity/wk156WQuestionnaire Home, sport, sweating activitiesDiscordant for physical activity. Age of 55.5 yr/old(455)
Total and regional Body fat in women with discordant weight↑ 3.96 kg lower BF & 0.53kg centralAlso showed increased physical activity increased muscle mass and strength (not analyzed in discordant twins)
BMI↑ 2.12 in inactive twin (p<0.001)35Healthy Runners Survey – high PA = 40km/wk > than low PA (male), 32km/wk (female)Subjects recruited from the National Healthy Runners Survey. No active twins with overweight twin were themselves overweight.(563)
HDL↓0.14 in inactive (p=0.004)
HDL2↑ 2.71 in inactive (p=0.001)
Apo A-1↑ 0.10 in inactive (p=0.004)
Lipid profile before and after 40% fat or 20% fat diet (cross over study): LDL and sybfractions, apolipoprotein A-1N.S.28MSurvey. One twin running >50km/wk than other twinSubjects recruited from the National Healthy Runners study. A diet low in fat independent of high amounts of exercise modifies circulating lipids.(564)
Adiposity↑ Sig lower in inactive twin21F9 months of 3xwk high intensity weight bearing activityGirls were prepubertal aged 8.7. Did not tell the control group that they could no longer participate in sports.(534)
BMDN.S.12Lifetime leisure high-impact sportsSubgroup from the original group.
aBMC↓ Sig in inactive twin
Femoral neck and lumbar BMDE = 1%&G = 73% of lumbar variance105MQuestionnaire for endurance and balls sportsFinnish men (35–69yr/old)Calcium supplements also explained 1% of difference in BMD.(541)
Spinal MRIN.S. disk degeneration22MQuestionnaire between 1975 and 1981 showing discordant endurance PA (3.9 v 1.1 time/wk)Finnish Twin Cohort aged 35–69(542)
↓T6-T12disk degeneration in low strength PA twin12Questionnaire between 1975 and 1981 showing discordant strength PA (2300 v 200 hrs)
Psychomotor reaction times↓ Sig slower choice reaction for hand & contra foot in inactive38Lifetime exercise historiesFinnish twin cohort. Average age of discordant PA twins is 50. PA data collected in 1972, 81, 92(475)
Psychological functioning (mood, optimism, control)↓ Sig in inactive twin63BQuestionnaire for discordant vigorous activityFrom US National Survey of Midlife Development(258)
Survey based Anxiety and Depression symptomsN.S.??BLeisure time PA onlyArticle is unclear how many MZ twins were discordant for PA in their models. Only current levels of PA and not PA history used. Used Dutch population, but excluded cycling to work as PA (non-leisure)(126)
Dementia↑ P = 0.07 for inactive PA twin90BTwin registry reported 31 years before follow-upSwedish twin registry. Data on all twins showed significant correlation of increased PA and decreased dementia(12)
Life satisfactionN.S.1611722842SurveyData in MZ and related family members showed an OR>1.0for active pair of an unrelated paired of people.(498)
Life HappinessN.S.
Lactate thresholdE is 25–30% & G is 50–60%9M6 months of anaerobic threshold trainingAged 11–14. Change in VO2max was more due to the less weight gain in trained twin. Used analysis of variance to estimate the genetic and training effects.(119)
VO2maxE is 35% & G is 45%
Total Body FatE is 20% & G is 70%
Myocardial infusion at rest, during adenosine, and cold-presser testN.S.9MSeparated by VO2max and physical activity levelsYoung males with a 18% difference inVO2max (ml/kg/min) of (43.7 vs 50.7)(221)
Endothelial function via ultrasound of brachial and LAD coronary arteryN.S.
Oxygen extraction fraction↑ in low fit (p=0.06)
Hepatic FFA uptake at rest↑Sig in less fit groupSame subjects as above.(222)
Myocardial FFA uptake at rest and during exerciseN.S.
Skeletal muscle perfusion and free fatty acid uptakeN.S.Same subjects as previous study.(223)
Cornell voltage (electrical measurement of LV hypertrophy)↓Sig in inactive(36)
Right-side hypertrophy index
LV mass index
Type 2 Diabetes18 inactive v 2 active twins acquired T2DM515 DZBLeisure time PATwins discordant for PA and discordant for Type 2 diabetes. For MZs it was the inactive twin that developed type 2 diabetes.(288)
Mortality from 1975–1981↑Sig in inactive DZ twins, but not inactive MZ twins157517BQuestionnaires for vigorous PA and estimates of >2MET wk/day/wkFinnish twin cohort aged 24–60. Low level of leisure physical activity in early life was associated with increased risks of death in dizygotic twin pairs, but monozygotic co-twins.(289, 546)

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Table 4

Studies with Twin Response to Exercise

PA InterventionOutcomesH-effectMZ (n)DZ (n)SexCommentsRef
Submaximal supine bicycle at HR of 110bpmEnd-diastolic mean wall thickness (rest)H = 53%2112MSimilar results when adjusted for body fat. Non-genetic component is made up of both shared and non-shared environmental components.(40)
LV diameter (rest)N.S
Fractional shortening (rest)H = 13% (N.S)
Change in End-diastolic mean wall thickness w/exerciseH = 0% (N.S.)
Change LV diameter w/exerciseH = 24%
Change in Fractional shortening w/exerciseH = 47%
Cycling Power outputH = 53%
Cycling VO2maxH = 46%
20-wk endurance trainingLV wall, posterior wall, septal wall, LV mass,Minimal H effect2020 (not related)MTraining effect in all subjects.(303)
Supine bicycle at 60W (submaximal)SBP (rest)Sig H3221MLess effect on heritability during exercise than at rest (conclusions based only on abstract; unable to obtain full article)(41)
DBP (rest)
Change in SBP w/exercise
Change in DBP w/exercise
Graded Cycle test to “exhaustion”Peak VO2H = 77%, 66% when PA and skinfolds adjusted2919MTesting was done on a max test and also collected with HR was at 150bpm.(176)
O2 uptake at HR of 150bpmH = 61%, 16% when PA and skinfolds adjusted
Mechanical EfficiencyN.S. H Correlation
Anaerobic energy generationH = 78%, 58% when PA and skinfolds adjusted
Respiratory exchange ratioH = 6% only
30 minutes of treadmill at anaerobic thresholdGH and PRL response to exercise and cortisol at restSig H Correlation9MAthletes(135)
ACTH and cortisol response to exercise and beta-endorphin at restN.S. H Correlation
93 days of negative energy balance (diet and exercise)euglycemic-hyperinsuliemic clamp before and after interventionN.S. H Correlation7M(390)
Fasting and postprandial insulin
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate & androsterone glucuronideSig. H effect7MHealthy Young Males.(419)
Cortisol levels
Wingate test, max progressive testMax 5 s Wingate powerH = 74%88Not correlated were measures in the ergojump test. Had different heritability's with different tests measuring same performance measure. Homogenous subject group.(75)
Max Lactate WingateH = 82%
Delta Lactate during maximal testH = 84%
10-wk isokinetic strength training (5d/wk)HK, MDH, B-HADN.S. H55 (unrelated)M(505)
oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity (OGDH)Sig H
Maximal and submaximal treadmill runningrunning economyN.S. H Correlation88No significant differences in references to MZ v DZ twins.(440)
VO2 maxN.S. H Correlation
Maximal lactateH = 75%
15 weeks of endurance trainingSkeleteal Muslce HKII, (31%), PFK (37%), LDH (21%), MDH (31%), &B-HAD (60%)Sig H12M(217)
fiber-type, CK activitiy,N.S. H
15 weeks of high intensity supramaximal exercise (4–5 times/wk)ALC, CK, HK, LDH, MDH, OGDH activitiy & PFK:OGDH activity ratioSig H28Exercise bouts of 15–90s all out.(474)
fiber type & anaerobic capacity
A single 90 minute bout of exerciseRest v Ex Adipose LPL activity following exerciseSig difference btw MZ and DZ1110MAged 18–27(458)
Cycle exerciseRest v Ex metabolic rate(VO2)H = 46% at low power. N.S. H at > 6xRMR3721 + 31 parent childB(60)
Cycle exercise to maxAbsolute and BW adjust VO2maxSig H1212M18–31 years old(177)
Rest v Ex LV internal diameterN.S. H
Rest v Ex Fractional ShorteningN.S. H
LV MassN.S. H when adjusted for BW
165 min submax treadmill test before & after 22 days of 1000 kcal/day overfeedingPre v Post change in VO2maxSig H12M(524)
93 days of supervised 60min/d exerciseLoss in B.W., fat mass, skinfold, visceral fatSig H7MHealthy young males(59)
Change in fasting TAGs and Cholesterol
Change in VO2max, RER during exercise
1000 kcal of vigorous exercise per day for 22 daysPre v Post fasting insulinSig H12MHealthy young males.(522)
Pre v Post delta insulin during OGTTN.S. H
93 days of supervised 60min/d exercisePre v post fasting insulin and glucose disposalN.S. H, but Sig improvement7(390)
116min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxPre v Post fat massN.S. H12MHealthy males aged 19.1 yr old.(414)
basal lipogenesisSig H
Pre v Post insulin stimulated lipogenesisN.S. H
Pre v Post epinephrine and basal lipolysisN.S. H
Pre v Post LPL activityN.S. H
Fat Free MassSig H
20-wk cycle ergometer endurance trainingPre vs. Post epinephrine lipolysisSig H.8B4 male and 4 female.(133)
Basal lipolysisN.S. H
Single 90 min bout of exerciseLPL activityMore Sig in MZ than DZ1110M(458)
116 min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxTotal CholesterolSig H12M(134)
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
93 days of supervised 60min/d exerciseTotal cholesterolSig H7MMale, young and healthy. ~93000 total calorie deficit. Significant within twin effects.(298)
LDL Cholesterol
Cholesterol to HDL ratio
116min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxBaseline RMRSig H12M(415)
Baseline thermic effect of food
Pre v Post plasma T3, T4, and FT4Sig H (except for T3)
93 days of supervised 60min/d exercisePre v post RMR, Thermic effect of food,Sig H7MHealthy young males(523)
Thyroid hormones
14 weeks of exercise trainingCardiac SizeN.S. H2810 + 12 siblingsBNo genetic effect on heart size pre or post exercise training.(3)

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Table 5

Studies with Twin Correlations that are corrected for PA levels or Unique Environmental Effects (twins may not be discordant for PA).

OutcomesH-effectPA EffectMZ (n)DZ(n)SexPA MeasurementCommentsRef
Weight gain↓ correlation in inactive15713029BQuestionnaire of Physical activity levels at baselineFinnish twin study. At all activity levels MZ twins had greater hereditability than DZ twins.(231)
Waist Circumference↑ 2.5 cm in low PA twin287189Questionnaire in 1998 and 2002. Only looking at leisure and occupational PANo analysis for discordant PA. If twins had large genetic susceptibility then low PA resulted in larger increase in WC(266)
BMIN.S.
Waist Circumference76(M)–77(F)%21(M)–22(F)%7175BQuestionnaireAfrican Americans aged 22–88 from Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging. All effects are unique environemental not just PA levels.(374)
Waist-Hip Ratio59(M)–56(F)%36(M)–38(F)%
BMI89(M)–73(F)%11(M)–27(F)%
Discordant for BMI by at least 3.N.S.23BInterviews and Questionnaire for PANo significant effects of PA on the discordance of overweight prevalence.(214)
Discordant for obesity↓ fitness (8%) and activity (15%) in Obese twin14MVO2max and Baecke leisure time PAFrom FinnTwin study – obese also had lower adipose mitochondrial gene expression(362)
Subscapulantrice ps BF ratio24%265M“crude” measure of PAPA was inversely related to adjusted waist c i re umf ranee(468)
waist circumference46%
Diastolic BP35%5%71104BInterview: Lifetime exercise divided into power, aerobic, or otherAerobic exercise in adolescence lifetime high intensity aerobic associated with low diastolic BP throughout life (mean age of 50 at study time).(236)
Aerobic exercise amount44%N.S.
“Augmentation index”, or systemic arterial stiffness↑ Sig in high genetic risk group when inactive53262 + 54 singlet onsFQuestionnaires(209)
MZ subjects that are discordant for hypertensionHypertensive twin ↑being inactive (after military service)281MSurvey from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH)Twins whom are veterans of WWII aged 55–66. Surveyed at time of entry to military and time of study.(78)
HDL cholesterolCorrectin g for genetics prevent correlatio n↑correlation btw exercise and HDL179255FQuestionnaire (one question about PA)Kaiser Twin Registry in Oakland, CA. aged 18–85.(105)
Lumbar spine disk degeneration74%N.S.172154BInterviewed about weight bearing exerciseNo effect of adjustment for exercise on lumbar or cervical disk degeneration(456)
Lumbar spine disk degeneration73%N.S.
total body BMC (DEXA)1.2% less in inactive twin/hour of less exercise3026Questionnaire for weight bearing exerciseAssociated was not present in pre-pubescent twins(254)
leg BMC↓ 1.4% in inactive
Spine BMC↓ Sig in inactive
BMDN.S.12293F12 month recall questionnaire for sport activity10–26 yr old from Australian twin registry.(577)
Smoking Likelihood at follow up (about 4 yrs)↑ 3.36x for inactive twin to be regular smokers97339BSurvey for twins discordant for PA (3 categories used) at baselineAdolescents from a Finnish Twin Registry. Did not analyze by zygosity.(290)
Discordant Prevalence of non-Alzheimer dementias↑Risk Correlated with Physical inactivity106Questionnaire administered 30 years beforeSwedish twin registry average age of first questionnaire was 48(195)
Twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome – cognitive functioning tests pre-post max testCognitive tests did were N.S.No relationship to chronic PA was made21B (19 M, 2F)Acute Cycle ergometerto maxExercise caused no change in cognitive functioning acutely.(103)
Various Cognitive Functions>15%<80%1,4321,715 + 268,496 siblingsMCycle W max/kgPA effect for all non-shared environmental effects.(1)

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Table 6

Genetic Influence on Physical Activity, Exercise Levels, and Exercise Capacity. B = both; DZ= dizygotic; F = female; H = heredity effect; M = male; monozygotic; N.D. = not determined; n = number of subjects; Y = young

PA MeasurementH-effectUnique Environmental Effect (unless noted)MZ (n)DZ (n)SexCommentsRef
Isometric knee extensor strength56%42%206228FPA effect is non-shared environmental effects. All older women subjects (63–76 yr/old). New non-shared environmental effects responsible for differences at follow up.(515)
leg extensor power67%33%
isometric knee extensor strength (at 3 years follow up)58%15%149164
leg extensor power (at 3 years follow up)48%11%
Elbow flexor muscle cross sectional area43%6%2516MSubjects were young (22.4 yr old) Caucasians from Belgium. Remaining variation accounted for by MCSA and environmental effects.(125)
Elbow flexor eccentric strength47%20%
Elbow flexor isometric strength32%1%
Leg extensor power32%4%101116FFinnish Twin Study on Aging. Subjects 63–73 yr old.(514)
Leg extensor strength48%52%
Isokinetic lifting60%35%122131MFinnish twin study.(446)
Psychophysical lifting33%49%
Isometric trunk extensor endurance5%61%
Questionnaires based on country. >60min of 4 MET activity = exerciser26.5–70.5%29.2–51.9%1367623375BTwins from 7 different countries. Australia had lowest genetic – highest unique environmental. UK females had highest genetic.(497)
SportsMET (>4MET activity in last 3 months)79% in Y, 41% Mid21% in Y 57% Mid69Y, 93M88Y, 105MBYoung and middle age subjects(122)
Questionnaire Physical activity amount = 60–150 minutes a weekMZ = 45% DZ = 30%MZ = 55%1003386BTwins from the Washington State twin registry. The more PA you undergo the less the genetic influence there is.(148)
Questionnaire Physical activity amount > 150 minutes a week (current guidelines)MZH=31% DZ= 25%MZ = 69%
Baecke and exercise Questionnaire40–65%60–35%359232MNationwide Swedish twins. No shared environmental effect.(166)
Sport participation between ages of 13–160%16–22%10951533BDutch population. Does not include common environmental(496)
Sport participation between ages of 17–1836%17%
Sport participation after age of 1885%15%
Adulthood exercise43%26% from competitive sports121MFinnish twin study. Also found that sports from ages 12–18 was a predictor of adulthood exercise.(476)
Respiration chamber (doubly labeled H2O) activity-induced energy expenditure8%30%128BAged 17–39 yr old. Univariate analysis using the additive genetic, but excluding the common environmental component.(259)
Respiration chamber physical activity by accelerometer0%59%
Doubly labeled H2OFree living activity induced energy expenditure72%29%
Free living PA by accelerometer78%22%
RMR3%38%6238BAged 4–10. Correlations are corrected for body weight and do not include common environmental(189)
Total EE by Doubly labeled H2O19%23%
Physical Activity energy expenditure0%31%
VO2max, Vmax, HRmax40, 50, 60%N.D.10666BAlso 42 brothers included in the study(57)
Fiber TypeN.S.N.D.3526B32 brothers also included MZ twins had inter-pair correlation, but DZ and brothers suggested strong (but not quantified) environmental component.(58)
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial activitiesN.S.
Oxidative to glycolytic ratio25–50%

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As expected many of the tested health parameters had both genetic and environmental components. In many studies, questionnaires were used to evaluate physical activity levels, a less than optimal method to collect such data. Thus, while the design of the studies analyzed was not optimized for elucidating the effects of physical activity independent of genotype, some cautious conclusions may be made from Tables 2–6, presented next.

9.4 Important physical activity component to activity adaptation

The data indicate that inactivity increases both visceral and total fat masses independent of genetic disposition. Additionally, Alzheimer's and dementia both have a large physical inactivity component. However, changes in muscle morphology (length, shortening velocity, of ventricular diameter) do not exhibit compelling genetic components. Genotype is apparently not a major determinant of the changes in insulin levels and sensitivity brought about by negative energy balance with exercise (390) (see insulin resistance later in article).

9.5 Important gene component to activity adaptation

In these studies, while physical activity levels themselves exhibit a large genetic component; it varies tremendously between countries and cultures. In addition to activity levels, a major genetic component is found for both measures of strength fitness (muscle strength and power) and in endurance fitness as well as responses (lactate levels, blood pressure) to exercise. More surprisingly is the minor effect of physical activity on overall “well-being”, which is in contrast to a number of cross-sectional studies suggesting that physical activity is strongly negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Another surprisingly result is that twins discordant for physical activity do not differ in generalized bone mass or spinal cord bone mass (542), despite the well-known effects of bed rest and inactivity on increasing bone loss. These contradictory results may simply be due to the lack of specific measures of bone mass in the active limbs, or to the variation in types of load-bearing physical activity, and thus bone health, in the physically active group.

9.6 Clinical significance

Taken together, data in Tables 2–6 provide conclusive evidence that physical inactivity alone is sufficient to increase chronic diseases and death. “Together, the 80 monozygotic publications unequivocally show that co-twins with lower physical activity levels exhibit increased risks for chronic diseases regardless of genotype. Such data, therefore, empowers physicians and other health care providers to prescribe physical activity as primary preventative medicine”

10. Variety of training types to primarily prevent disease

Specificity of training (i.e., adaptation to training is specific to the class of exercise (aerobic vs. resistance) is dogma. For example in 1976, one of us wrote that the nature of the exercise stimulus determines the type of adaptation (243). One type of adaptation involves hypertrophy of the muscle cells with an increase in strength; it is exemplified in its most extreme form by the muscles of weight lifters and body builders. The second type of adaptation involves an increase in the capacity of muscle for aerobic metabolism with an increase in endurance and is found in its most highly developed form in the muscles of competitive middle- and long-distance runners, long-distance cross-country skiers, bicyclists, and swimmers. Further, hypertrophied muscles of weight lifters did not have the increased mitochondria of aerobic training and that prolonged daily run training increases mitochondria, but does not hypertrophy the muscles. Application of the information to elderly individuals is that they must perform both types of exercise to prevent physical (endurance and strength) frailty.

Recent information expands and emphasizes the specificity dogma. High-intensity interval training (HIT) (near peak performance for short bursts alternating with longer periods of low-intensity aerobic activity) has been said to “prove more benefit than traditional continuous exercise programs in several metabolic, muscular, and cardiovascular parameters” (278). For example, HIT-walking resulted in greater increases in VO2peak and thigh muscle strength and a greater reduction in SBP than moderate-intensity continuous walking in older men and women (375). In contrast, one HIT report indicates that HIT by untrained men produced greater (VO2max), the same (improvements in oral glucose tolerance), and less (resting bradycardia, total-body fat percentage, and reducing ratio between total and HDL plasma cholesterol.) adaptations than in a second group performing continuous training (384).

11. Diseasome of physical inactivity (35 diseases/conditions)

The term “diseasome of physical inactivity” was presented by Pedersen (403) to describe a clustering of diseases. Our article enlarges Pedersen's cluster to include over 35 diseases/conditions and death, which constitute most of the remaining article (Fig. 3). (Cross-reference: Muscle as an endocrine organ) Joyner and Pedersen (260) contend that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many common diseases. They further argue that a lack of fluency to use key physiological concepts (like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy) as major intellectual tools to understand at multiple levels how whole animals adapt to exercise and maladapt to physical inactivity.

12. Inactivity accelerates loss of functional capacities with years of life

12.1 Definitions

Primary aging

Inevitable deterioration of cellular structure and function, independent of disease (241)

Maximal lifespan

Maximum amount of time one member of a species has been observed to survive between birth and death

Secondary aging

Aging processes which result from disease, bodily abuse, and/or disuse and which are often preventable

Life expectancy

Average lifespan of a population

Functional capacity

Absolute maximal value of a function

Relative functional capacity Relative age of functional capacity of an organ system, an organ, or cell to its lifetime highest value at a given calendar age

12.2 Etiology

Primary prevention

The next quotation is impactful because of its source, a report from top exercise scientists that was accepted by the top official of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

The data very strongly support an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. Active individuals — both men and women — have approximately a 30% lower risk of dying during follow-up, compared with inactive individuals. This inverse association has been observed among persons residing in the United States, as well as in other countries, older persons (aged 65 years and older), and persons of different race/ethnic groups. In one study of persons with impaired mobility (unable to walk 2 km and climb 1 flight with no difficulty), physical activity also appeared to be associated with lower all-cause mortality rates. (412)

Less physical activity shortens years of life relative to average lifespan

Healthy behavioral choices in Californian Adventists extend life expectancy by several years, even as much as a decade, (190). Various reports estimate that higher physical activity levels may extend life expectancy relative to average lifespan by 2.1 (405), 2.5 (395), 5.1 (men)(181), and 5.7 (women)(181) yrs for the physically active population.

Another example of lifetime physical activity shortening years lived is the increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (See type 2 diabetes later in article). Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes at the age of 20 yrs is associated with 17.2 and 17.9 yrs of life lost in males and females, respectively (366).

Less physical activity increases percentage of population that is disabled

At the same age for death, the high physical activity group spent less time disabled than the overall population of men (2.5 vs. 3.0 years), while the low physical activity group actually spends more time disabled than all men (2.6 vs. 1.4 years)(181). Thus, less lifetime physical activity shortens years of life. (Cross-reference: Implications of aging and athletics)

12.3 Dose-response relationship between sitting time and prediction of premature death

Longitudinal studies

Katzmarzyk et al. (268) reported a dose-response association existed between sitting time and mortality from all causes and CVD, but not for cancer, independent of leisure time physical activity in 17,000 Canadians, such that hazard ratio was 1.54 for the greatest sitting time. Dunstan et al. (151) found that each 1-hour increase in TV viewing time was associated with 11% and 18% increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, in 20,000 Australian men and women. Further, all-cause and CVD mortalities increased 46% and 80%, respectively for TV viewing time >4hr/day as compared to <2 hrs/day, which were independent of smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol, diet, waist circumference, and leisure-time exercise.

Mechanisms

While light physical activity is associated with rather low-intensity muscle contractions, it still has favorable improvements on plasma glucose in glucose tolerance tests (228), and differs substantially from the absence of muscle activity while sitting The detrimental effects of sitting have been hypothesized by Stamatakis et al. (489) to occur in the following sequence of events: excessive sitting lowers skeletal muscle blood flow, lowering shear stress on vascular endothelial cells,,and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression. They also noted that the low-grade inflammatory marker, CRP was approximately 2 times greater in subjects with >4 hr/day in screen time, compared to those <2 hr/day. However, two weeks of reduced daily stepping (286) and 5 days of bed rest (216) do not increase inflammatory markers so CRP is unlikely to be the first initiating mechanism. Rapid biochemical changes in a rodent models of sitting, hindlimb unloading, have demonstrated decreases in rat skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates within the first 6 hrs (54, 357, 507, 529, 550) and loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle after 1 day (466).

12.4 Biomarkers of premature death

Low values of functional capacities for maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and for maximal skeletal muscle mass/strength, each alone, are biomarkers for death as they are associated with shorter life expectancies.

Sedentary lifestyle speeds secondary aging of VO2max by 30 yrs (illustrated by shifting of age-VO2max relationship leftward in shown example)

As previously discussed, VO2max is a measure of CRF. CRF is a health-related component of physical fitness defined as the ability of the circulatory, respiratory, and muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. While physically active and inactive individuals lose a VO2max at a similar rate (slope of the curve) due to primary aging, the inactive individuals have a leftward shift of the curve. For instance, 80-yr-old, physically active women had VO2max's that were equivalent to 50-yr-old physically inactive women. (Fig. 4) (503).

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Figure 4

Best-fit linear lines are shown for aerobic capacities of two cross-sectional groups (aerobic trained and sedentary) as a function of their increasing chronological age. At the chronological age of 80 yrs, a horizontal line is extended from the endurance trained line to the left where it intersects the sedentary line at age 50 yrs. Subjects were women who had been aerobically trained for at least 2 yrs with road-racing competition (closed circles) vs. women who were sedentary (open squares) who performed no regular exercise and had BMI's <35 kg/m2 (aerobic-trained women were matched across the entire age range for age-adjusted world-best 10-km running times to ensure homogeneity relative competitiveness). [Reproduced with permission from (503)].

Low VO2max increases prevalence of death

Convincing evidence exists that lower CRF is associated with increased mortality in both men and women, independently of other risk factors (79, 96, 277, 312, 313).

An inverse relationship between CRF and death was present with a cross-sectional comparison between lesser fit men and women with greater fit men and women showed. When CRF in the second lowest CRF quintile is compared to the lowest quantile, the risk of all-cause death in the lowest CRF quantile is increased by 39% and 67% in a prospective study of 40,451 men and 12,831 women, respectively (312) (Fig. 5). Likewise comparing the highest CRF quintile) to the second lowest increased all-cause death risk by 26% and 28% in men and women, respectively. Thus, comparing the top quintile to the lowest quintile increased all-cause death risk by 75% and 113% in men and women, respectively.

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Figure 5

Relative risk of death as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or change in CRF. Relative risks of all-cause mortality by (CRF) quintiles for 12,831 women aged 20–100 years without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Relative risks were adjusted for age, year of examination, body mass index, smoking status, abnormal electrocardiogram, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and family history of CVD. [Reproduced with permission from (312)].

Changes in CRF level result in a similar change in mortality risk. Men (n = 9777; aged 20–82 at baseline) had two CRF assessments with an average period of 4.9 years between first and second examinations (44, 312). The men were then followed an average of 5.1 years for mortality after the second CRF test. Men who were unfit at both visits had the highest death risk while men who were fit at both visits had the lowest death risk. Remarkably, men who changed fitness status between the two CRF assessments had intermediate risk of death between the fit-that-stayed-fit group and unfit-who-stayed-unfit group. Fit-who-became-unfit between assessments had an increased risk of death. Unfit-men who-became-fit between CRF assessments decreased their risk of death. Erikssen et al. (165) found similar trend and concluded that even small improvements in physical fitness are associated with a significantly lowered risk of death.

Sedentary lifestyle speeds secondary aging of skeletal muscle power by 24 yrs (illustrated by shifting of age-power relationship leftward in shown example)

Low muscle strength has been inversely associated with all-cause-mortality in thirteen studies using subjects > 65 yrs of age (see (451) for refs). While, aging causes a similar rate of loss in power between 40 and 90 yrs of age, untrained, healthy men generate 35% less average power than male competitors at a World Masters Weight-Lifting Championships (402) (Fig. 6). Recreational resistance training results in strength gains ranging from 10%–257% after 9–52 weeks of 2–3 days/week resistance training in subjects mainly aged between 60–80 years of age (252), however a cross-sectional study spanning 20–80 yrs of age in recreational weight-lifters is not available to our knowledge. (Cross-references: Influence of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism; Physical activity and skeletal muscle size)

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Nokia

Finnish technology and telecommunications company

This article is about the Finnish telecommunications corporation. For the town in Finland, see Nokia, Finland. For other uses, see Nokia (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 60°13′29″N24°45′23″E / 60.2247°N 24.7563°E / 60.2247; 24.7563

Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA)[a] is a Finnish multinationaltelecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in Espoo, Finland, in the greater Helsinkimetropolitan area,[4] but the company's actual roots are in the Tampere region of Pirkanmaa.[6] In 2020, Nokia employed approximately 92,000 people[7] across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23 billion.[5] Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange.[8] It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009.[9] It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50stock market index.[10][11]

The company has operated in various industries over the past 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s has focused on large-scale telecommunications infrastructure, technology development, and licensing.[12] Nokia made significant contributions to the mobile telephony industry, assisting in the development of the GSM, 3G, and LTE standards. For a decade beginning in 1998, Nokia was the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones. In the later 2000s, however, Nokia suffered from a series of poor management decisions, and soon saw its share of the mobile phone market drop sharply. After a partnership with Microsoft and Nokia's subsequent market struggles,[13][14][15] Microsoft bought its mobile phone business,[16][17] creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014.[18] After the sale, Nokia began to focus more on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on Internet of things technologies, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization.[19] The company then also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings.[20][21][22][23] The Nokia brand returned to the mobile and smartphone market in 2016 through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global.[24] Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors.[25] As of 2018, Nokia is the world's third-largest network equipment manufacturer.[26]

The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland.[27] At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, and 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.[28][29]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Nokia

1865–1967[edit]

Nokia's history dates from 1865, when Finnish-Swedemining engineerFredrik Idestam established a pulp mill on the shores of the Tammerkoski rapids near the town of Tampere, Finland (then in the Russian Empire).[6] A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, where there were better hydropower resources.[6] In 1871, Idestam, together with a friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company and called it Nokia Ab (in Swedish, Nokia Company being the English equivalent), after the site of the second pulp mill.

Idestam retired in 1896, making Mechelin the company's chairman; he expanded into electricity generation by 1902, which Idestam had opposed. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas (Finnish Rubber Works), a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name.

In 1922, in a now independent Finland, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas (the Cable Factory), all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. The rubber company grew rapidly when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electricity supply, and the cable company soon did too.

Nokia at the time also made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.[30]

1967–1990[edit]

LV 317M military radio in the Hämeenlinna artillery museum

In 1967, the three companies – Nokia, Kaapelitehdas, and Finnish Rubber Works – merged to create a new Nokia Corporation, restructured into four major businesses: forestry, cable, rubber, and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the networking and radio industries. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces (Puolustusvoimat), such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, and the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now also making professional mobile radios, telephone switches, capacitors and chemicals.

After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market. It soon widened trade, ranging from automatic telephone exchanges to robotics among others; by the late 1970s, the Soviet Union became a major market for Nokia, yielding high profits. Nokia also co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government became increasingly suspicious of that co-operation after the end of the Cold Wardétente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them in products for the Soviets, and according to U.S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.S. to keep track of technological developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia.[31] This was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War.

In 1977, Kari Kairamo became CEO and transformed the company's businesses. By this time, Finland was becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan".[by whom?] Under his leadership, Nokia acquired many companies including television maker Salora in 1984, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, and French television maker Oceanic in 1987. This made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe (behind Philips and Thomson). The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996.

Nokia Mikko 3 minicomputer, 1978

In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands. It was originally part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT), and after the acquisition products were sold under the "ITT Nokia" brand, despite SEL's sale to Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE), the predecessor of Alcatel, in 1986.

On 1 April 1988, Nokia bought the Information Systems division of Ericsson,[32] which had originated as the Datasaab computer division of Swedish aircraft and car manufacturer Saab. Ericsson Information Systems made Alfaskop terminals, typewriters, minicomputers and Ericsson-branded IBM compatible PCs. The merger with Nokia's Information Systems division—which since 1981 had a line of personal computers called MikroMikko—resulted in the name Nokia Data.

Nokia also acquired Mobira, a mobile telephony company, which was the foundation of its future mobile phone business. In 1981, Mobira launched the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) service, the world's first international cellular network and the first to allow international roaming. In 1982, Mobira launched the Mobira Senator car phone, Nokia's first mobile phone. At that time, the company had no interest in producing mobile phones, which the executive board regarded as akin to James Bond's gadgets: improbably futuristic and niche devices. After all these acquisitions, Nokia's revenue base became US$2.7 billion. CEO Kairamo committed suicide on 11 December 1988.

In 1987, Kaapelitehdas discontinued production of cables at its Helsinki factory after 44 years, effectively shutting down the sub-company.

  • Mobira 800-NDB non-directional beacon located in the Finnish Air Force signals museum

  • Nokia MAC 8532 laser rangefinder previously used by Finnish coastal artillery

  • Hämeenlinna artillery museum display containing fire control officer with Nokia artillery calculator in Finnish artillery battalion command post

  • Late 1980s MikroMikko 4 TT m216 desktop computer in the Museum of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

  • ITT Nokia television with an ITT Nokia VCR (ITT/SEL)

1990–2010[edit]

Jorma Ollila, who oversaw the rise of Nokia in the mobile phone market as CEO from 1992 to 2006

Following Simo Vuorilehto's appointment as CEO, a major restructuring was planned. With 11 groups within the company, Vuorilehto divested industrial units he deemed as un-strategic. Nokian Tyres (Nokian Renkaat), a tyre producer originally formed as a division of Finnish Rubber Works in 1932, split away from Nokia Corporation in 1988. Two years later, in 1990, Finnish Rubber Works followed suit. In 1991 Nokia sold its computer division, Nokia Data, to UK-based International Computers Limited (ICL), the precursor of Fujitsu Siemens. Investors thought of this as financial trouble and Nokia's stock price sank as a result. Finland was now also experiencing its worst recession in living memory, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a major customer, made matters worse.

Vuorilehto quit in January 1992 and was replaced by Jorma Ollila, who had been the head of the mobile phone business from 1990 and advised against selling that division. Ollila decided to turn Nokia into a 'telecom-oriented' company, and he eventually got rid of divisions like the power business. This strategy proved to be very successful and the company grew rapidly in the following years. Nokia's operating profit went from negative in 1991 to $1 billion in 1995 and almost $4 billion by 1999.[33]

Nokia's first fully portable mobile phone after the Mobira Senator was the Mobira Cityman 900 in 1987. Nokia assisted in the development of the GSM mobile standard in the 1980s, and developed the first GSM network with Siemens, the predecessor to Nokia Siemens Network. The world's first GSM call was made by Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri on 1 July 1991, using Nokia equipment on the 900 MHz band network built by Nokia and operated by Radiolinja. In November 1992, the Nokia 1011 launched, making it the first commercially available GSM mobile phone.[34]

Salora Oy as a Nokia subsidiary ended in 1989 when the division was merged into Nokia-Mobira Oy. The brand continued to be used for televisions until 1995.

On 12 June 1996, Nokia announced the sale of its television business to Canada/Hong Kong-based Semi-Tech Corporation.[35] The television manufacturing plant in Germany closed down in September 1996. The sale included a factory in Turku, and the rights to use the Nokia, Finlux, Luxor, Salora, Schaub-Lorenz and Oceanic brands until the end of 1999.[36] Some of these brands were later sold to other companies.

Nokia was the first to launch digital satellite receivers in the UK, announced in March 1997.[37] In August 1997 Nokia introduced the first digital satellite receiver with Common Interface (CI) support.[38] In 1998 Nokia became the chosen supplier to produce the world's first digital terrestrial television set-top boxes by British Digital Broadcasting (BDB), which was eventually launched as ONdigital.[39]

A Nokia Mediamaster set-top box

In October 1998, Nokia overtook Motorola to become the best-selling mobile phone brand,[40] and in December manufactured its 100 millionth mobile phone.[41] A major reason why Nokia grew against its main competitors Motorola and Ericsson was that it managed to cater to the consumer youth market and fashion-oriented consumers, most significantly with the Nokia 5110 and 3210 handsets which featured a large range of colourful and replaceable back-covers called Xpress-on.[42][43] One of the earliest fashion phones in 1992, from Swiss watchmaker Swatch, was based on Nokia's 101 handset.[44] The company would also form the Vertu division, creating luxury mobile handsets.

Nokia claimed in April 1996 its 447Xav and 447K monitors to be the first with stereo speakers and a sub-woofer.[45] In May 1999 Nokia introduced their first wireless LAN products.[46] In January 2000 ViewSonic acquired Nokia Display Products, the division making displays for personal computers.[47] On 26 April 2001 Nokia partnered with Telefonica to supply DSL modems and routers in Spain.[48]

In 1997, Nokia established a joint venture with Brazilian electronics firm Gradiente where they were granted the license to manufacture variants of Nokia mobile phones locally under the Nokia and Gradiente brand names.[49]

In 1998, Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. led by Psion to create a new operating system for PDAs and smart mobile phones as a successor of EPOC32. They released the Nokia 9210 Communicator running Symbian OS in 2001 and later that year created the Symbian Series 60 platform, later introducing it with their first camera phone, the Nokia 7650. Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest smartphone hardware and software maker respectively, and in February 2004 Nokia became the largest shareholder of Symbian Ltd.[50] Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and then formed the Symbian Foundation as its successor.[51]

In 1998 alone, the company had sales revenue of $20 billion making $2.6 billion profit. By 2000 Nokia employed over 55,000 people,[52] and had a market share of 30% in the mobile phone market, almost twice as large as its nearest competitor, Motorola.[53] The company was operating in 140 countries as of 1999. It was reported at the time that some people believed Nokia to be a Japanese company.[54] Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased fivefold, from €6.5 billion to €31 billion.[55]

A collection of Nokia mobile phones from the 2000s

The company would then be known as a successful and innovative maker of camera phones. The Nokia 3600/3650 was the first camera phone on sale in North America in 2003. In April 2005 Nokia partnered with German camera optics maker Carl Zeiss AG.[56] That same month Nokia introduced the Nseries, which would become its flagship line of smartphones for the next six years.[57] The Nokia N95 introduced in September 2006 became highly successful and was also awarded as "best mobile imaging device" in Europe in 2007.[58] Its successor the N82 featured a xenon flash,[59] which helped it win the award of "best mobile imaging" device in Europe in 2008.[60] The N93 in 2006 was known for its specialized camcorder and the twistable design that switches between clamshell and a camcorder-like position.[61] They were also well known for the N8 with a high-resolution 12-megapixel sensor in 2010; the 808 PureView in 2012 with a 41-megapixel sensor; and the Lumia 920 flagship in 2012 which implemented advanced PureView technologies.[62]

Nokia was one of the pioneers of mobile gaming due to the popularity of Snake, which came pre-loaded on many products. In 2002, Nokia attempted to break into the handheld gaming market with the N-Gage.[63] Nokia's head of entertainment and media, Ilkka Raiskinen, once quoted "Game Boy is for 10-year-olds",[64] stating that N-Gage is more suited to a mature audience. However, the device was a failure, unable to challenge the dominant market leader Nintendo. Nokia attempted to revive N-Gage as a platform for their S60 smartphones, which eventually launched in 2008.[65]

In Q1 2004, Nokia's mobile phone handset market share steeply dropped to 28.9%, down from 34.6% a year earlier.[66] However, by 2006 the company was steadily gaining again[67][68] and in Q4 2007 reached its all-time high figure of 40.4%.[69] Its smartphone market share in that quarter was 51%.[70] Nokia was the largest vendor at the time in all regions bar North America.[71]

Nokia launched mobile TV trials in 2005 in Finland with content provided by public broadcaster Yle. The services are based on the DVB-H standard. It could be viewed with the widescreen Nokia 7710 smartphone with a special accessory enabling it to receive DVB-H signals.[72] Nokia partnered with Arqiva and O2 to launch trials in the UK in September 2005.[73]

In 2005 Nokia developed a Linux-based operating system called Maemo, which shipped that year on the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.

On 1 June 2006, Jorma Ollila became the company's chairman and retired as CEO, replaced by Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.[74]

A flagship Nokia store in São Paulo, Brazil in 2009

In August 2007, Nokia introduced Ovi, an umbrella name for the company's new Internet services which included the N-Gage platform and the Nokia Music Store.[75] The Ovi Store faced stiff competition against Apple's App Store when it was introduced in 2008.[76]

In October 2008 Nokia announced the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, the first device to ship with the new touch-centric S60 5th Edition, also known as Symbian^1, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of the Symbian Foundation. In November 2008 Nokia announced it would end mobile phone sales in Japan because of low market share.[77] Nokia's global mobile phone market share peaked in 2008 at 38.6 percent.[78] The same year, Nokia announced the acquisition of Trolltech and its Qt software development.[79] Qt was a central part of Nokia's strategy until 2011, and it was eventually sold in 2012.[80]

Nokia briefly returned to the computer market with the Booklet 3G netbook in August 2009.

2010–2014[edit]

A Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996) next to a Nokia E7 Communicator (2011)

In late 2009 and in 2010, the music-focused Xseries and consumer-focused Cseries were introduced respectively.[81] In April 2010 Nokia introduced its next flagship mobile device, the Nokia N8, which would be the first to run on Symbian^3.[82] However it was delayed for many months which tarnished the company's image,[83] especially after the failure of its previous flagship N97 and tougher competition from Apple and the rising Google. On 10 September 2010, Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo was fired as CEO and it was announced that Stephen Elop from Microsoft would take Nokia's CEO position, becoming the first non-Finnish director in Nokia's history.[84] It was claimed that investors pressed Nokia's board to recruit an outsider to shake up management and break from the traditional "Nokia way".[85] Ollila had also announced that he would step down as Nokia chairman by 2012.[86] On 11 March 2011 Nokia announced that it had paid Elop a $6 million signing bonus as "compensation for lost income from his prior employer", on top of his $1.4 million annual salary.[87]

The old Symbian OS became completely open source in February 2010.[88] However, in November 2010 it was announced that the Symbian Foundation was closing and that Nokia would take back control of the Symbian operating system under closed licensing.[89] By now Nokia was the only remaining company using the platform, along with carrier NTT DoCoMo in Japan, after both Samsung and Sony Ericsson moved to Android. Meanwhile, in 2010 for Nokia's Linux ambitions, Nokia collaborated with Intel to form the MeeGo project, after the merger of Nokia's own Maemo and Intel's Moblin.

Nokia's Symbian platform that had been the leading smartphone platform in Europe and Asia for many years was quickly becoming outdated and difficult for developers after the advent of iOS and Android. To counter this, Nokia planned to make their MeeGo Linux operating system, under development, the company's flagship on smartphones. Shortly after Elop's CEO tenure began, the Nokia board green-lit him the ability to change the company's mobile phones strategy, including changing operating systems.[90] Veteran Anssi Vanjoki, head of the smartphones division, left the company around this time.[91] His final appearance was at Nokia World 2010 when the Nokia E7 and other Symbian^3 devices were introduced.[92]

On 11 February 2011, Nokia announced a "strategic partnership" with Microsoft, under which it would adopt Windows Phone 7 as its primary operating system on smartphones, and integrate its services and platforms with its own, including Bing as search engine, and integration of Nokia Maps data into Bing Maps. Elop stated that Nokia chose not to use Android because of an apparent inability to "differentiate" its offerings, with critics also noting that his past ties to Microsoft may have also influenced the decision.[93][94][95] Although the MeeGo "Harmattan"-based N9 was met with a highly positive reception in 2011, Nokia had already decided to end development on MeeGo and solely focus on its Microsoft partnership, although the CEO said that the N9's "innovations" will live on in the future,[96] which eventually made their way on the Asha platform in 2013.[97] After the announcement of the Microsoft partnership, Nokia's market share deteriorated; this was due to demand for Symbian dropping when consumers realized Nokia's focus and attention would be elsewhere.[98]

The company posted a large loss for the second quarter of 2011 – only their second quarterly loss in 19 years.[99] Nokia's first Windows Phone flagship was the Lumia 800, which arrived in November 2011. Falling sales in 2011, which were not being improved significantly with the Lumia line in 2012, led to consecutive quarters of huge losses. By mid-2012 the company's stock price fell below $2.[100][101] CEO Elop announced cost-cutting measures in June by shedding 10,000 employees by the end of the year and the closure of the Salo manufacturing plant.[102] The Finnish prime minister also announced that the government won't save the company from an emergency state fund.[103] Around this time Nokia started a new project codenamed "Meltemi", a platform for low-end smartphones.[104] With the Microsoft alliance and under Elop's management, Nokia also had a renewed focus on the North American market where Nokia phones were, in stark contrast to the rest of the world, almost irrelevant for many years.[105][106] This strategy began in January 2012 with the introduction of the Nokia Lumia 900 smartphone in partnership with U.S. carrier AT&T.[107]

In March 2011, Nokia introduced a new corporate typeface called "Pure".[108] On 1 August 2011, Nokia announced that it would adopt a new three-digit naming system for mobile phone products and stop using letters, effectively ending the Nseries, Eseries, and short-lived Cseries. That same day the Nokia 500 was introduced with the new system.[109] Nokia last used three-digit names on analogue phones in the 1990s.[81]

When the Lumia 920 was announced in September 2012, it was seen by the press as the first high-end Windows Phone that could challenge rivals due to its advanced feature set. Elop said that the positive reaction to it had created a sense of hope and optimism in the company.[110] The company was also making gains in developing countries with its Asha series, which were selling strongly.[111] Although Nokia's smartphone sales and market share greatly increased throughout 2013, including in the North American market,[112] it was still not enough to avoid financial losses.[113] Ollila stepped down as chairman on 4 May 2012 and was replaced by Risto Siilasmaa.[114]

In September 2013 Nokia announced the sale of its mobile and devices division to Microsoft. The sale was positive for Nokia to avoid further negative financial figures, as well as for Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer, who wanted Microsoft to produce more hardware and turn it into a devices and services company.[115] The Nokia chairman, Risto Siilasmaa, described the deal as rationally correct (in the best interests of Nokia shareholders), but emotionally difficult[116] – experts agree that Nokia would have been in a cash crisis had it not sold the division to Microsoft.[117][116] Analysts believe that Ballmer pushed for the buyout because of fears that Nokia was close to adopting Android and abandoning their alliance with Microsoft.[118][119] Indeed, in January 2014 the Nokia X was introduced which ran on a customised version of Android. It was a surprising and somewhat odd launch coming just weeks away from the finalization of the Microsoft buyout.[120][121] Others, including Ballmer's successor Satya Nadella, felt that Microsoft thought merging their software teams with Nokia's hardware engineering and designs would "accelerate" growth of Windows Phone.[122] The sale was completed in April 2014, with Microsoft Mobile becoming the successor to Nokia's mobile devices division. Nokia also moved from its headquarters to another building complex located at Karaportti. At the time, Ballmer himself was retiring as Microsoft CEO and was replaced by Satya Nadella, who opposed the Nokia mobile phones purchase, along with chairman Bill Gates.[123] The purchased assets from Nokia were eventually written-off by Microsoft in 2015.[124]

By 2014, Nokia's global brand value according to Interbrand fell to 98th place,[125] a sharp slide from the 5th place it was in 2009.[126] Nokia's downfall in the mobile phone market has had different explanations from analysts, with many split about the CEO's decision to abandon its in-house operating system and adopting Windows Phone in 2011.[127] Many researchers have concluded that Nokia suffered from deep internal rivalries within the management.[117][128][129][130] Former employees claimed that the management became so swollen by the early success that they grew complacent over time.[131][132] Some from the Symbian developing team have claimed that the company's upper management rejected hundreds of potential innovations during the 2000s that they proposed, including entirely rewriting Symbian's code. One former Nokia employee claimed that the company was run as a "Soviet-style bureaucracy".[133]

Former Nokia plant in Bochum, Germany
A Nokia advertising sign in Dublin, Ireland

In July 2013, Nokia bought Siemens' stake in the Nokia Siemens Networks joint venture for $2.2 billion, turning it into a wholly owned subsidiary called Nokia Solutions and Networks,[134] until being rebranded as Nokia Networks soon after.[135] During Nokia's financial struggles, its profitable networking division with Siemens provided much of its income; thus, the purchase proved to be positive, particularly after the sale of its mobile devices unit.[136]

2014–2016[edit]

After the sale of its mobile devices division, Nokia focused on network equipment through Nokia Networks.[137]

In October 2014, Nokia and China Mobile signed a US$970 million framework deal for delivery between 2014 and 2015.[138]

On 17 November 2014, Nokia Technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business as an original design manufacturer, licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that's why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently".[139] The next day, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android tablet manufactured by Foxconn, as its first product following the Microsoft sale.[140] Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it".[12] Nokia CEO Rajeev Suri stated that the company planned to re-enter the mobile phone business in this manner in 2016, following the expiration of its non-compete clause with Microsoft.[141]

According to Robert Morlino, the spokesman of Nokia Technologies, Nokia planned to follow the brand-licensing model rather than direct marketing of mobile devices due to the sale of its mobile devices division to Microsoft.[142] The company took aggressive steps to revitalize itself, evident through its hiring of software experts, testing of new products and seeking of sales partners.[143] On 14 July 2015, CEO Rajeev Suri confirmed that the company would make a return to the mobile phones market in 2016.[144]

On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degreesvirtual reality camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced VR film-making platform.[145] Nokia's press release stated that OZO would be "the first in a planned portfolio of digital media solutions," with more technologic products expected in the future.[146] OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in Los Angeles. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000;[147] however, its price was decreased by $15,000 prior to release,[148] and is listed on its official website as $40,000.[149]

Nokia office building in Markham, Ontario, Canada in 2016 – originally Alcatel-Lucent's office

On 14 April 2015, Nokia confirmed that it was in talks with the French telecommunications equipment company Alcatel-Lucent regarding a potential merger.[150] The next day, Nokia announced that it had agreed to purchase Alcatel-Lucent for €15.6 billion in an all-stock deal.[151] CEO Rajeev Suri felt that the purchase would give Nokia a strategic advantage in the development of 5G wireless technologies.[152][153] The acquisition created a stronger competitor to the rival firms Ericsson and Huawei,[154] whom Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent had surpassed in terms of total combined revenue in 2014. Nokia shareholders hold 66.5% of the new combined company, while Alcatel-Lucent shareholders hold 33.5%. The Bell Labs division was to be maintained, but the Alcatel-Lucent brand would be replaced by Nokia.[151][155] In October 2015, following approval of the deal by China's Ministry of Commerce, the merger awaited approval by French regulators.[156] Despite the initial intent of selling the submarine cable division separately, Alcatel-Lucent later declared that it would not.[157] The merger closed on 14 January 2016,[158] but was not complete until 3 November 2016. From the acquisition, Nokia is now also the owner of the Alcatel mobile phone brand, which continues to be licensed to TCL Corporation.

On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its Here digital maps division to a consortium of BMW, Daimler AG and Volkswagen Group for €2.8 billion.[159] The deal closed on 3 December 2015.[160]

2016–2019[edit]

On 26 April 2016, Nokia announced its intent to acquire French connected health device maker Withings for US$191 million. The company was integrated into a new Digital Health unit of Nokia Technologies.[161][162] Nokia later wrote off the cost of the acquisition and in May 2018 the health unit was sold back to Éric Carreel, a Withings co-founder and former CEO.[163]

On 18 May 2016, Microsoft Mobile sold its Nokia-branded feature phone business to HMD Global, a new company founded by former Nokia executive Jean-Francois Baril, and an associated factory in Vietnam to Foxconn's FIH Mobile subsidiary. Nokia subsequently entered into a long-term licensing deal to make HMD the exclusive manufacturer of Nokia-branded phones and tablets outside Japan, operating in conjunction with Foxconn. The deal also granted HMD the right to essential patents and featurephone software. HMD subsequently announced the Android-based Nokia 6 smartphone in January 2017.[164][165] At Mobile World Congress, HMD additionally unveiled the Nokia 3 and Nokia 5 smartphones, as well as a re-imagining of Nokia's classic 3310 feature phone.[166][167] While Nokia has no investment in the company, they do have some input in the new devices.

On 28 June 2016 Nokia demonstrated for the first time a 5G-ready network.[168] In February 2017 Nokia carried out a 5G connection in Oulu, Finland using the 5GTF standard, backed by Verizon, on Intel architecture-based equipment.[169]

In July 2017, Nokia and Xiaomi announced that they have signed a business collaboration agreement and a multi-year patent agreement, including a cross-license to each company's cellular standard-essential patents.[170] In that year, Nokia's brand value was ranked 188th by Brand Finance, a jump of 147 places from 2016. Its rise was attributed to its health portfolio and new mobile phones developed by HMD Global.[171]

In January 2018, Nokia signed a deal with NTT Docomo, Japan's largest mobile operator, to provide 5G wireless radio base stations in the country by 2020.[172] Later that month, Nokia announced the ReefShark line of 5G chipsets, claiming that it triples bandwidth to 84 Gbit/s.[173] In March, Solidium, the investment arm of the Finnish government, purchased a 3.3% stake in Nokia valued at €844 million.[174] In May, Nokia announced that it had acquired a California-based IoT startup, SpaceTime Insight.[175]

In January 2019, the Canadian government announced that it would provide C$40 million to support Nokia's research on 5G technology.[176] A 2019 study revealed that Nokia phones performed far better than rivals Samsung, LG, Xiaomi, and Huawei in updating to the latest version of Android. The study, made by Counterpoint Research, found that 96 percent of Nokia phones were either sent with or updated to the latest Android version since Pie was released in 2018. Nokia's competitors were found to be all around roughly the 80 percent range.[177]

2020–present[edit]

On March 2, 2020, Nokia announced Pekka Lundmark as its new CEO.[178] Later that month, Nokia completed the acquisition of Elenion Technologies, a U.S.-based company focusing on silicon photonics technology to improve economics of advanced optical connectivity products.[179]

On May 27, 2020, Sari Baldauf succeeded Risto Siilasmaa as chairwoman of the board of directors, and Kari Stadigh was appointed vice chair. In June, Nokia won a 5G contract worth approximately $450 million[180] from Taiwan Mobile to build out the telecom operator's next-generation network as the sole supplier.[181] In October, Nokia announced a contract with NASA to build a 4G mobile network for astronaut usage on the moon. The $14.1 million contract is through subsidiary Bell Labs, and the program is expected to launch in 2022.[182][183][184]

During 2020, Flipkart collaborated with Nokia to market Nokia-branded consumer products in India. These included televisions, a laptop and a range of air conditioners.[185]

Current operations[edit]

Nokia is a julkinen osakeyhtiö (public joint-stock company) listed on the Nasdaq Nordic/Helsinki and New York stock exchanges.[8] Nokia has played a very large role in the economy of Finland,[186][187] and it is an important employer in the country, working with multiple local partners and subcontractors.[188] Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP and accounted for about 16% of the country's exports in 2006.[189]

Nokia comprises two business groups along with further subsidiaries and affiliated firms.

Nokia Networks[edit]

Main article: Nokia Networks

Inside the Nokia Networks office in Munich, Germany

Nokia Networks is Nokia Corporation's largest division. It is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and is the world's third-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer, measured by 2017 revenues (after Huawei and Cisco). In the USA it competes with Ericsson on building 5G networks for operators, while Huawei Technologies and ZTE Corporation were effectively banned.[190]

It has operations in around 150 countries.[191]

Nokia Networks provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers.[192] It focuses on GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA, LTE and WiMAX radio access networks, supporting core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services.

The Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and Siemens (49.9%),[193] although it is now wholly owned by Nokia. In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and renamed it to Nokia Solutions and Networks, shortly thereafter changed to simply Nokia Networks.[194]

Nokia Technologies[edit]

Nokia office building in Tampere, Finland.

Nokia Technologies is a division of Nokia that develops consumer products and licenses technology including the Nokia brand.[195] Its focuses are imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and materials, and other areas such as the IP licensing program. It consists of three labs: Radio Systems Lab, in areas of radio access, wireless local connectivity and radio implementation; Media Technologies Lab, in areas of multimedia and interaction; and Sensor and Material Technologies Lab, in areas of advanced sensing solutions, interaction methods, nanotechnologies and quantum technologies. Nokia Technologies also provides public participation in its development through the Invent with Nokia program.[196] It was created in 2014 following a restructuring of Nokia Corporation.

In November 2014, Nokia Technologies launched its first product, the Nokia N1tablet computer.[197] In July 2015, Nokia Technologies introduced a VR camera called OZO, designed for professional content creators and developed in Tampere, Finland. With its 8 synchronized shutter sensors and 8 microphones, the product can capture stereoscopic 3D video and spatial audio.[198][199]

On 31 August 2016, Ramzi Haidamus announced he would be stepping down from his position as president of Nokia Technologies.[200] Brad Rodrigues, previously head of strategy and business development, assumed the role of interim president.[201] On 30 June 2017, Gregory Lee, previously CEO of Samsung Electronics in North America, was appointed Nokia Technologies CEO and president.[202]

Nokia Bell Labs[edit]

Main article: Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs is a research and scientific development firm that was once the R&D arm of the American Bell System. It became a subsidiary of Nokia Corporation after the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.

NGP Capital[edit]

NGP Capital (formerly Nokia Growth Partners) is a global venture capital firm, focusing on investments in the growth stage "Internet of things" (IoT) and mobile technology companies.[203] NGP holds investments throughout the U.S., Europe, China and India. Their portfolio consists of companies in mobile technology including the sectors Connected Enterprise, Digital Health, Consumer IoT, and Connected Car. Following a $350 million funding for IoT companies in 2016, NGP manages $1 billion worth of assets.[204]

Nokia had previously promoted innovation through venture sponsorships dating back to 1998 with Nokia Venture Partners, which was renamed BlueRun Ventures and spun off in 2005.[205] Nokia Growth Partners (NGP) was founded in 2005 as a growth stage venture fund as a continuation of the early successes of Nokia Venture Partners. In 2017, the company was renamed to NGP Capital.[206]

NGP's largest exits include GanJi, UCWeb, Whistle, Rocket Fuel, Swype, Summit Microelectronics and Netmagic.

Nuage Networks[edit]

Nuage Networks is a venture providing software-defined networking solutions. It was formed by Alcatel-Lucent in 2013 to develop a software overlay for automating and orchestrating hybrid clouds.[207] It has been part of Nokia following their acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.[208] Throughout 2017 Nuage sealed deals with Vodafone and Telefonica to provide its SD-WAN architecture to their servers.[209][210]BT had already been a client since 2016.[211] A deal with China Mobile in January 2017 also used Nuage's software-defined networking technology for 2,000 public cloud servers at existing data centers in China,[212] and another in October 2017 with China Pacific Insurance Company.[213]

The company is based in Mountain View, California and the CEO is Sunil Khandekar.[214]

Alcatel Mobile[edit]

Main article: Alcatel Mobile

Alcatel Mobile is a mobile phone brand owned by Nokia since 2016. It has been licensed since 2005 to Chinese company TCL when it was under the ownership of Alcatel (later Alcatel-Lucent) in a contract until 2024.

HMD Global[edit]

Main article: HMD Global

HMD Global is a mobile phone company based in Espoo, Finland. The Nokia brand has been licensed by former Nokia employees who founded HMD Global and introduced Nokia-branded Android-based devices to the market in 2017.[215] Nokia has no investment in the company but retains some input in the development of its devices.[216]

Alcatel Submarine Networks[edit]

Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) is a provider of turnkey undersea network solutions. The business unit develops technology and offers installation services for optical submarine cable network links across the world's oceans.[217][218]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Corporate governance[edit]

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Group Leadership Team (left),[219] under the direction of the board of directors (right).[220] The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors. Only the chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Group Leadership Team. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,[221] the Personnel Committee,[222] and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.[223][224]

The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,[225] Nokia's Articles of Association,[226] and Corporate Governance Guidelines,[227] supplemented by the board of directors' adopted charters. On 25 November 2019, Nokia announced that it would discontinue the role of Chief Operating Officer (COO) and distribute its functions to other company leaders. As a result, Chief Operating Officer Joerg Erlemeier decided to step down, effective 1 January 2020.[228]

Former corporate officers[edit]

Stock[edit]

Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange, beginning in 1915.[230] Nokia has had a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange since 1994.[8][230] Nokia shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2003, the Paris Stock Exchange in 2004, the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 2007 and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2012.[231] Due to the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2015, Nokia listed its shares again on the Paris Stock Exchange and was included in the CAC 40 index on 6 January 2016[232] but later removed on 18 September 2017.[233]

In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalization of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion, and by 23 February 2015, it increased to €26.07 billion. Nokia market cap at 2020 was 21.76 billion.

Corporate culture[edit]

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto since the 1990s is called The Nokia Way.[234] It emphasizes the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization.[235]

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company communication.

In 1992, Nokia adopted values that were defined with the key words respect, achievement, renewal and challenge.[236] In May 2007, the company redefined its values after initiating a series of discussion across its worldwide branches regarding what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.[235] In August 2014, Nokia redefined its values again after the sale of its Devices business, using the original 1992 values again.

Headquarters[edit]

The former Nokia House, Nokia's head office until April 2014. The building is located by the Gulf of Finlandin Keilaniemi, Espoo, and was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It was the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.[230]

Nokia are based at Karaportti in Espoo, Finland, just outside capital Helsinki. It has been their head office since 2014 after moving from the purpose-built Nokia House in Espoo as part of the sale of the mobile phone business to Microsoft.[237] The building in Karaportti was previously the headquarters of NSN (now Nokia Networks).[238]

Awards and recognition[edit]

In 2018, Nokia received the Leading Lights award for most innovative cable/video product[239] and was named to Ethisphere's 2018 world's most ethical companies list.[240]

Logo history[edit]

  • Nokia 'Arrows' logo, after merging with the Cable Factory (Kaapelitehdas) and Finnish Rubber Works (1966–1992). Used in advertising and products until c. 1997.

  • New slogan typeface (Nokia Sans font) introduced in 2005. Nokia Sans had been used by Nokia in products since 2002.[245]

  • Bold version introduced in 2007. The company stopped using a slogan with its logo in 2011.

  • History of Nokia's corporate typeface.

Controversies[edit]

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran[edit]

In 2008, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens.[246] The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use deep packet inspection to read and change the content of emails, social media, and online phone calls. The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes".[247]

During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, which experts suspected was due to using of deep packet inspection.[248]

In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted companies deemed to be collaborating with the regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.[249]

Nokia Siemens Networks asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a "lawful intercept capability solely for monitoring of local voice calls" and that it "has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship, or Internet filtering capability to Iran".[250]

Lex Nokia[edit]

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.[251] Nokia denied rumors that the company had considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed.[252] The Finnish media dubbed the law Lex Nokia because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure.

The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for the implementation of its provisions. No company had used its provisions prior to 25 February 2013, when the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of Hämeenlinna had recently given the required notice.[253]

Nokia–Apple patent dispute[edit]

In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.[254] Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's general counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in a legal battle between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players and computers".[255] Nokia went on to ask the court to ban all U.S. imports of the Apple products, including the iPhone, Macintosh and iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010.[254]

In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia.[256] The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.[257][258]

Alleged tax evasion in India[edit]

Nokia's Indian subsidiary was charged in January 2013 with non-payment of Indian Tax Deducted at Source and transgressing transfer pricing norms in India.[259] The unpaid TDS of ₹30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.[260]

Nokia 7 Plus data breach[edit]

In March 2019, news broke that the company's Nokia 7 Plus phones were allegedly sending personal user data to China over several months. According to investigators, the gadget sent unencrypted data packages including geographical location, SIM card number, and the phone's serial number to an unidentified Chinese server every time that "the phone was turned on, the screen activated or unlocked."[261] The data was sufficient to follow the movements and actions of the phone in real time.[261]

Nokia brand owner HMD Global denied any such transfers had taken place, stating that it was instead the result of an error in the packing process of the phone's software.[262] The Finnish Office of the Data Protection Ombudsman launched an investigation into the matter on the assumption "that personal data has been transferred."[263]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Contact us". Nokia. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  2. ^ abcd"Nokia Annual Report 2019"(PDF). Nokia. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  3. ^ ab"Contact us". Nokia. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  4. ^ ab"Nokia" (in Finnish). YTJ.fi. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
  5. ^ ab"Report for Q4 and Full Year 2018"(PDF). Nokia Corporation. 21 March 2019. Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  6. ^ abcHS: Nokian juuret ovat Tammerkosken rannalla (in Finnish)
  7. ^Morris, News Analysis Iain; Editor 3/5/2021, International. "Nokia has cut 11,000 jobs in effort to boost profit". Light Reading.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  8. ^ abc"Nokia – FAQ". Nokia Corporation. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  9. ^"Fortune Global 500 (100) – 2009 (Fortune ) – Ranking The Brands". Rankingthebrands.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  10. ^"Global 500 2016". Fortune. 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  11. ^"Euro Stoxx 50". Boerse-frankfurt.de. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  12. ^ ab"This is the new Nokia". The Verge. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  13. ^"Full Text: Nokia CEO Stephen Elop's 'Burning Platform' Memo". The Wall Street Journal. 9 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011.
  14. ^Sampsa Kurri (11 October 2012), The story of Nokia MeeGo, archived from the original on 16 October 2012
  15. ^Thom Holwerda (11 October 2012). "The story of Nokia's Maemo and MeeGo". OS News.
  16. ^"Microsoft buys Nokia's Devices and Services Unit, unites Windows Phone 8 and its hardware maker". The Verge. 2 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  17. ^Ovide, Shira. "Microsoft in $7.17 Billion Deal for Nokia Cellphone Business". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  18. ^"Microsoft closes Nokia deal, pays more than expected". CNET.
  19. ^Coupland, Douglas. "The Ghost of Invention: A Visit to Bell Labs". Wired.
  20. ^"How Nokia reinvented itself". CNNMoney Switzerland. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  21. ^"Nokia celebrates first day of combined operations with Alcatel-Lucent". Nokia. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  22. ^"Nokia plans to acquire Withings to accelerate entry into Digital Health". 26 April 2016. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  23. ^Best, Jo. "'Mobile phones are our history, not our future': Nokia on where next for hardware". Zdnet.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  24. ^Scott Barr, Chris (18 May 2016). "Microsoft sells Nokia brand use to Foxconn and HMD global". SlashGear. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  25. ^"Nokia's key to success: A strong portfolio combined with aggressive licensing – Filing Analytics". Filinganalytics.io. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  26. ^"Ericsson, Samsung gain share in network gear as ZTE slumps". Uk.reuters.com. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  27. ^Vilpponen, Antti (4 September 2013). "Nokia: Finland mourns the demise of its proud tech heritage". The Guardian.
  28. ^Kelly, Gordon. "Finland and Nokia: an affair to remember". Wired UK.
  29. ^Bloomberg (4 September 2013). "Finland mourns loss of national icon Nokia".
  30. ^"Start01". Gasmasklexikon.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  31. ^"U.S. Threatened to Block Finnish Arms Deal Over High-Tech Exports in 1980's". Yle Uutiset.
  32. ^Reuters (21 January 1988). "COMPANY NEWS; Nokia Oy Buys Stake in Ericsson". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  33. ^"Nokia's Secret Code Perhaps the least hierarchical big company in the world, Nokia has been winning big in wireless. But its Finnish recipe for innovation is about to be put to the test. – May 1, 2000". Archive.fortune.com.
  34. ^"Nokia´s Pioneering GSM Research and Development to be Awarded by Eduard Rhein Foundation". Nokia.
  35. ^
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Nokia

Finnish technology and telecommunications company

This article is about the Finnish telecommunications corporation. For the town in Finland, see Nokia, Finland. For other uses, see Nokia (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 60°13′29″N24°45′23″E / 60.2247°N 24.7563°E / 60.2247; 24.7563

Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA)[a] is a Finnish multinationaltelecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in Espoo, Finland, in the greater Helsinkimetropolitan area,[4] 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen the company's actual roots are in the Tampere region of Pirkanmaa.[6] In 2020, Nokia employed approximately 92,000 people[7] across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23 billion.[5] Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange.[8] It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009.[9] It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50stock market index.[10][11]

The company has operated in various industries over the past 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s has focused on large-scale telecommunications infrastructure, technology development, and licensing.[12] Nokia made significant contributions to the mobile telephony industry, assisting in the development of the GSM, 3G, and LTE standards. For a decade beginning in 1998, Nokia was the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones. In the later 2000s, however, Nokia suffered from a series of poor management decisions, and soon saw its share of the mobile phone market drop sharply. After a partnership with Microsoft and Nokia's subsequent market struggles,[13][14][15] Microsoft bought its mobile phone business,[16][17] creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014.[18] After the sale, Nokia began to focus more on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on Internet of things technologies, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization.[19] The company then also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings.[20][21][22][23] The Nokia brand returned to the mobile and smartphone market in 2016 through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global.[24] Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors.[25] As of 2018, Nokia is the world's third-largest network equipment manufacturer.[26]

The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland.[27] At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, and 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.[28][29]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Nokia

1865–1967[edit]

Nokia's history dates from 1865, when Finnish-Swedemining engineerFredrik Idestam established a pulp mill on the shores of the Tammerkoski rapids near the town of Tampere, Finland (then in the Russian Empire).[6] A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, where there were better hydropower resources.[6] In 1871, Idestam, together with a friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company and called it Nokia Ab (in Swedish, Nokia Company being the English equivalent), after the site of the second pulp mill.

Idestam retired in 1896, making Mechelin the company's chairman; he expanded into electricity generation by 1902, which Idestam had opposed. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas (Finnish Rubber Works), a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name.

In 1922, in a now 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen Finland, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas (the Cable Factory), all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. The rubber company grew rapidly when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electricity supply, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and the cable company soon did too.

Nokia at the time also made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.[30]

1967–1990[edit]

LV 317M military radio in the Hämeenlinna artillery museum

In 1967, the three companies – Nokia, Kaapelitehdas, and Finnish Rubber Works – merged to create a new Nokia Corporation, restructured into four major businesses: forestry, cable, rubber, and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the networking and radio industries. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces (Puolustusvoimat), such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, and the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now also making professional mobile radios, telephone switches, capacitors and chemicals, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen.

After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market. It soon widened trade, ranging from automatic telephone exchanges to robotics among others; by 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen late 1970s, the Soviet Union became a major market for Nokia, yielding high profits. Nokia also co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government became increasingly suspicious of that co-operation after the end of the Cold Wardétente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them in products for the Soviets, and according to U.S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.S. to keep track of technological developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia.[31] This was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War.

In 1977, Kari Kairamo became CEO and transformed the company's businesses. By this time, Finland was becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan".[by whom?] Under his leadership, Nokia acquired many companies including television maker Salora in 1984, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, and French television maker Oceanic in 1987. This made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe (behind Philips and Thomson). The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996.

Nokia Mikko 3 minicomputer, 1978

In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands. It was originally part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT), and after the acquisition products were sold under the "ITT Nokia" brand, despite SEL's sale to Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE), the predecessor of Alcatel, in 1986.

On 1 April 1988, Nokia bought the Information Systems division of Ericsson,[32] which had originated as the Datasaab computer division of Swedish aircraft and car manufacturer Saab. Ericsson Information Systems made Alfaskop terminals, typewriters, minicomputers and Ericsson-branded IBM compatible PCs. The merger with Nokia's Information Systems division—which since 1981 had a line of personal computers called MikroMikko—resulted in the name Nokia Data.

Nokia also acquired Mobira, a mobile telephony company, which was the foundation of its future mobile phone business. In 1981, Mobira launched the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) service, the world's first international cellular network and the first to allow international roaming. In 1982, Mobira launched the Mobira Senator car phone, Nokia's first mobile phone. At that time, the company had no interest in producing mobile phones, which the executive board regarded as akin to James Bond's gadgets: improbably futuristic and niche devices. After all these acquisitions, Nokia's revenue base became US$2.7 billion. CEO Kairamo committed suicide on 11 December 1988.

In 1987, Kaapelitehdas discontinued production of cables at its Helsinki factory after 44 years, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, effectively shutting down the sub-company.

  • Mobira 800-NDB non-directional beacon located in the Finnish Air Force signals museum

  • Dr Salmans Windows Power Tools 4.0 build 53 crack serial keygen MAC 8532 laser rangefinder previously used by Finnish coastal artillery

  • Hämeenlinna artillery museum display containing fire control officer with Nokia artillery calculator in Finnish artillery battalion command post

  • Late 1980s MikroMikko 4 TT m216 desktop computer in the Museum of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

  • ITT Nokia television with an ITT Nokia VCR (ITT/SEL)

1990–2010[edit]

Jorma Ollila, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen oversaw the rise of Nokia in the mobile phone market as CEO from 1992 to 2006

Following Simo Vuorilehto's appointment as CEO, a major restructuring was planned. With 11 groups within the company, Vuorilehto divested industrial units he deemed as un-strategic. Nokian Tyres (Nokian Renkaat), a tyre producer originally formed as a division of Finnish Rubber Works in 1932, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, split away from Nokia Corporation in 1988, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Two years later, in 1990, Finnish Rubber Works followed suit. In 1991 Nokia sold its computer division, Nokia Data, to UK-based International Computers Limited (ICL), the precursor of Fujitsu Siemens. Investors thought of this as financial trouble and Nokia's stock price sank as a result. Finland was now also experiencing its worst recession in living memory, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a major customer, made matters worse.

Vuorilehto quit in January 1992 and was replaced by Jorma Ollila, who had been the head of the mobile phone business from 1990 and advised against selling that division. Ollila decided to turn Nokia into a 'telecom-oriented' company, and he eventually got rid of divisions like the power business. This strategy proved to be very successful and the company grew rapidly in the following years. Nokia's operating profit went from negative in 1991 to $1 billion in 1995 and almost $4 billion by 1999.[33]

Nokia's first fully portable mobile phone after the Mobira Senator was the Mobira Cityman 900 in 1987. Nokia assisted in the development of the GSM mobile standard in the 1980s, and developed the first GSM network with Siemens, the predecessor to Nokia Siemens Network. The world's first GSM call was made by Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri on 1 July 1991, using Nokia equipment on the 900 MHz band network built by Nokia and operated by Radiolinja. In November 1992, the Nokia 1011 launched, making it the first commercially available GSM mobile phone.[34]

Salora Oy as a Nokia subsidiary ended in 1989 when the division was merged into Nokia-Mobira Oy, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. The brand continued to be used for televisions until 1995.

On 12 June 1996, Nokia announced the sale of its television business to Canada/Hong Kong-based Semi-Tech Corporation.[35] The television manufacturing plant in Germany closed down in September 1996. The sale included a factory in Turku, and the rights to use the Nokia, Finlux, Luxor, Salora, Schaub-Lorenz and Oceanic brands until the end of 1999.[36] Some of these brands were later sold to other companies.

Nokia was the first to launch digital satellite receivers in the UK, announced in March 1997.[37] In August 1997 Nokia introduced the first digital satellite receiver with Common Interface (CI) support.[38] In 1998 Nokia became the chosen supplier to produce the world's first digital terrestrial television set-top boxes by British Digital Broadcasting (BDB), which was eventually launched as ONdigital.[39]

A Nokia Mediamaster set-top box

In October 1998, Nokia overtook Motorola to become the best-selling mobile phone brand,[40] and in December manufactured its 100 millionth mobile phone.[41] A major reason why Nokia grew against its main competitors Motorola and Ericsson was that it managed to cater to the consumer youth market and fashion-oriented consumers, most significantly with the Nokia 5110 and 3210 handsets which featured a large range of colourful and replaceable back-covers called Xpress-on.[42][43] One of the earliest fashion phones in 1992, from Swiss watchmaker Swatch, was based on Nokia's 101 handset.[44] The company would also form the Vertu division, creating luxury mobile handsets.

Nokia claimed in April 1996 its 447Xav and 447K monitors to be the first with stereo speakers and a sub-woofer.[45] In May 1999 Nokia introduced their first wireless LAN products.[46] In January 2000 ViewSonic acquired Nokia Display Products, the division making displays for personal computers.[47] On Adobe After Effects CS5.5 10.5.1 Crack Full Version Download April 2001 Nokia partnered with Telefonica to supply DSL modems and routers in Spain.[48]

In 1997, Nokia established a joint venture with Brazilian electronics firm Gradiente where they were granted the license to manufacture variants of Nokia mobile phones locally under the Nokia and Gradiente brand names.[49]

In 1998, Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. led by Psion to create a new operating system for PDAs and smart mobile phones as a successor of EPOC32. They released the Nokia 9210 Communicator running Symbian OS in 2001 and later that year created the Symbian Series 60 platform, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, later introducing it with their first camera phone, the Nokia 7650. Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest smartphone hardware and software maker respectively, and in February 2004 Nokia became the largest shareholder of Symbian Ltd.[50] Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and then formed the Symbian Foundation as its successor.[51]

In 1998 alone, the company had sales revenue of $20 billion making $2.6 billion profit. By 2000 Nokia employed over 55,000 people,[52] and had a market share of 30% in the mobile phone market, almost twice as large as its nearest competitor, Motorola.[53] The company was operating in 140 countries as of 1999. It was reported at the time that some people believed Nokia to be a Japanese company.[54] Between 1996 and 2001, Nokia's turnover increased fivefold, from €6.5 billion to €31 billion.[55]

A collection of Nokia mobile phones from the 2000s

The company would then be known as a successful and innovative maker of camera phones. The Nokia 3600/3650 was the first camera phone on sale in North America in 2003. In April 2005 Nokia partnered with German camera optics maker Carl Zeiss AG.[56] That same month Nokia introduced the Nseries, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, which would become its flagship line of smartphones for the next six years.[57] The Nokia N95 introduced in September 2006 became highly successful and was also awarded as "best mobile imaging device" in Europe in 2007.[58] Its successor the N82 featured a xenon flash,[59] which helped it win the award of "best mobile imaging" device in Europe in 2008.[60] The N93 in 2006 was known for its specialized camcorder and the twistable design that switches between clamshell and a camcorder-like position.[61] They were also well known for the N8 with a high-resolution 12-megapixel sensor in 2010; the 808 PureView in 2012 with a 41-megapixel sensor; and the Lumia 920 flagship in 2012 which implemented advanced PureView technologies.[62]

Nokia was one of the pioneers of mobile gaming due to the popularity of Snake, which came pre-loaded on many products. In 2002, Nokia attempted to break into the handheld gaming market with the N-Gage.[63] Nokia's head of entertainment and media, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Ilkka Raiskinen, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, once quoted "Game Boy is for 10-year-olds",[64] stating that N-Gage is more suited to a mature audience. However, the device was a failure, unable to challenge the dominant market leader Nintendo. Nokia attempted to revive N-Gage as a platform for their S60 smartphones, which eventually launched in 2008.[65]

In Q1 2004, Nokia's mobile phone handset market share steeply dropped to 28.9%, down from 34.6% a year earlier.[66] However, by 2006 the company was steadily gaining again[67][68] and in Q4 2007 reached its 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen high figure of 40.4%.[69] Its smartphone market share in that quarter was 51%.[70] Nokia was the largest vendor at the time in all regions bar North America.[71]

Nokia launched mobile TV trials in 2005 in Finland 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen content provided by public broadcaster Yle. The services are based on the DVB-H standard. It could be viewed with the widescreen Nokia 7710 smartphone with a special accessory enabling it to 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen DVB-H signals.[72] Nokia partnered with Arqiva and O2 to launch trials in the UK in September 2005.[73]

In 2005 Nokia developed a Linux-based operating system called Maemo, which shipped that year on the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.

On 1 June 2006, Jorma Ollila became the company's chairman and retired as CEO, replaced by Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.[74]

A flagship Nokia store in São Paulo, Brazil in 2009

In August 2007, Nokia introduced Ovi, an umbrella name for the company's new Internet services which included the N-Gage platform and the Nokia Music Store.[75] The Ovi Store faced stiff competition against Apple's App Store when it was introduced in 2008.[76]

In Edraw Max 9.4.1 full version Archives 2008 Nokia announced the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, the first device to ship with the 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen touch-centric S60 5th Edition, also known as Symbian^1, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of the Symbian Foundation. In November 2008 Nokia announced it would end mobile phone sales in Japan because of low market share.[77] Nokia's global mobile phone market share peaked in 2008 at 38.6 percent.[78] The same year, Nokia announced the acquisition of Trolltech and its Qt software development.[79] Qt was a central part of Nokia's strategy until 2011, and it was eventually sold in 2012.[80]

Nokia briefly returned to the computer market with the Booklet 3G netbook in August 2009.

2010–2014[edit]

A Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996) next to a Nokia E7 Communicator (2011)

In late 2009 and in 2010, the music-focused Xseries and consumer-focused Cseries were introduced respectively.[81] In April 2010 Nokia introduced its next flagship mobile device, the Nokia N8, which would be the first to run on Symbian^3.[82] However it was delayed for many months which tarnished the company's image,[83] especially after the failure of its previous flagship N97 and tougher competition from Apple and the rising Google. On 10 September 2010, Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo was fired as CEO and it was announced that Stephen Elop from Microsoft would take Nokia's CEO position, becoming the first non-Finnish director in Nokia's history.[84] It was claimed that investors pressed Nokia's board to recruit an outsider to shake up management and break from the traditional "Nokia way".[85] Ollila had also announced that he would step down as Nokia chairman by 2012.[86] On 11 March 2011 Nokia announced that it had paid Elop a $6 million signing bonus as "compensation for lost income from his prior employer", on top of his $1.4 million annual salary.[87]

The old Symbian OS became completely open source in February 2010.[88] However, in November 2010 it was announced that the Symbian Foundation was closing and that Nokia would take back control of the Symbian operating system under closed licensing.[89] By now Nokia was the only remaining company using the platform, along with carrier NTT DoCoMo in 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, after both Samsung and Sony Ericsson moved to Android. Meanwhile, in 2010 for Nokia's Linux ambitions, Nokia collaborated with Intel to form the MeeGo project, after the merger of Nokia's own Maemo and Intel's Moblin.

Nokia's Symbian platform that had been the leading smartphone platform in Europe and Asia for many years was quickly becoming outdated and difficult for developers after the 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen of iOS and Android. To counter this, Nokia planned to make their MeeGo Linux operating system, under development, the company's flagship on smartphones. Shortly after Elop's CEO tenure began, the Nokia board green-lit him the ability to change the company's mobile phones strategy, including changing operating systems.[90] Veteran Anssi Vanjoki, head of the smartphones division, left the company around this time.[91] His final appearance was at Nokia World 2010 when the Nokia E7 and other Symbian^3 devices were introduced.[92]

On 11 February 2011, Nokia announced a "strategic partnership" with Microsoft, under which it would adopt Windows Phone 7 as its primary operating system on smartphones, and integrate its services and platforms with its own, including Bing as search engine, and integration of Nokia Maps data into Bing Maps. Elop stated that Nokia chose not to use Android because of an apparent inability to "differentiate" its offerings, with critics also noting that his past ties to Microsoft may have also influenced the decision.[93][94][95] Although the MeeGo "Harmattan"-based N9 was met with a highly positive reception in 2011, Nokia had already decided to end development on MeeGo and solely focus on its Microsoft partnership, although the CEO said that the N9's "innovations" will live on in the future,[96] which eventually made their way on the Asha platform in 2013.[97] After the announcement of the Microsoft partnership, Nokia's market share deteriorated; this was due to demand for Symbian dropping when consumers realized Nokia's focus and attention would be elsewhere.[98]

The company posted a large loss for the second quarter of 2011 – only their second quarterly loss in 19 years.[99] Nokia's first Windows Phone flagship was the Lumia 800, which arrived in November 2011. Falling sales in 2011, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, which were not being improved significantly with the Lumia line in 2012, led to consecutive quarters of huge losses. By mid-2012 the company's stock price fell below $2.[100][101] CEO Elop announced cost-cutting measures in June by shedding 10,000 employees by the end of the year and the closure of the Salo manufacturing plant.[102] The Finnish prime minister also announced that the government won't save the company from an emergency state fund.[103] Around this time Nokia started a new project codenamed "Meltemi", a platform for low-end smartphones.[104] With the Microsoft alliance and under Elop's management, Nokia also had a renewed focus on the North American market where Nokia phones were, in stark contrast to the rest of the world, almost irrelevant for many years.[105][106] This strategy began in January 2012 with the introduction of the Nokia Lumia 900 smartphone in partnership with U.S. carrier AT&T.[107]

In March 2011, Nokia introduced a new corporate typeface called "Pure".[108] On 1 August 2011, Nokia announced that it would adopt a new three-digit naming system for mobile phone products and stop using letters, effectively ending the Nseries, Eseries, and short-lived Cseries. That same day the Nokia 500 was introduced with the new system.[109] Nokia last used three-digit names on analogue phones in the 1990s.[81]

When the Lumia 920 was announced in September 2012, it was seen by the press as the first high-end Windows Phone that could challenge rivals due to its advanced feature set. Elop said that the positive reaction to it had created a sense of hope and optimism in the company.[110] The company was also making gains in developing countries with its Asha series, which were selling 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen Although Nokia's smartphone sales and market share greatly increased throughout 2013, including in the North American market,[112] it was still not enough to avoid financial losses.[113] Ollila stepped down as chairman on 4 May 2012 and was replaced by Risto Siilasmaa.[114]

In September 2013 Nokia announced the sale of its mobile and devices division to Microsoft. The sale was positive for Nokia to avoid further negative financial figures, as well as for Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer, who wanted Microsoft to produce more hardware and turn it into a devices and services company.[115] The Nokia chairman, Risto Siilasmaa, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, described the deal as rationally correct (in the best interests of Nokia shareholders), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, but emotionally difficult[116] – experts agree that Nokia would have been in a cash crisis had it not sold the division to Microsoft.[117][116] Analysts believe that Ballmer pushed for the buyout because of fears that Nokia was close to adopting Android and abandoning their alliance with Microsoft.[118][119] Indeed, in January 2014 the Nokia X was introduced which ran on a customised version of Android. It was a surprising and somewhat odd launch coming just weeks away from the finalization of the Microsoft buyout.[120][121] Others, including Ballmer's successor Satya Nadella, felt that Microsoft thought merging their software teams with Nokia's hardware engineering and 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen would "accelerate" growth of Windows Phone.[122] The sale was completed in April 2014, with Microsoft Mobile becoming the successor to Nokia's mobile devices division. Nokia also moved from its headquarters to another building complex located at Karaportti. At the time, Ballmer himself was retiring as Microsoft CEO and was replaced by Satya Nadella, who opposed the Nokia mobile phones purchase, along with chairman Bill Gates.[123] The purchased assets from Nokia were eventually written-off by Microsoft in 2015.[124]

By 2014, Nokia's global brand value according to Interbrand fell to 98th place,[125] a 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen slide from the 5th place it was in 2009.[126] Nokia's downfall in the mobile phone market has had different explanations from 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, with many split about the CEO's decision to abandon its in-house operating system and adopting Windows Phone in 2011.[127] Many researchers have concluded that Nokia suffered from deep internal rivalries within the management.[117][128][129][130] Former employees claimed that the management became so swollen by the early success that they grew complacent over time.[131][132] Some from the Symbian developing team have claimed that the company's upper management rejected hundreds of potential innovations during the 2000s that they proposed, including entirely rewriting Symbian's code. One former Nokia employee claimed that the company was run as a "Soviet-style bureaucracy".[133]

Former Nokia plant in Bochum, Germany
A Nokia advertising sign in Dublin, Ireland

In July 2013, Nokia bought Siemens' stake in the Nokia Siemens Networks joint venture for $2.2 billion, turning it into a wholly owned subsidiary called Nokia Solutions and Networks,[134] until being rebranded as Nokia Networks soon after.[135] During Nokia's financial struggles, its profitable networking division with Siemens provided much of its income; thus, the purchase proved to be positive, particularly after the sale of its mobile devices unit.[136]

2014–2016[edit]

After the sale of its mobile devices division, Nokia focused on network equipment through Nokia Networks.[137]

In October 2014, Nokia and China Mobile signed a US$970 million framework deal for delivery between 2014 and 2015.[138]

On 17 November 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Nokia Technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business as an original design manufacturer, licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that's why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently".[139] The next day, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android tablet manufactured by Foxconn, as its first product following the Microsoft sale.[140] Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it".[12] Nokia CEO Rajeev Suri stated that the company planned to re-enter the mobile phone business in this manner in 2016, following the expiration of its non-compete clause with Microsoft.[141]

According to Robert Morlino, the spokesman of Nokia Technologies, Nokia planned to follow the brand-licensing model rather than direct marketing of mobile devices due to the sale of its mobile devices division to Microsoft.[142] The company took aggressive steps to revitalize itself, evident through its hiring of software experts, testing of new products and seeking of sales partners.[143] On 14 July 2015, CEO Rajeev Suri confirmed that the company would make a return to the mobile phones market in 2016.[144]

On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degreesvirtual reality camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced VR film-making platform.[145] Nokia's press release stated that OZO would be "the first in a planned portfolio of digital media solutions," with more technologic products expected in the future.[146] OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in Los Angeles. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000;[147] however, its price was decreased by $15,000 prior to release,[148] and is listed on its official website as $40,000.[149]

Nokia office building in Markham, Ontario, Canada in 2016 – originally Alcatel-Lucent's office

On 14 April 2015, Nokia confirmed that it was in talks with the French telecommunications equipment company Alcatel-Lucent regarding a potential merger.[150] The next day, Nokia announced that it had agreed to purchase Alcatel-Lucent for €15.6 billion in an all-stock deal.[151] CEO Rajeev Suri felt that the purchase would give Nokia a strategic advantage in the development of 5G wireless technologies.[152][153] The acquisition created a stronger competitor to the rival firms Ericsson and Huawei,[154] whom Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent had surpassed in terms of total combined revenue in 2014. Nokia shareholders hold 66.5% of the new combined company, while Alcatel-Lucent shareholders hold 33.5%. The Bell Labs division was to be maintained, but the Alcatel-Lucent brand would be replaced by Nokia.[151][155] In October 2015, following approval of the deal by China's Ministry of Commerce, the merger awaited approval by French regulators.[156] Despite the initial intent of selling the submarine cable division separately, Alcatel-Lucent later declared that it would not.[157] The merger closed on 14 January 2016,[158] but was not complete until 3 November 2016. From the acquisition, Nokia is now also the owner of the Alcatel mobile phone brand, which continues to be licensed to TCL Corporation, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen.

On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its Here digital maps division to a consortium of BMW, Daimler AG and Volkswagen Group for €2.8 billion.[159] The deal closed on 3 December 2015.[160]

2016–2019[edit]

On 26 April 2016, Nokia announced its intent to acquire French connected health device maker Withings for US$191 million. The company was integrated into a new Digital Health unit of Nokia Technologies.[161][162] Nokia later wrote off the cost of the acquisition and in May 2018 the health unit was sold back to Éric Carreel, a Withings co-founder and former CEO.[163]

On 18 May 2016, Microsoft Mobile sold its Nokia-branded feature phone business to HMD Global, a new company founded by former Nokia executive Jean-Francois Baril, and an associated factory in Vietnam to Foxconn's FIH Mobile subsidiary. Nokia subsequently entered into a long-term licensing deal to make HMD the exclusive manufacturer of Nokia-branded phones and tablets outside Japan, operating in conjunction with Foxconn. The deal also granted HMD the right to essential patents and featurephone software. HMD subsequently announced the Android-based Nokia 6 smartphone in January 2017.[164][165] At Mobile World Congress, HMD additionally unveiled the Nokia 3 and Nokia 5 smartphones, as well as a re-imagining of Nokia's classic 3310 feature phone.[166][167] While Nokia has no investment in the company, they do have some input in the new devices.

On 28 June 2016 Nokia demonstrated for the first time a 5G-ready network.[168] In February 2017 Nokia carried out a 5G connection in Oulu, Finland using the 5GTF standard, backed by Verizon, on Intel architecture-based equipment.[169]

In July 2017, Nokia and Xiaomi announced that they have signed a business collaboration agreement and a multi-year patent agreement, including a cross-license to each company's cellular standard-essential patents.[170] In that year, Nokia's brand value was ranked 188th by Brand Finance, a jump of 147 places from 2016. Its rise was attributed to its health portfolio and new mobile phones developed by HMD Global.[171]

In January 2018, Nokia signed a deal with NTT Docomo, Japan's largest mobile operator, to provide 5G wireless radio base stations in the country by 2020.[172] Later that month, Nokia announced the ReefShark line of 5G chipsets, claiming that it triples bandwidth to 84 Gbit/s.[173] In March, Solidium, the investment arm of the Finnish government, purchased a 3.3% stake in Nokia valued at €844 million.[174] In May, Nokia announced that it had acquired a California-based IoT startup, SpaceTime Insight.[175]

In January 2019, the Canadian government announced that it would provide C$40 million to support Nokia's research on 5G technology.[176] A 2019 study revealed that Nokia phones performed far better than rivals Samsung, LG, Xiaomi, and Huawei in updating to the latest version of Android. The study, made by Counterpoint Research, found that 96 percent of Nokia phones were either sent with or updated to the latest Android version since Pie was released in 2018. Nokia's competitors were found to be all around roughly the 80 percent range.[177]

2020–present[edit]

On March 2, 2020, Nokia announced Pekka Lundmark as its new CEO.[178] Later that month, Nokia completed the acquisition of Elenion Technologies, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, a U.S.-based company focusing on silicon photonics technology to improve economics of advanced optical connectivity products.[179]

On May 27, 2020, Sari Baldauf succeeded Risto Siilasmaa as chairwoman of the board 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen directors, and Kari Stadigh was appointed vice chair. In June, Nokia won a 5G contract worth approximately $450 million[180] from Taiwan Mobile to build out the telecom operator's next-generation network as the sole supplier.[181] In October, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Nokia announced a contract with NASA to build a 4G mobile network for astronaut usage on the moon. The $14.1 million contract is through subsidiary Bell Labs, and the program is expected to 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen in 2022.[182][183][184]

During 2020, Flipkart collaborated with Nokia to market Nokia-branded consumer products in India. These included televisions, a laptop and a range of air conditioners.[185]

Current operations[edit]

Nokia is a julkinen osakeyhtiö (public joint-stock company) listed on the Nasdaq Nordic/Helsinki and New York stock exchanges.[8] Nokia has played a very large role in the economy of Finland,[186][187] and it is an important employer in the country, working with multiple local partners and subcontractors.[188] Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP and accounted for about 16% of the country's exports in 2006.[189]

Nokia comprises two business groups along with further subsidiaries and affiliated firms.

Nokia Networks[edit]

Main article: Nokia Networks

Inside the Nokia Networks office in Munich, Germany

Nokia Networks is Nokia Corporation's largest division. It is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and is the world's third-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer, measured by 2017 revenues (after Huawei and Cisco). In the USA it competes with Ericsson on building 5G networks for operators, while Huawei Technologies and ZTE Corporation were effectively banned.[190]

It has operations in around 150 countries.[191]

Nokia Networks provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers.[192] It focuses on GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA, LTE and WiMAX radio access networks, supporting core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services.

The Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and Siemens (49.9%),[193] although it is now wholly owned by Nokia. In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and renamed it to Nokia Solutions and Networks, shortly thereafter changed to simply Nokia Networks.[194]

Nokia Technologies[edit]

Nokia office building in Tampere, Finland.

Nokia Technologies is a division of Nokia that develops consumer products and licenses technology including the Nokia brand.[195] Its focuses are imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and materials, and other areas such as the IP licensing program. It consists of three labs: Radio Systems Lab, in areas of radio access, wireless local connectivity and radio implementation; Media Technologies Lab, in areas of multimedia and interaction; and Sensor and Material Technologies Lab, in areas of advanced sensing solutions, interaction methods, nanotechnologies and quantum technologies. Nokia Technologies also provides public participation in its development through the Invent with Nokia program.[196] It was created in 2014 following a restructuring of Nokia Corporation.

In November 2014, Nokia Technologies launched its first product, the Nokia N1tablet computer.[197] In July 2015, Nokia Technologies introduced a VR camera called OZO, designed for professional content creators and developed in Tampere, Finland. With its 8 synchronized shutter sensors and 8 microphones, the product can capture stereoscopic 3D video and spatial audio.[198][199]

On 31 August 2016, Ramzi Haidamus announced he would be stepping down from his position as president of Nokia Technologies.[200] Brad Rodrigues, previously head of strategy and business development, assumed the role of interim president.[201] On 30 June 2017, Gregory Lee, previously CEO of Samsung Electronics in North America, was appointed Nokia Technologies CEO and president.[202]

Nokia Bell Labs[edit]

Main article: Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs is a research and scientific development firm that was once the R&D arm of the American Bell System. It became a subsidiary of Nokia Corporation after the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.

NGP Capital[edit]

NGP Capital (formerly Nokia Growth Partners) is a global venture capital firm, focusing on investments in the growth stage "Internet of things" (IoT) and mobile technology companies.[203] NGP holds investments throughout the U.S., Europe, China and India. Their portfolio consists of companies in mobile technology including the sectors Connected Enterprise, Digital Health, Consumer IoT, and Connected Car. Following a $350 million funding for IoT companies in 2016, NGP manages $1 billion worth of assets.[204]

Nokia had previously promoted innovation through venture sponsorships dating back to 1998 with Nokia Venture Partners, which was renamed BlueRun Ventures and spun off in 2005.[205] Nokia Growth Partners (NGP) was founded in 2005 as a growth stage venture fund as a continuation of the early successes of Nokia Venture Partners. In 2017, the company was renamed to NGP Capital.[206]

NGP's largest exits include GanJi, UCWeb, Whistle, Rocket Fuel, Swype, Summit Microelectronics and Netmagic.

Nuage Networks[edit]

Nuage Networks is a venture providing software-defined networking solutions. It was formed by Alcatel-Lucent in 2013 to develop a software overlay for automating and orchestrating hybrid clouds.[207] It has been part of Nokia following their acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.[208] Throughout 2017 Nuage sealed deals with Vodafone and Telefonica to provide its SD-WAN architecture to their servers.[209][210]BT had already been a client since 2016.[211] A deal with China Mobile in January 2017 also used Nuage's software-defined networking technology for 2,000 public cloud servers at existing data centers in China,[212] and another in October 2017 with China Pacific Insurance Company.[213]

The company is based in Mountain View, California and the CEO is Sunil Khandekar.[214]

Alcatel Mobile[edit]

Main 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen Alcatel Mobile

Alcatel Mobile is a mobile phone brand owned by Nokia since 2016. It has been licensed since 2005 to Chinese company TCL when it was under the ownership of Alcatel (later Alcatel-Lucent) in a contract until 2024.

HMD Global[edit]

Main article: HMD Global

HMD Global is a mobile phone company based in Espoo, Finland. The Nokia brand has been licensed by former Nokia employees who founded HMD Global and introduced Nokia-branded Android-based devices to the market in 2017.[215] Nokia has no investment in the company but retains some input in the development of its devices.[216]

Alcatel Submarine Networks[edit]

Alcatel Submarine Networks (ASN) is a provider of turnkey undersea network solutions. The business unit develops technology and offers installation services for optical submarine cable network links across the world's oceans.[217][218]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Corporate governance[edit]

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Group Leadership Team (left),[219] under the direction of the board of directors (right).[220] The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Only the chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Group Leadership Team. The Board of Directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,[221] the Personnel Committee,[222] and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.[223][224]

The operations of the company are managed 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,[225] Nokia's Articles of Association,[226] and Corporate Governance Guidelines,[227] supplemented by the board of directors' adopted charters. On 25 November 2019, Nokia announced that it would discontinue the role of Chief Operating Officer (COO) and distribute its functions to other company leaders. As a result, Chief Operating Officer Joerg Erlemeier decided to step down, effective 1 January 2020.[228]

Former corporate officers[edit]

Stock[edit]

Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange, beginning in 1915.[230] Nokia has had a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange since 1994.[8][230] Nokia shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2003, the Paris Stock Exchange in 2004, the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 2007 and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2012.[231] Due to the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2015, Nokia listed its shares 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen on the Paris Stock Exchange and was included in the CAC 40 index on 6 January 2016[232] but later removed on 18 September 2017.[233]

In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalization of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion, and by 23 February 2015, it increased to €26.07 billion. Nokia market cap at 2020 was 21.76 billion.

Corporate culture[edit]

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto since the 1990s is called The Nokia Way.[234] It emphasizes the 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization.[235]

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company communication.

In 1992, Nokia adopted values that were defined with the key words respect, achievement, renewal and challenge.[236] In May 2007, the company redefined its values after initiating a series of discussion across its worldwide branches regarding what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.[235] In August 2014, Nokia redefined its values again after the sale of its Devices business, using the original 1992 values again.

Headquarters[edit]

The former Nokia House, Nokia's head office until April 2014. The building is located by the Gulf of Finlandin Keilaniemi, Espoo, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It was the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.[230]

Nokia are based at Karaportti in Espoo, Finland, just outside capital Helsinki. It has been their head office since 2014 after moving from the purpose-built Nokia House in Espoo as part of the sale of the mobile phone business to Microsoft.[237] The building in Karaportti was previously the headquarters of NSN (now Nokia Networks).[238]

Awards and recognition[edit]

In 2018, Nokia received the Leading Lights award for most innovative cable/video product[239] and was named to Ethisphere's 2018 world's most ethical companies list.[240]

Logo history[edit]

  • Nokia 'Arrows' logo, after merging with the Cable Factory (Kaapelitehdas) and Finnish Rubber Works (1966–1992), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Used in advertising and products until c. 1997.

  • New slogan typeface (Nokia Sans font) introduced in 2005. Nokia Sans had been used by Nokia in products since 2002.[245]

  • Bold version introduced in 2007. The company stopped using a slogan with its logo in 2011.

  • History of Nokia's corporate typeface.

Controversies[edit]

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran[edit]

In 2008, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens.[246] The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use deep packet inspection to read and change the content of emails, social media, and online phone calls. The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes".[247]

During 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, which experts suspected was due to using of deep packet inspection.[248]

In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted companies deemed to be collaborating with the regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.[249]

Nokia Siemens Networks asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a "lawful intercept capability solely for monitoring of local voice calls" and that it "has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship, or Internet filtering capability to Iran".[250]

Lex Nokia[edit]

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.[251] Nokia denied rumors that the company had considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed.[252] The Finnish media dubbed the law Lex Nokia because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure.

The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for the implementation of its provisions. No company had used its provisions prior to 25 February 2013, when the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of Hämeenlinna had recently given the required notice.[253]

Nokia–Apple patent dispute[edit]

In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.[254] Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's general counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in a legal battle between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players and computers".[255] Nokia went on to ask the court to ban all U.S. imports of the Apple products, including the iPhone, Macintosh and iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010.[254]

In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia.[256] The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.[257][258]

Alleged tax evasion in India[edit]

Nokia's Indian subsidiary was charged in January 2013 with non-payment of Indian Tax Deducted at Source and transgressing transfer pricing norms in India.[259] The unpaid TDS of ₹30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.[260]

Nokia 7 Plus data breach[edit]

In March 2019, news broke that the company's Nokia 7 Plus phones were allegedly sending personal user data to China over several months. According to investigators, the gadget sent unencrypted data packages including geographical location, SIM card number, and the phone's serial number to an unidentified Chinese server every time that "the phone was turned on, the screen activated or unlocked."[261] The data was sufficient to follow the movements and actions of the phone in real time.[261]

Nokia brand owner HMD Global denied any such transfers had taken place, stating that it was instead the result of an error in the packing process of the phone's software.[262] The Finnish Office of the Data Protection Ombudsman launched an investigation into the matter on the assumption "that personal data has been transferred."[263]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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  6. ^ abcHS: Nokian juuret ovat Tammerkosken rannalla (in Finnish)
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  17. ^Ovide, Shira. "Microsoft in $7.17 Billion Deal for Nokia Cellphone Business". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  18. ^"Microsoft closes Nokia deal, pays more than expected". CNET.
  19. ^Coupland, Douglas. "The Ghost of Invention: A Visit to Bell Labs". Wired.
  20. ^"How Nokia reinvented itself". CNNMoney Switzerland. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  21. ^"Nokia celebrates first day of combined operations with Alcatel-Lucent". Nokia. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  22. ^"Nokia plans to acquire Withings to accelerate entry into Digital Health", 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. 26 April 2016. Archived from the original on 19 May 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  23. ^Best, Jo. "'Mobile phones are our history, not our future': Nokia on where next for hardware". Zdnet.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  24. ^Scott Barr, Chris (18 May 2016). "Microsoft sells Nokia brand use to Foxconn and HMD global". SlashGear. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  25. ^"Nokia's key to success: A strong portfolio combined with aggressive licensing – Filing Analytics". Filinganalytics.io. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  26. ^"Ericsson, Samsung gain share in network gear as ZTE slumps". Uk.reuters.com. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  27. ^Vilpponen, Antti (4 September 2013). "Nokia: Finland mourns the demise of its proud tech heritage". The Guardian.
  28. ^Kelly, Gordon. "Finland and Nokia: an affair to remember". Wired UK.
  29. ^Bloomberg (4 September 2013), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. "Finland mourns loss of national icon Nokia".
  30. ^"Start01". Gasmasklexikon.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  31. ^"U.S. Threatened to Block Finnish Arms Deal Over High-Tech Exports in 1980's". Yle Uutiset.
  32. ^Reuters (21 January 1988). "COMPANY NEWS; Nokia Oy Buys Stake in Ericsson". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  33. ^"Nokia's Secret Code Perhaps the least hierarchical big company in the world, Nokia has been winning big in wireless, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. But its Finnish recipe for innovation is about to be put to the test. – May 1, 2000". Archive.fortune.com.
  34. ^"Nokia´s Pioneering GSM Research and Development to be Awarded by Eduard Rhein Foundation". Nokia.
  35. ^
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of 2021,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001, by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (1.9 edits per second).[10][11] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID-19 pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "Nupedia.com the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, 2000, under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainswikipedia.com (later redirecting to wikipedia.org) and wikipedia.org were registered on January 12, 2001,[26] and January 13, 2001,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, 2001[19] as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20, 2001

English Wikipedia editors with >100 edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of 161 by the end of 2004.[33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in 1408, which had held the record for almost 600 years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February 2002.[35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from wikipedia.com to wikipedia.org.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early 2007.[38] Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006; by 2013 that average was roughly 800.[39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, it lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.[44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in 2009, denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in 2011, he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36,000 writers" in June 2010 to 35,800 in June 2011. In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A 2013 MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since 2007, Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July 2012, The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, 2013, issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January 2019.[update]One square represents 10,000 articles. Languages with fewer than 10,000 articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January 2007, Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With 42.9 million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January 2006, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around 18.3 million unique visitors.[52] As of March 2020[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In 2014, it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, 2014, The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18 billion page views and nearly 500 million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, 2012, the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than 162 million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, 2014, Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December 2012 and December 2013. Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen of December 2016, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January 2013, 274301 Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7,473 700-page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, 2020, the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February 2020, Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID-19, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen changes.[75] A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December 2012. Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In 2003, economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May 2005, falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In 2010, Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[100] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[101] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[102] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[103] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[104] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[105]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[106][107] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[108]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[109][110] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[111][112]

By 2012, fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[113]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[114] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[115]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, coordinate and debate.[116]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[117] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[118] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[119]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and types of articulation work.[120]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[121] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[122] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community . a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[123] In 2008, a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[124] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[125]

The English Wikipedia has 6,410,280 articles, 42,573,941 registered editors, and 125,342 active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[126] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[126] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[127] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia . are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[128] Jimmy Wales stated in 2009 that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users . 524 people . And in fact, the most active 2%, which is 1400 people, have done 73.4% of all the edits."[123] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in 2009 that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[123]

A 2008 study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[129][130] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[131] According to a 2009 study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[132]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[133] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[134]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, intimidating behavior".[135] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[136]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January 2021.
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently 325 language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November 2021, the six largest, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[138] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of 2013[update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over 500,000 articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over 100,000, and 82 more have over 10,000.[139][138] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over 6.4 million articles. As of January 2021,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[140]

0.1 0.3 1 3

English 6,410,280

Cebuano 6,061,619

Swedish 2,872,837

German 2,633,512

French 2,374,985

Dutch 2,071,672

Russian 1,771,487

Spanish 1,731,929

Italian 1,726,585

Polish 1,496,935

Egyptian Arabic 1,378,106

Japanese 1,301,041

Vietnamese 1,270,100

Waray 1,265,576

Chinese 1,241,658

Arabic 1,143,507

Ukrainian 1,123,328

Portuguese 1,077,410

Persian 846,692

Catalan 689,830

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[142] or points of view.[143]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[144][145][146]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[147] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[148] For 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[149] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[150] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. It is not 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[151]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in 2012 also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[151]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, 2014, The Economist, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[152] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since 2008 for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42,000 editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2,000 editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in 2007 at approximately 50,000 and dropping to 30,000 by the start of 2014.

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,000.[152] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[153]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2018)

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly 150,000 words as of 2014.[update][154][155]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In 2010, columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[156] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[157][158][159]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in 2010 and 2011 respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[156][160] A 2008 article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[161]

In 2020, Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[162]

In 2006, the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[163]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[164] However, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen peer review in 2005 of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[165] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[166] Others raised similar critiques.[167] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[168][169] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[170] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4 × 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[171]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[172] Concerns have been raised by PC World in 2009 regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[173] the insertion of false information,[174]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[175]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen form of information ever created".[176]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[177] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[178] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[179] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[180]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][182] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[183] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, June 16, 2014], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[183][184][185][186][187] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[188]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (2011), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[189]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[190] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[193] Wales once (2006 or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[194]

In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[195] In June 2007, former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[196] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[197]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, 2014, Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[198] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of 200 health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[198] In a May 7, 2014, follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[199] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[199]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a 2006 mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[200]

In 2008, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[201] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[202] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization . his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice . and . his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians . remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[202]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is 100 percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[203] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in 2010 by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[204]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[205]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia § Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[206] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[207][208] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[209] and Pakistan,[210] amongst other countries.

A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to January 2008) in each field:[211]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (210%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (143%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[212]

A 2011 study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus Adoba photoshope cs6 crack serial keygen different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[213]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in 2009 indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[214] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[215]

An editorial in The Guardian in 2014 claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[216] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July 2018 Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[136]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen editors. In 2011, Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, 2013, essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[217] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[217]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in 2013, studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[218][219] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[219] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[219]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[220][221]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December 2008, access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[222]

In April 2010, Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[223][224] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of 2003.[225] That law bans photographic child 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[225] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[226]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[227] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[227] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[228] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[229]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[230][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[231]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[232] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[233]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in 2015 as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[234][235]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in 2013 for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[236]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[237]

A comprehensive 2008 survey, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, published in 2016, found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[238]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[239] The foundation's 2013 IRS Form 990 shows revenue of $39.7 million and expenses of almost $29 million, with assets of $37.2 million and liabilities of about $2.3 million.[240]

In May 2014, Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[241] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, 2014, that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[242][243] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency . We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[242]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June 2016.[244] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority . (and that correction requires that) it has to Connectify Hotspot 2021 Crack With Full License Key [Latest] more than words."[245]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[246] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[247] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April 2005, a Lucene extension[248][249] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[250]

In 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen 2013, after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[251][252][253][254] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[255] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward. Rubymine 2018.3.3 full version Archives editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[256][257][258] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10,000 articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[259] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[260] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[257] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July 2014 when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[261] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[262]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[263]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation § Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000-page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[264][needs update] As of 2021,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases

Frank W. Booth, Ph.D.,1Christian K. Roberts, Ph.D.,2 and Matthew J. Laye, Ph.D.3

Frank W. Booth

1Departments of Biomedical Sciences, of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, and of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology; Dalton Cardiovascular Institute; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203

Find articles by Frank W. Booth

Christian K. Roberts

2School of Nursing and Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

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Matthew J. Laye

3Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen

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Author informationCopyright and License informationDisclaimer

1Departments of Biomedical Sciences, of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, and of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology; Dalton Cardiovascular Institute; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203

2School of Nursing and Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, University of California, Los Angeles, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, Los Angeles, CA 90095

3Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet M7641, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen

Copyright notice

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Compr Physiol

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Abstract

Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause vs. treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction [including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and co-twin physical activity]; and specificity of adaptations to type of training. Next, physical activity/exercise is examined as primary prevention against 35 chronic conditions [Accelerated biological aging/premature death, low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), sarcopenia, metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, endothelial dysfunction, arterial dyslipidemia, hemostasis, deep vein thrombosis, cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, balance, bone fracture/falls, rheumatoid arthritis, colon cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, polycystic ovary syndrome, erectile dysfunction, pain, diverticulitis, constipation, and gallbladder diseases]. The article ends with consideration of deterioration of risk factors in longer-term sedentary groups; clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence; and public policy. In summary, the body rapidly maladapts to insufficient physical activity, and if continued, results in substantial decreases in both total and quality years of life. Taken together, conclusive evidence exists that physical inactivity is one important cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, physical activity primarily prevents, or delays, chronic diseases, implying that chronic disease need not be an inevitable outcome during life.

1. Organization of article

1.1 Entire article

An underappreciated primary cause of most chronic conditions is the lack of sufficient daily physical activity (“physical inactivity”). Overwhelming evidence proves the notion that reductions in daily physical activity are primary causes of chronic diseases/conditions and that physical activity/exercise is rehabilitative treatment (therapy) from the inactivity-caused dysfunctions. The general strategy of presentation divides the article into three major sections: 1) Conceptual information forming the foundation to understand the remaining article; 2) Primary literature supporting physical inactivity as a primary cause to a myriad of chronic conditions/diseases, and 3) additional considerations. The aim of the entire article is to bring better understanding and insight into the observation that a lack of physical activity at ancestral levels initiates 35 pathological and clinical conditions.

1.2 First third of article

Conceptual information is presented in five parts in the first third of the article. 1) Definitions of forms of physical activity, functional capacity, types of fitness, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, chronic diseases, types of prevention so that the reader understands how the article employs these words; 2) A brief chronology of the three-millennia history that recognizes that physical inactivity reduces functional capacity and health; 3) Cause vs. treatment are discussed to emphasize that physical inactivity is a primary cause of chronic conditions/diseases; 4) Growing evidence that mechanisms by which inactivity causes disease differ from mechanisms by which physical activity is a therapy/treatment to act as a primary preventer of disease; and 5) Gene-environment interactions have varying degrees of gene involvement in the magnitude of change to physical activity.

1.3 Center portion of article

Physical inactivity is a primary cause initiating 35 separate pathological and clinical conditions. Many of the 35 conditions are subdivided under major categories, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, such as loss of functional capacities with chronological aging; metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes/type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic liver disease, cardiovascular 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, cognitive functions and diseases, bone and connective tissue disorders, cancer, reproductive diseases, and diseases of digestive tract, pulmonary, and kidney.

1.4 Final portion of article

The article ends with considerations of clinical significance, increasing risk factors during long-term sedentarism, the developmental and clinical consequences of inactive childhood/adolescence, and policy.

2. Definitions

2.1 CDC definitions of forms of physical activity

Verbatim definitions for exercise and health are from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are used where possible due to the authority they carry (90). US governmental definitions were selected for the article to provide the framework for this article's discussions of how 1) exercise/physical activity prevents chronic diseases and 2) lack of physical activity is a primary event that causes chronic diseases.

Exercise

“A subcategory of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive in the sense that the improvement or maintenance of one or more components of physical fitness is the objective”, as defined by CDC (90).

Exercise training

“Physical activity performed during leisure time with the primary purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness, physical performance, or health”, as defined by CDC (90).

Physical activity

“Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. Physical activity generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health”, as defined by CDC (90).

Health

“A human condition with physical, social and psychological dimensions, each characterized on a continuum with positive and negative poles”, as defined by CDC (90).

Health-enhancing physical activity

“Activity that, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, when added to baseline activity, produces health benefits. Brisk walking, jumping rope, dancing, playing tennis or soccer, lifting weights, climbing on playground equipment at recess, and doing yoga are all examples of health-enhancing physical activity”, as defined by CDC (90).

As previously stated, this article will concentrate on the use of physical activity to prevent physical inactivity, and, thus, prevent many chronic diseases.

2.2 Definition of physical inactivity

CDC definitions for exercise do not include a definition of “physical inactivity”. We define physical inactivity as “physical activity levels less than those required for optimal health and prevention of premature death”. Further consideration of the definition is given in section entitled, “Prevention of death by primary prevention of physical inactivity”.

2.3 Definition of functional capacity

We define “functional capacity” as the ability of a cell, organ, system, or body to maintain homeostasis within their narrow limits of survival in response to a specified stress. If an external stress disrupts homeostasis beyond an organism's functional capacity, life may not be sustained. Diminished ability to adapt to stressors increases the likelihood of death. Functional capacity 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen pliable; declining rapidly with extreme physical inactivity or 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen slowly with aging, while preventing inactivity can increase functional capacity (considered in specific detail in the aging section). Importantly, a direct relationship between functional capacity and survival is a cornerstone of general medicine theory. A major predictor of functional capacity is maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, which while directly testing cardiovascular fitness and integrity also represents a combination of other physiologic components. For instance, VO2max also depends on pulmonary and muscle function, health status of other organ systems, nutritional status, medications, orthopedic limitations, and others (352). An aerobic functional capacity in patients under 4-metabolic equivalents (METs), a typical demand during normal daily activities, increases postoperative (time from admission to discharge from surgery) cardiac and long-term risks (155). In another study, patients were grouped by MET capacity in relationship to complication prevalence after they underwent angiographically verified coronary artery disease and subsequent open abdominal nonvascular surgery. (265). Those from the group < 4 METs had cardiologic complications in 64% of cases, the 4–7 METs group had 29%, and the 7–10 METs group had 8%. These remarkable findings can be extrapolated to other stresses where the probability of complications, and even survival, is dependent upon the functional capacity needed to maintain homeostasis.

2.4 Physical fitness vs. physical activity

Some people incorrectly use physical fitness and physical activity interchangeably. The CDC defines physical fitness as “The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and respond to emergencies. Physical fitness includes a number of components consisting of cardiorespiratory endurance (aerobic power), skeletal muscle endurance, skeletal muscle strength, skeletal muscle power, flexibility, balance, speed of movement, reaction time, and body composition”. The CDC defines physical activity as “Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level” (90).

Inherited genes and their interaction with physical activity levels determine physical fitness. However, chronic physical activity levels themselves modulate fitness. Further, the levels of physical activity, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, themselves, modulate whether fitness improves. For example, Sisson et al. (478) concluded that the most important finding of their study was that greater volumes of exercise were associated with a lower probability of being a nonresponder. The percentage of non-responders at a given level of training progressively decreased as the exercise volume increased.

2.5 Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)

We define CRF as the capacity of the cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) and respiratory (lungs) systems to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working skeletal muscles and the capacity of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy for movement. The gold standard to determine CRF is the aforementioned VO2max, or maximum aerobic fitness. 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen in large clinical human studies, an acceptable surrogate for VO2max is the length of time running or cycling in standardized test, assuming appropriate physiological/biochemical/psychological proof of exhaustion is obtained (65, 263).

The majority of data about fitness and physical activity is focused on aerobic fitness. Data indicates that rapid, severe physical inactivity can rapidly decrease CRF. For instance, in the Dallas Bed Rest study, healthy, young males' VO2max decreased 27% after 20 days of continuous bed rest (454) and another study in Denmark 2 weeks of reducing daily step number from 10,501 to 1344 VO2max decreased 7% (389).

2.6 Strength fitness

We define strength fitness as the capacity of the skeletal muscle to move an external load. Strength is highly dependent upon skeletal muscle mass, which contains a major genetic component (Discussed later in Twin studies-Modulation of twin health by physical activity), and is sensitive to decreased mechanical loading resulting in skeletal muscle atrophy regardless of endowed muscle mass (49, 508).

2.7 Balance and flexibility fitness

We define balance fitness as the ability to control the body's position throughout movement,and flexibility fitness as the ability to achieve an extended range of motion. Both have components of genetic inheritability and are also trainable (Discussed later in Twin studies-Modulation of twin health by physical activity).

2.8 Definition of chronic diseases and their prevalence

We define chronic disease as a disease slow in its progress (decades) and long in its continuance, as opposed to acute disease, which is characterized by a swift onset and short course.

Medicine, public health, pharmaceutical industry, and educational systems have reduced infectious diseases and early life mortality resulting in record average life spans for much of the human population. In place of infectious diseases most people in the US now die of chronic diseases.

The CDC Website states, “Chronic diseases—such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes—are the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. Chronic diseases account for 70% of all deaths in the U.S., which is 1.7 million each year (85). These diseases also cause major limitations in daily living for almost 1 out of 10 Americans or about 25 million people (85), The CDC further wrote, “Chronic diseases – such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and arthritis – are among the most common, costly, and preventable of all health problems in the U.S.” (86). In addition to the CDC, former US Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Honorable Michael O. Leavitt in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, wrote,

Along with President Bush, I believe that physical activity should be an essential component of any comprehensive disease prevention and health promotion strategy for Americans. We know that sedentary behavior contributes to a host of chronic diseases, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and regular physical activity is an important component of an overall healthy lifestyle. There is strong evidence that physically active people have better health-related physical fitness and are at lower risk of developing many disabling medical conditions than inactive people (532).

2.9 Definitions of types of prevention

For the purposes of this article, physical activity is presented as primary prevention of physical inactivity. The CDC defines physical inactivity as an actual cause of chronic conditions (213, 345). Physical activity, itself, rarely causes chronic conditions, e.g., participation in specific sports improves general health, but can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in specific populations (71); discussed later in section “Osteoarthritis”. The next definitions are taken from a commissioned paper by the U.S. Institute of Medicine (267).

Prevent

Prevent implies taking advanced measures against something possible or probable. Prevention in medicine has been divided into three progressive stages – primary, secondary, and tertiary (267).

Primary prevention

“Primary prevention refers to health promotion, which fosters wellness in general and thus reduces the likelihood of disease, disability, and premature death in a nonspecific manner, as well as specific protection against the inception 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen disease” (267).

Secondary prevention

“Secondary prevention refers to the detection and management of pre-symptomatic disease, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and the prevention of its progression to symptomatic disease. Screening is the dominant practice…The margins between primary and secondary prevention can at times blur (268).”…For example, `”If hypertension is defined as a disease, its treatment is secondary prevention; if defined as a risk factor for coronary disease that does not yet exist, it is primary prevention” (267).

Tertiary prevention

“Tertiary prevention refers to the treatment of symptomatic disease in an effort to slow its further progression to disability, or premature death…there is a legitimate focus on prevention even after disease develops, such as the prevention of early cancer from metastasizing, or the prevention of coronary disease from inducing a myocardial infarction or heart failure. This domain also encompasses rehabilitation, the purpose of which is to preserve or restore functional ability, and thus prevent its degeneration” (267).

2.11 Application of exercise to prevention categories

Examples for our view that exercise is a primary, secondary, and tertiary preventer of disease are as follows: 1) Primary prevention (direct treatment of cause to prevent disease occurrence) is voluntary avoidance of physical inactivity or treatment of physical inactivity with physical activity; 2) Secondary treatment [eliminating one cause (physical inactivity) of existing hypertension by eliminating physical inactivity] is treatment of existing hypertension with physical activity; and 3) Tertiary prevention with physical activity is cardiac rehabilitation where exercise benefits do not reverse the anatomical pathology from myocardial infarction, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. We propose that the greatest health benefit of physical activity is primary prevention of 35 chronic diseases/conditions to become clinically overt. This article is largely restricted to consideration of primary prevention of inactivity as an actual cause of chronic conditions.

3. Overview for next three sections

While, concerns that physical inactivity is detrimental to health have been documented for over three 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, much remains unknown, e.g., a) how to change the sedentary behavior of the 92% of U.S. adolescents and > 95% of adults who do not met the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines for physical activity (527), b) how to have health care professionals provide effective individualized exercise prescriptions, and c) what are the molecular links between inactivity and chronic disease that will provide a policy tool in the same way as the molecular link between the carcinogen in tobacco and lung cancer did (129).

4. Summary of daily step reductions from antiquity

Historical evidence shows that physical inactivity is prevalent in today's society relative to historical levels (385). Estimated daily step numbers have declined ~50% to ~70% since the introduction of powered machinery. (Table 1).

Table 1

Estimated historical reductions in daily steps by humans.

PopulationYearSteps per dayReferences
Paleolithic(~20,000 BC)~13,200–21,120 (men)~10,560 (women)(385)
Amish(2002)18,425 (men)14,196 (women)(27)
Mean of 26 studies(1966–2007)7,473 (mainly women)(63)
Colorado(2002)6,733 (men)6,384 (women)(573)
US adults(2010)5,340 (men)4,912 (women)(26)

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5. History of inactivity's compromising effects on function and health

Three millennia of evidence exist to indicate historical recognition that physical inactivity is detrimental to health by reducing the functional capacity of most organ systems in humans, mammals, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and rodents.

5.1 Ancient India (~1500–600 BC)

A historical review by Tipton (519) described the tridosa doctrine in India, which contended that the three humors regulated all functions of the body. When humors were in equilibrium, good health was present. However, sedentary living and lack of exercise could displace one or more of the humors, impairing health and potentially leading to illness and death. Susruta (600 BC) was convinced a sedentary lifestyle elevate the kapha humor to a level that could disrupt humoral equilibrium resulting in a disease state and potential death. He included exercise in his recommendations to prevent the occurrence of diseases.

5.2 Hippocrates (~450 BC)

Quotations attributed to Hippocrates promote the primary prevention of disease by physical activity.

“If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, we would have found the safest way to health” (240).

“If there is any deficiency in food and exercise the body will fall sick” (477).

“Walking is man's best medicine” (240).

“All parts of the body, if used in moderation and exercised in labors to which each is accustomed, become thereby healthy and well developed and age slowly; but if they are unused and left idle, they become liable to disease, defective in growth and age quickly” (278).

5.3 Bed rest (1945–1955)

Three days of physical inactivity produces glucose intolerance (47). Paul Dudley White, one of Dwight Eisenhower's cardiologists after the President's heart attack on September 24, 1955, prescribed physical activity to President Eisenhower long before the end of the standard treatment of 6-months bed rest for a heart attack. The medical community followed White's practice of substituting physical activity for bed rest in management of acute coronary 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, with bed durations progressively decreasing to 2 weeks in 1980 in 2005 (340). A 2011 meta-analysis concludes that exercise training has greatest beneficial effects on left ventricular remodeling in clinically stable post-MI patients when training starts one week following the MI (227).

5.4 Initial epidemiology (1949–1953)

Jeremiah Morris is recognized as the person who first used physical activity in epidemiology (his history is available (43). In 1953, Morris and co-workers compared bus drivers, who are sedentary in their occupation, with the physically active bus conductors, who were constantly moving up and down double-decker buses to collect fares in London. Physically active conductors had a 30% lower incidence rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) than the physically inactive bus drivers (353). Furthermore, even the physically active conductors who did develop CHD with age were better off, presenting with less severe disease and lower fatality rates than the inactive bus drivers (353). However, while VO2max was not determined in Morris' report, others have since shown that workers in physically active occupations have higher aerobic capacity than their inactive peers (220). Morris' 1953 report (353) is a milestone as the initial publication documenting daily physical inactivity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (43).

In his 10th decade of Morris' life, he wrote, “We in the West are the first generation in human history in which the mass of the population has to deliberately exercise to be healthy. How can society's collective adaptations match?” (43, 354).

5.5 Primary prevention: Human space flight (1957–1961)

The Space Race for national security began in earnest in 1954 leading to the successful launch and orbit of Sputnik from the USSR on October 4, 1957. Four years later on April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first human in outer space and the first to orbit the Earth. The Space Race hastened physiological exploration that the microgravity experienced in space reduced human functional capacities. As an outcome, NASA researched countermeasures to the microgravity-induced functional loss during spaceflight that relied on experimental bed rest on Earth, an extreme form of inactivity. However, interest in the primary mechanisms of inactivity was a lower priority.

Today over 6500 publications arise from a PubMed search for the terms spaceflight and physiology. Inspection of this body of literature led Vernikos and Schneider (540) to contend that spaceflight results in losses of functional capacities in multiple organ systems, similar to an accelerated model mimicking aging. For example, they conclude that bone atrophy occurs 10-times faster in spaceflight than with aging. Similarly, reductions in immune function, sensitivity of arterial baroreflex, maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, and VO2max also occur more rapidly in spaceflight than in aging (540, 561). (Cross-reference: Importance of exercise in microgravity)

5.6 Bed rest book (1965)

The preface of Browse's book “The Physiology and Pathology of Bed Rest”, published in 1965 states that the principle purpose of the book,

…is to lay bare our ignorance of the whole subject, to stimulate research…The dangers of bed rest are so many, and in some cases so final, that we should always be striving to discard it from our therapeutic armamentarium…and to emphasize the absurdity of using a non-specific treatment for specific diseases without reason or proven value (68).

The book carefully documents the widespread systemic deterioration of the body when continuous bed rest occurs. Some of the pathologies documented are: postural hypotension, tachycardia, kidney stones (renal calculi), loss of skeletal muscle mass, weakness in antigravity muscles, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis, constipation, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and difficulty with micturition.

5.7 Dallas Bed Rest Study (1960's)

Saltin, et al. (454) studied five healthy college-age males during 20 days of continuous bed rest. During acute exercise following bed rest reductions of 28%, 11%, 26%, and 29% in VO2max, ventricular volume (ml), maximal cardiac output, and maximal stroke volume occurred, without a change in maximal A-VO2 difference. Further detrimental changes with bed rest were increased heart rate at a submaximal workload of 600 kpm/min from 129 to 154 beats/min and total peripheral resistance (TPR) increasing from 449 to 520 TPR units. From the 10th–20th day of bed rest day resting heart rate increased from 47 to 51 beats/min. (Cross-reference: Cardiac Function; Cardiac output during exercise: contribution of the cardiac, circulatory and respiratory systems)

5.8 Sitting studies (2000's)

A perspective was proposed as to whether too much sitting is distinct from too little exercise (218, 317, 392, 393), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Owen et al.'s 2010 review states,

Further evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials, and population-based 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen studies is required…many scientific questions remain to be answered before it can be concluded with a high degree of certainty that these adverse health consequences are uniquely caused by too much sitting, or if what has been observed so far can be 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen for by too little light, moderate, and/or vigorous activity (392).

A 2010 review co-authored from multiple research sites concluded from an examination of 43 papers, “Limited evidence was found to support a positive relationship between occupational sitting and health risks. The heterogeneity of study designs, measures, and findings makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions at this time” (537). The concept of intermittency of lack of weight bearing by sitting is supported by older basic science research. In rats cycling 4 times/day through periods of weight bearing and non-weight bearing (hindlimb suspension), soleus muscle atrophy was prevented by 4 × 15-min periods of ground support during 12 hrs of the day (118).

5.9 Animal wheel lock studies (2000's)

In order to optimize primary prevention by physical activity, mechanisms by which physical inactivity initiates 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen factors for chronic diseases must be elucidated for the optimal science-based physical activity prescription. One animal model used young male rats that underwent 3 weeks of voluntary running and then had their wheels locked (WL) for 5 hrs (WL5), 29 hrs (WL29), or 53 hrs (WL53). Within 53 hrs two major changes in functional capacities were observed, decreased submaximal insulin sensitivity and enhanced storage of TG in visceral adipose tissue. (For the purposes of this article, visceral and intra-abdominal adipose tissues are considered similar and the term visceral is used). Specifically, submaximal insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, insulin binding, insulin receptor ß-subunit (IRß) protein level, submaximal insulin-stimulated IRß tyrosine phosphorylation, glucose transporter-4 protein level, and Akt/protein kinase B Ser473 phosphorylation (an index of proximal insulin signaling) in the epitrochlearis muscle, returned to sedentary levels at WL53 (293). Further, the epididymal adipose tissue mass at WL53 weighed 25% more than at WL5 in the same rats as studied for insulin sensitivity above.

5.10 Translation studies - Reduced stepping studies in humans (2000's)

While continuous bed rest is a model examining the absence of physical activity, a novel human reduced-activity model was designed to test the effects of reduced, rather than lack of, physical activity on metabolic health. Step numbers were reduced by taking elevators instead of stairs and riding in cars instead of walking or bicycling within a free-living environment by young, healthy male adults who were not undertaking >2 hrs/wk exercise at the start of the study. After reducing daily step number form 6203 to 1394 for 3 weeks, areas under the curve (AUC) for plasma insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) progressively increased 53%, 61%, and 79% after 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively (389).

In a second study, subjects reduced daily steps from 10,501 to 1,344 (where there are ~2000 steps in a mile). After 2 weeks, VO2max decreased 7%, peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 17% with concurrent decreases in insulin-stimulated ratio of pAkt-Thr308/total Akt in skeletal muscle. Body composition was also significantly altered by 2 weeks of reduced stepping with visceral adipose tissue mass increased 7%, total fat-free mass decreased by 1.2 kg, 0.5 kg of it in the legs, while total-body fat mass and BMI were unchanged (286, 389). Thus, an inverse relationship existed between gain of visceral adipose tissue and loss of lean mass, indicative of body composition repartitioning, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Similar observations have been made in a rat WL model. In a different WL experiment visceral adipose 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen mass, but not lean mass increased independent of food intake after 173 hours of WL followed 6 weeks of voluntary running (310). Thus, both human and rat models of reduced daily steps increased visceral adipose tissue while diminishing lean mass, independent of caloric increases.

5.11 Clinical significance

Short-term reductions in daily step number (producing less daily physical activity) cause decreased CRF, loss of insulin sensitivity, reduced lean mass and increased visceral adipose tissue. These functional decrements help explain the link between reduced physical activity and 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen risks that have been associated with the progression of chronic disorders and premature mortality (389). Using physical activity prescriptions to prevent physical inactivity would help maintain functional capacities.

5.12 Summary: Inactivity causes loss of functional capacities

Taken together, the historical work provides overwhelming evidence that physical inactivity cause decreases in capacities of functional systems, leading to premature deterioration of health in humans. The Copenhagen study of reduced stepping, while low in subject number, is particularly relevant to everyday living because the reduced physical activity level is similar to the step numbers performed in a free-living environment by billions of humans worldwide in both developed and developing countries.

6. Cause vs. treatment

A sedentary lifestyle over several years is associated 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. What is much less appreciated is the high cost of physical inactivity even in the short term. Booth et al. have been drawing attention for years to the societal and individual burden of inactivity-related chronic diseases. They remind us that while exercise is a treatment to prevent many chronic diseases, it is the lack 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen regular exercise or physical inactivity that is one of the actual causes of many of these diseases” (481).

Convincing proof that physical inactivity causes primary deterioration of function is provided from extensive historical and scientific evidence. Thus, physical activity can prevent physical inactivity-induced chronic diseases (left panel of Fig 1). In contrast (right panel of Fig 1), physical activity can treat 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen lung cancer-induced dyspnea, a common side effect 1 to 6 years after lung cancer resection (179) (Right panel Fig. 1). Thus, in the left panel physical activity addresses the cause of the disease, while in the right panel physical activity only acts as a treatment against a disease in which it cannot prevent. We will focus on the disease processes of the left panel in this article.

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Figure 1

Physical activity produces primary and tertiary preventive health benefits for chronic diseases. Left panel. Physical inactivity is an actual initiating cause of a chronic disease/condition. Restoration of physical activity (primary prevention) removes the actual cause (physical inactivity) that produced the health deficiency. Right panel. Physical inactivity is not the cause of lung cancer. Smoking is an actual cause of lung cancer. Addition of aerobic exercise training compensates (tertiary prevention) for loss of lung function after surgical removal of a portion of lung by strengthening respiratory skeletal muscles for remaining lung (179). Exercise does not cure lung cancer.

7. Mechanisms of physical inactivity and activity differ

Mechanisms of physical inactivity are considered anti-parallel, rather than in series (continuum) to physical activity (210, 570). Physical activity and inactivity reside in different mechanistic planes, and are not merely mirror images of each other as is commonly considered (discussed below). Optimal therapies and preventive strategies require knowledge of causal mechanisms, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Thus, it is important to understand that some of the mechanisms by which inactivity causes chronic diseases differ from mechanisms by which exercise acts as primary prevention of same diseases.

One example is that inactivity and exercise differ with regards to time courses of structural changes in conduit arteries and changes in endothelial function. This difference is summarized nicely in a review where Thijssen et al. state: “However, the nature and impact of inactivity and exercise on vascular structure and function suggest that inactivity and exercise are not simply the opposite ends of a linear spectrum of physiological adaptation” (506). In our figure 2, distinct mechanisms by which inactivity and/or exercise alter conduit size and endothelial function are outlined. For instance inactivity results in immediate negative remodeling of the vessel, while activity requires 4–6 weeks to positively remodel the vessel.

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Figure 2

Changes in artery function and structure (remodeling) show differential time courses in response to increasing or decreasing human physical activity as hypothesized by Thijssen et al. (506). Exercise training (right side) produces early, rapid increases of arterial function (blue line), which is followed weeks later by arterial remodeling (red line and larger diameter vessel) that returns arterial function to pre-exercise training levels. Physical inactivity (left side) is associated with immediate, rapid decreases in arterial diameter after spinal cord injury (decreased size in top far left blood vessels and red line). Function immediately decreases and then returns to pre-injury value. [Reproduced with permission from Figure 2 in ref. (506)].

A second example that inactivity and exercise are not mirror images of one another is found from global analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen bed rest, immediately after bed rest, and after 4 weeks of 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen rest training. Compared to pre-bed rest levels, 9 days of bed rest altered 4500 mRNAs. If physical activity were merely the reverse of inactivity then all 4500 would be hypothesized to return to pre-bed rest levels following 4 weeks of training. However, a normalization of expression failed to occur in 20% of the 4500 genes that changed with bed rest. This observation led Vaag and co-workers (8) to speculate that rather severe and long lasting adverse alterations in mRNA levels may develop in important biological pathways relevant to their general health after 9 days of bed rest.

A third example is by Stein and Bolster (491) who compared muscle atrophy (311) to skeletal muscle regrowth from atrophy (184), and reiterated by Greenhaff and Hargreaves (210). Again, if physical activity were the opposite of physical inactivity, then the expected result would be many of the same genes changes would be similar for atrophy and regrowth. However, comparison of these two gene lists showed virtually no common gene names on both lists, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. These examples illustrate a fundamental principle of biochemistry, which Stein and Bolster concisely state, “This is a common finding in biochemistry. Anabolic and catabolic pathways are usually separate” (491)”, or put another way, opposite processes work through entirely different mechanisms rather than altering the level of one pathway. Further biochemical examples include; irreversible steps in glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, protein synthesis and degradation, lipolysis and lipogenesis, and mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, all of which support the idea that exercise and inactivity are not merely opposites of each other. Thus, a single molecular paradigm to explain adaptations to exercise and inactivity does not exist.

8. Gene-Exercise/physical inactivity interactions

Physical fitness and physical activity/inactivity interact with genes. While many fitness examples of gene-environment could be chosen, VO2max will be used because it is well studied and integrates the function of multiple organs at multiple levels (i.e. tissue, cell, protein, and gene). (Cross-reference: Genetics: environment and their interaction)

8.1 Genetic Component Alone

Phenotype responsiveness variability to aerobic 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen untrained pairs of monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, and brothers approximately 40–50% of VO2max was estimated to be due to genetics (57). Similarly, pairs of identical twins had significantly more similar increases in VO2max than unrelated twin pairs after aerobic training in three papers in the mid-1980s (217, 421, 474), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. The papers led to the milestone paper reporting that some individuals experiencing little or no gain in VO2max, whereas others gained >1.0 L/min in 481 sedentary subjects (55). A 2.5-times greater variance existed between families than within families in the VO2max response variance.

8.2 Higher VO2max associates with better health

The 1996 US Surgeon General's Report (531) concluded that high CRF decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. High VO2max is associated with “positive health”; low VO2max is associated with “negative health.” 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, low CRF was a stronger predictor of death than clinical variables or established risk factors, such as hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, as well as other exercise-test variables, including ST-segment depression, the peak heart rate, or the development of arrhythmias during exercise in both healthy subjects and those with CVD (363). Specifically, subjects aged 60 and older with low CRF had notably higher mortality risk from all causes than those with high CRF (499). Maintaining the highest possible VO2max is a primary preventer of morbidity and mortality from low VO2max (discussed later). Further information on the role of genes, physical activity, VO2max (CRF), and health is presented next.

8.3 Using VO2max to identify “health” genes

Theoretic selection of specific genes to optimize functional capacities

In 1979, Bennett and Ruben elegantly described a basis for natural selection of genes by physical activity to maximize inherited potential VO2max,

“We believe that this increased stamina and sustainable activity were important selective factors from the outset… The selective advantages of increased activity capacity are not subtle but rather are central to survival and reproduction. An animal with greater stamina has an advantage that is readily comprehensible in selective terms. It can sustain greater levels of pursuit or flight in gathering food or avoiding becoming food. It will be superior in territorial defense or invasion. It will be more successful in courtship and mating” (34).

The quotation hints that some genes were selected during evolution to support high levels of physical activity and the ability to adapt to physical activity. However, recent observations that a small portion of the population is low responders for VO2max suggest a greater biological complexity than known in 1979.

Genes associated with plasticity of VO2max

In 1998, Bouchard and co-investigators published, “Maximal heritability estimates were at least 50%, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen value inflated to an undetermined degree by inclusion of nongenetic shared factors” (56). Timmons employed a novel approach to improve the examination of complex physiological variables in human models. To identify genes responsible for variance of VO2max plasticity, Timmons et al. (517) used a novel approach by first conducting mRNA expression microarray profiling, which were then used to produce molecular predictors to locate or rank a discrete number of genes that correlate with the change in VO2max following endurance training. Follow up studies allowed for subsequent targeted genotyping and, hence, discovery of key genetic variants responsible for the variance of VO2max plasticity. A signature of 29 mRNAs and of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified that predicted ~50% and ~23%, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, respectively, of the estimated variance for VO2max plasticity following aerobic training in humans (517). Timmons et al. (517) noted two remarkable characteristics in their identified 29 predictor mRNAs: 1) pretraining levels were greater in high than low responders for VO2max; and 2) >90% of the 29 mRNAs did not change with aerobic training. They suggested that individuals with a low responder predictor gene profile would require alternative exercise intervention paradigms or more intensive pharmacological and dietary protocols to help compensate for their genomic profile. Timmons and co-authors further examined the same subjects after 6 weeks of endurance training at 70% of maximal VO2max (517). They observed that low-responders did not switch on their proangiogenic network genes effectively (269), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. (Cross-references: Molecular mechanisms and muscle plasticity with acute and chronic exercise; Muscle plasticity: energy demand and supply processes; Regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle by contractile activity).

Timmons et al.'s (517) development and validation of mRNA predictors to hunt for genetic markers have many advantages over existing approaches Kernel for Windows Data Recovery 17.0 crack serial keygen SNP. Each SNP seems to contribute only weakly for Utility Tools Archives - Page 3 of 24 - All Latest Crack Software Free Download complex human diseases. For example, after genome-wide association analysis in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, 18 robust SNPs explain <7% of the total disease variance (484). As to generalization of a low responder to all of tens of health benefits from exercise training from VO2max alone, Timmons cautions, “No systematic analysis allows us to be certain that a `nonresponder' for one trait does not cluster with a poor response for another” (516). Thus, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, additional research is needed to determine whether low responders for gain in VO2max with endurance training respond to other “positive health” benefits of physical activity, such as improved cognitive function, bone density, skeletal muscle strength, visceral adipose tissue quantity and quality, and the tens of other “positive health” benefits detailed later in this article (52). Blair, Church, and co-workers (478) reported that non-responders to for increase in VO2max comprised a total of 44.9%, 23.8%, and 19.3% of the 4- the 8- and the 12-kcal/kg/wk treatment groups, respectively. They concluded that greater volumes of exercise were associated with a lower probability 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen being a nonresponder. In summary then, additional research is needed to determine if low responders to aerobic exercise are low or high responders to high-intensity interval training, to resistance training, balance, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, or flexibility training.

Proof due to experimental selection of physical aerobic-fitness genes in animals

Britton and Koch's experimental selection, based upon a single volitional/behavioral forced running test to exhaustion, provided experimental evidence that natural selection for high aerobic capacity during evolution is a feasible concept (569). Selection of rats on the basis of the longest or shortest running distances during a single exercise test resulted in selection of a 58% higher aerobic capacity in the high-distance line than the short-distance line over 11 generations. Rats with high VO2max had healthier cardiovascular systems (12% lower mean 24-hr blood pressures and 48% better acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation), and healthier metabolic risk factors (16% less fasting plasma glucose, 39% less visceral adipose tissue, 63% lower plasma triglyceride levels, and greater mitochondrial protein concentrations). These data provides evidence of a genetic role in inter-animal variation in VO2max that is correlated with better health outcomes.

8.4 Phenotype responsiveness variability to resistance training (RT)

In addition to VO2max variance among subjects in response to aerobic training, RT also has a tremendous amount of variability in adaptive responsiveness. In 585 subjects undergoing 12 weeks of RT, changes from 2 to +59%, 0 to +250%, and −32 to +149% occurred in cross sectional area, one repetition max, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen maximal isometric contraction, respectively (250). The variability in muscle mass may, in part, be related (but not limited) to inter-individual differences in genome code (as with IGF2 in the aforementioned porcine model) (377), the individual's ability to activate intramuscular mTORC1 signaling within skeletal muscle in response to exercise (333), and/or different responses of microRNA (miRNA) to RT(120). Successful RT-induced hypertrophy in human skeletal muscle was associated with specific differences in miRNA expression to RT in high- and low- responders, respectively, which Davidsen et al. (120) suggest means that miRNAs may play a role in regulating the translation of key gene networks responsible for human skeletal muscle growth. One possible pathway is the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is up-regulated during skeletal muscle hypertrophy in humans, and related 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen the ability for satellite cells to proliferate and/or differentiate (411).

8.5 Pharmacogenetics interactions with exercise

The efficacy of drugs is affected by physical fitness/activity status (104, 328) in addition to genetic disposition. For instance, in patients with abnormal left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preserved LV ejection fraction, exercise and weight loss plus drug reduced the LV relaxation dysfunction that was not reduced by the drug alone (104). Martin et al. (328) speculate that drugs with good efficacy in sedentary overfed (overweight) animal models may be less effective in active normal weight animals.

8.6 The future of personalized human medicine

The findings of the previous sections have led Timmons et al. (517) to predict that they could apply gene data for changes in VO2max in personalized medicine to tailor exercise prescription. Medicine will continue to become more personalized with the looming question of how to optimize how it is applied to ensure the greatest patient benefit. Carl Sagan wrote, “It is the tension between creativity and skepticism that has produced the stunning and unexpected findings of science” (452). It is the spirit of Sagan's quotation that we now raise issues about which we are skeptical. We are skeptical that exercise experts will be used to inform health care professionals on how to make personalized exercise prescriptions based on science. The fear is that a patient will be informed that they have low-responder genes for VO2max, which may lead to failure of the patient to exercise or lack of compliance to alternative exercise prescriptions. We hope that solutions, such as encouraging low responders to aerobic exercise or to engage in resistance exercise, can 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen to striking improvements in personalized health.

8.7 Clinical significance

In a statement in Science, NIH Director Francis Collins wrote,

However, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, the best opportunity to reduce risk in genetically susceptible people for the foreseeable future will not be to re-engineer their genes, but to modify their environment. We need to understand how genetic factors and environmental exposures interact in individuals to alter normal biological function and to affect the risk of disease development (464).

The clinical significance of low- and high-responders for a given dosage and type of exercise, implies that individualized medicine, if exclusively restricted to viewing genetic background in vacuum, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, will result in less than optimal prescriptive therapy. Rather, individualized medicine for primary prevention of disease and premature death must also be based on individualized variation of inherited genes for: a) disease susceptibility, b) responsiveness to exercise training and type of exercise, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and c) drug-exercise interactions, if appropriate. Thus, fully capturing personalized gene-environment interactions.

Kujala et al. (289) wrote, “When tailoring clinical physical activity interventions, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, we must remember that not all individuals are suited to the same guidelines for exercise intensity, because the ability to exercise seems to vary not only by training background but also by genetic predisposition.”

9. Twin studies - Modulation of twin phenotype by physical activity

Claude Bouchard has extensively used the experimental approach of MZ twins to minimize genetic variability for estimating the percentage contribution of environmental (physical activity) interventions since the mid-1980s. In addition to studies where twins were subjected to exquisitely controlled exercise protocols, a number of studies used overfeeding protocols to look at the effect of excess calories (not included in the following tables). The twin approaches have been critical to our ability to separate genetic from environmental effects related Glarysoft Malware Hunter PRO 1.119.0.712 +Crack With Serial Key Latest health and chronic disease in humans. Future, twin-activity studies will contribute to prescription of exercise types and of dose-response thresholds for primary prevention of chronic diseases.

9.1 Comprehensive presentation of twin-activity (gene-environment) studies

In this section, we take the approach of searching the literature for all articles (that we could find) that have examined a variety of health outcomes in monozygotic twins (MZ) to attempt to control for genetic variation.

9.2 MZ twin-activity comparisons show high mortality component

To summarize the most important health outcome, mortality, Table 2 is presented to show the mortality outcome in MZ twins discordant for physical activity in a large cohort of Swedish twins (77). The higher physically active MZ had a 36%–66% lower mortality than their inactive MZ pair.

Table 2

Tendency for dose-response between higher 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen activity level and lower mortality in Swedish monozygotic twins [modified from (77)].

SexPhysical activity levelAll-cause mortalityCardiovascular mortality
Hazard ratio95% confidence intervalsHazard ratio95% confidence intervals
MenLow11
Moderate0.840.72, 0.980.860.68, 1.08
High0.640.50, 0.830.550.36, 085
WomenLow11
Moderate0.820.70, 0.960.850.64, 1.13
High0.750.50, 1.140.340.1,0.95

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9.3 MZ twin activity comparisons show variable chronic disease component

These studies have taken the approach of either a priori separating pairs of MZ that are discordant for physical activity (Table 3), looking at exercise responses in MZ twins relative to dizygotic twins (Table 4), correlating health parameters with physical activity or fitness levels in MZ twins (Table 5), and looking at the genetic component of physical fitness and activity parameters (Table 6). By evaluating this approach, we can obtain an idea about which factors are controlled mainly by genetics and which are most modifiable for physical activity levels. However, it should be noted that many of these studies have methodological limitations including a wide range of physical activity levels and outcomes that differ from classical exercise physiology adaptations.

Table 3

Studies with Twin Discordant for Physical Activity Levels.

OutcomesPhysical Inactivity EffectMZ (n)Other (n)SexPA MeasurementCommentsRef
MRI Visceral Fat↑ 50% in inactive Twin16BQuestionnaireAge 50–74 years and Followed for over 32 years. Subset for Finnish twin study.(316)
MRI Liver Fat Score↑ 170% in inactive Twin
MRI Intramuscular Fat↑ 54% in Inactive Twin
BW changes from 1975 to 2005↑ 5.4 kg for the inactive twin42 twins MZ to DZ proportions unclearBPhone InterviewUnclear about proportion of MZ vs. DZ, but states no differences between MZ and DZ. Subset of Finnish twin study. Twins not discordant for PA had no difference in BW.(545)
WC changes from 1975 to 2005↑ 8.4 cm in inactive twin
BMI↑ 0.33 BMI in non-vigorously active twin614MSelf Reported Vigorous ActivityAll males (mean age 41.1) that fought in Vietnam war. When looking at all twins modeling predicted no genetic effect on the relationship between vigorous activity and BMI.(335)
Weight Gain↑ 5.4 kg inactive twin42BQuestionnaire showing Discordant PA in 1975, 1981, and 2005Finnish twin study(545)
Waist Circumference↑ 8.4 cm in inactive twin
Total Body fat in women with similar weight↑ 1.0 kg& 1.4 kg fat for 1-hr or 2-hr less activity/wk156WQuestionnaire Home, sport, sweating activitiesDiscordant for physical activity. Age of 55.5 yr/old(455)
Total and regional Body fat in women with discordant weight↑ 3.96 kg lower BF & 0.53kg centralAlso showed increased physical activity increased muscle mass and strength (not analyzed in discordant twins)
BMI↑ 2.12 in inactive twin (p<0.001)35Healthy Runners Survey – high PA = 40km/wk > than low PA (male), 32km/wk (female)Subjects recruited from the National Healthy Runners Survey. No active twins with overweight twin were themselves overweight.(563)
HDL↓0.14 in inactive (p=0.004)
HDL2↑ 2.71 in inactive (p=0.001)
Apo A-1↑ 0.10 in inactive (p=0.004)
Lipid profile before and after 40% fat or 20% fat diet (cross over study): LDL and sybfractions, apolipoprotein A-1N.S.28MSurvey. One twin running >50km/wk than other twinSubjects recruited from the National Healthy Runners study. A diet low in fat independent of high amounts of exercise modifies circulating lipids.(564)
Adiposity↑ Sig lower in inactive twin21F9 months of 3xwk high intensity weight bearing activityGirls were prepubertal aged 8.7. Did not tell the control group that they could no longer participate in sports.(534)
BMDN.S.12Lifetime leisure high-impact sportsSubgroup from the original group.
aBMC↓ Sig in inactive twin
Femoral neck and lumbar BMDE = 1%&G = 73% of lumbar variance105MQuestionnaire for endurance and balls sportsFinnish men (35–69yr/old)Calcium supplements also explained 1% of difference in BMD.(541)
Spinal MRIN.S. disk degeneration22MQuestionnaire between 1975 and 1981 showing discordant endurance PA (3.9 v 1.1 time/wk)Finnish Twin Cohort aged 35–69(542)
↓T6-T12disk degeneration in low strength PA twin12Questionnaire between 1975 and 1981 showing discordant strength PA (2300 v 200 hrs)
Psychomotor reaction times↓ Sig slower choice reaction for hand & contra foot in inactive38Lifetime exercise historiesFinnish twin cohort. Average age of discordant PA twins is 50. PA data collected in 1972, 81, 92(475)
Psychological functioning (mood, optimism, control)↓ Sig in inactive twin63BQuestionnaire for discordant vigorous activityFrom US National Survey of Midlife Development(258)
Survey based Anxiety and Depression symptomsN.S.??BLeisure time PA onlyArticle is unclear how many MZ twins were discordant for PA in their models. Only current levels of PA and not PA history used. Used Dutch population, but excluded cycling to work as PA (non-leisure)(126)
Dementia↑ P = 0.07 for inactive PA twin90BTwin registry reported 31 years before follow-upSwedish twin registry. Data on all twins showed significant correlation of increased PA and decreased dementia(12)
3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen satisfactionN.S.1611722842SurveyData in MZ and related family members showed an OR>1.0for active pair of an unrelated paired of people.(498)
Life HappinessN.S.
Lactate thresholdE is 25–30% & G is 50–60%9M6 months of anaerobic threshold trainingAged 11–14. Change in VO2max was more due to the less weight gain in trained twin. Used analysis of variance to estimate the genetic and training effects.(119)
VO2maxE is 35% & G is 45%
Total Body FatE is 20% & G is 70%
Myocardial infusion at rest, during adenosine, and cold-presser testN.S.9MSeparated by VO2max and physical activity levelsYoung males with a 18% difference inVO2max (ml/kg/min) of (43.7 vs 50.7)(221)
Endothelial function via ultrasound of brachial and LAD coronary arteryN.S.
Oxygen extraction fraction↑ in low fit (p=0.06)
Hepatic FFA uptake at rest↑Sig in less fit groupSame subjects as above.(222)
Myocardial FFA uptake at rest and during exerciseN.S.
Skeletal muscle perfusion and free fatty acid uptakeN.S.Same subjects as previous study.(223)
Cornell voltage (electrical measurement of LV hypertrophy)↓Sig in inactive(36)
Right-side hypertrophy index
LV mass index
Type 2 Diabetes18 inactive v 2 active twins acquired T2DM515 DZBLeisure time PATwins discordant for PA and discordant for Type 2 diabetes. For MZs it was the inactive twin that developed type 2 diabetes.(288)
Mortality from 1975–1981↑Sig in inactive DZ twins, but not inactive MZ twins157517BQuestionnaires for vigorous PA and estimates of >2MET wk/day/wkFinnish twin cohort aged 24–60. Low level of leisure physical activity in early life was associated with increased risks of death in dizygotic twin pairs, but monozygotic co-twins.(289, 546)

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Table 4

Studies with Twin Response to Exercise

PA InterventionOutcomesH-effectMZ (n)DZ (n)SexCommentsRef
Submaximal supine bicycle at HR of 110bpmEnd-diastolic mean wall thickness (rest)H = 53%2112MSimilar results when adjusted for body fat. Non-genetic component is made up of both shared and non-shared environmental components.(40)
LV diameter (rest)N.S
Fractional shortening (rest)H = 13% (N.S)
Change in End-diastolic mean wall thickness w/exerciseH = 0% (N.S.)
Change LV diameter w/exerciseH = 24%
Change in Fractional shortening w/exerciseH = 47%
Cycling Power outputH = 53%
Cycling VO2maxH = 46%
20-wk endurance trainingLV wall, posterior wall, septal wall, LV mass,Minimal H effect2020 (not related)MTraining effect in all subjects.(303)
Supine bicycle at 60W (submaximal)SBP (rest)Sig H3221MLess effect on heritability during exercise than at rest (conclusions based only on abstract; unable to obtain full article)(41)
DBP (rest)
Change in SBP w/exercise
Change in DBP w/exercise
Graded Cycle test to “exhaustion”Peak VO2H = 77%, 66% when PA and skinfolds adjusted2919MTesting was done on a max test and also collected with HR was at 150bpm.(176)
O2 uptake at HR of 150bpmH = 61%, 16% when PA and skinfolds adjusted
Mechanical EfficiencyN.S. H Correlation
Anaerobic energy generationH = 78%, 58% when PA and skinfolds adjusted
Respiratory exchange ratioH = 6% only
30 minutes of treadmill at anaerobic thresholdGH and PRL response to exercise and cortisol at restSig H Correlation9MAthletes(135)
ACTH and cortisol response to exercise and beta-endorphin at restN.S. H Correlation
93 days of negative energy balance (diet and exercise)euglycemic-hyperinsuliemic clamp before and after interventionN.S. H Correlation7M(390)
Fasting and postprandial insulin
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate & androsterone glucuronideSig. H effect7M3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen colspan="1">Healthy Young Males.(419)
Cortisol levels
Wingate test, max progressive testMax 5 s Wingate powerH = 74%88Not correlated were measures in the ergojump test. Had different heritability's with different tests measuring same performance measure. Homogenous subject group.(75)
Max Lactate WingateH = 82%
Delta Lactate during maximal testH = 84%
10-wk isokinetic strength training (5d/wk)HK, MDH, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen rowspan="1" colspan="1">N.S. H55 (unrelated)M(505)
oxoglutarate 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen activity (OGDH)Sig H
Maximal and submaximal treadmill runningrunning economyN.S. H Correlation88No significant differences in references to MZ v DZ twins.(440)
VO2 maxN.S. H Correlation
Maximal lactateH = 75%
15 weeks of endurance trainingSkeleteal Muslce HKII, (31%), PFK (37%), LDH (21%), MDH (31%), &B-HAD (60%)Sig H12M(217)
fiber-type, CK activitiy,N.S. H
15 weeks of high intensity supramaximal exercise (4–5 times/wk)ALC, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, CK, HK, LDH, Category Archives: Game Development, OGDH activitiy & PFK:OGDH activity ratioSig H28Exercise bouts of 15–90s all out.(474)
fiber type & anaerobic capacity
A single 90 minute bout of exerciseRest v Ex Adipose LPL activity following exerciseSig difference btw MZ and DZ1110MAged 18–27(458)
Cycle exerciseRest v Ex metabolic rate(VO2)H = 46% at low power. N.S. H at > 6xRMR3721 + 31 parent childB(60)
Cycle exercise to maxAbsolute and BW adjust VO2maxSig H1212M18–31 years old(177)
Rest v Ex LV internal diameterN.S. H
Rest v Ex Fractional ShorteningN.S. H
LV MassN.S. H when adjusted for BW
165 min submax treadmill test before & after 22 days of 1000 kcal/day overfeedingPre v Post change in VO2maxSig H12M(524)
93 days of supervised 60min/d exerciseLoss in B.W., fat mass, skinfold, visceral fatSig H7MHealthy young males(59)
Change in fasting TAGs and Cholesterol
Change in VO2max, RER during exercise
1000 kcal of vigorous exercise per day for 22 daysPre v Post fasting insulinSig H12MHealthy young males.(522)
Pre v Post delta insulin during OGTTN.S. H
93 days of supervised 60min/d exercisePre v post fasting insulin and glucose disposalN.S. H, but Sig improvement7(390)
116min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxPre v Post fat massN.S. H12MHealthy males aged 19.1 yr old.(414)
basal lipogenesisSig H
Pre v Post insulin stimulated lipogenesisN.S. H
Pre v Post epinephrine and basal lipolysisN.S, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. H
Pre v Post LPL activityN.S. H
Fat Free MassSig H
20-wk cycle ergometer endurance trainingPre vs. Post epinephrine lipolysisSig H.8B4 male and 4 female.(133)
Basal lipolysisN.S. H
Single 90 min bout of exerciseLPL activityMore Sig in MZ than DZ1110M(458)
116 min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxTotal CholesterolSig H12M3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen colspan="1">(134)
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
93 days of supervised 60min/d exerciseTotal cholesterolSig H7MMale, young and healthy. ~93000 total calorie deficit. Significant within twin effects.(298)
LDL Cholesterol
Cholesterol to HDL ratio
116min/day of cycle ergometer for 22days at 58% maxBaseline RMRSig H12M(415)
Baseline thermic effect of food
Pre v Post plasma T3, T4, and FT4Sig H (except for T3)
93 days of supervised 60min/d exercisePre v post RMR, Thermic effect of food,Sig H7MHealthy young males(523)
Thyroid hormones
14 weeks of exercise trainingCardiac SizeN.S. H2810 + 12 siblingsBNo genetic effect on heart size pre or post exercise training.(3)

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Table 5

Studies with Twin Correlations that are corrected for PA levels or Unique Environmental Effects (twins may not be discordant for PA).

OutcomesH-effectPA EffectMZ (n)DZ(n)SexPA MeasurementCommentsRef
Weight gain↓ correlation in inactive15713029BQuestionnaire of Physical activity levels at baselineFinnish twin study. At all activity levels MZ twins had greater hereditability than DZ twins.(231)
Waist Circumference↑ 2.5 cm in low PA twin287189Questionnaire in 1998 and 2002. Only looking at leisure and occupational PANo analysis for discordant PA. If twins had large genetic susceptibility then low PA resulted in larger increase in WC(266)
3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen colspan="1">BMIN.S.
Waist Circumference76(M)–77(F)%21(M)–22(F)%7175BQuestionnaireAfrican Americans aged 22–88 from Carolina African American Twin Study of Aging. All effects are unique environemental not just PA levels.(374)
Waist-Hip Ratio59(M)–56(F)%36(M)–38(F)%
BMI89(M)–73(F)%11(M)–27(F)%
Discordant for BMI by at least 3.N.S.23BInterviews and Questionnaire for PANo significant effects of PA on the discordance of overweight prevalence.(214)
Discordant for obesity↓ fitness (8%) and activity (15%) in Obese twin14MVO2max and Baecke leisure time PAFrom FinnTwin study – obese also had lower adipose mitochondrial gene expressioniobit malware fighter pro 7 colspan="1">(362)
Subscapulantrice ps BF ratio24%265M“crude” measure of PAPA was inversely related to adjusted waist c i re umf ranee(468)
waist circumference46%
Diastolic BP35%5%71104BInterview: Lifetime exercise divided into power, aerobic, or otherAerobic exercise in adolescence lifetime high intensity aerobic associated with low diastolic BP throughout life (mean age of 50 at study time).(236)
Aerobic exercise amount44%N.S.
“Augmentation index”, or systemic arterial stiffness↑ Sig in high genetic risk group when inactive53262 + 54 singlet onsFQuestionnaires(209)
MZ subjects that are discordant for hypertensionHypertensive twin ↑being inactive (after military service)281MSurvey from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH)Twins whom are veterans of WWII aged 55–66. Surveyed at time of entry to military and time of study.(78)
HDL cholesterolCorrectin g for genetics prevent correlatio n↑correlation btw exercise and HDL179255FQuestionnaire (one question about PA)Kaiser Twin Registry in Oakland, CA. aged 18–85.(105)
Lumbar spine disk degeneration74%N.S.172154BInterviewed about weight bearing exerciseNo effect of adjustment for exercise on lumbar or cervical disk degeneration(456)
Lumbar spine disk degeneration73%N.S.
total body BMC (DEXA)1.2% less in inactive twin/hour of less exercise3026Questionnaire for weight bearing exerciseAssociated was not present in pre-pubescent twins(254)
leg BMC↓ 1.4% in inactive
Spine BMC↓ Sig in inactive
BMDN.S.12293F12 month recall questionnaire for sport activity10–26 yr old from Australian twin registry.(577)
Smoking Likelihood at follow up (about 4 yrs)↑ 3.36x for inactive twin to be regular smokers97339BSurvey for twins discordant for PA (3 categories used) at baselineAdolescents from a Finnish Twin Registry. Did not analyze by zygosity.(290)
Discordant Prevalence of non-Alzheimer dementias↑Risk Correlated with Physical inactivity106Questionnaire administered 30 years beforeSwedish twin registry average age of first questionnaire was 48(195)
Twins discordant for chronic fatigue syndrome – cognitive functioning tests pre-post max testCognitive tests did were N.S.No relationship to chronic PA was made21B (19 M, 2F)Acute Cycle ergometerto maxExercise caused no change in cognitive functioning acutely.(103)
Various Cognitive Functions>15%<80%1,4321,715 + 268,496 siblingsMCycle W max/kgPA effect for all non-shared environmental effects.(1)

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Table 6

Genetic Influence on Physical Activity, Exercise Levels, and Exercise Capacity. B = both; DZ= dizygotic; F = female; H = heredity effect; M = male; monozygotic; N.D. = not determined; n = number of subjects; Y = young

PA MeasurementH-effectUnique Environmental Effect (unless noted)MZ (n)DZ (n)SexCommentsRef
Isometric knee extensor strength56%42%206228FPA effect is non-shared environmental effects. All older women subjects (63–76 yr/old). New non-shared environmental effects responsible for differences at follow up.(515)
leg extensor power67%33%
isometric knee extensor strength (at 3 years follow up)58%15%149164
leg extensor power (at 3 years follow up)3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen colspan="1">48%11%
Elbow flexor muscle cross sectional area43%6%2516MSubjects were young (22.4 yr old) Caucasians from Belgium. Remaining variation accounted for by MCSA and environmental effects.(125)
Elbow flexor eccentric strength47%20%
Elbow flexor isometric strength32%1%
Leg extensor 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen rowspan="1" colspan="1">32%4%101116FFinnish Twin Study on Aging. Subjects 63–73 yr old.(514)
Leg extensor strength48%52%
Isokinetic lifting60%35%122131MFinnish twin study.(446)
Psychophysical lifting33%49%
Isometric trunk extensor endurance5%61%
Questionnaires based on country. >60min of 4 MET activity = exerciser26.5–70.5%29.2–51.9%1367623375BTwins from 7 different countries. Australia had lowest genetic – highest unique environmental. UK females had highest genetic.(497)
SportsMET (>4MET activity in last 3 months)79% in Y, 41% Mid21% in Y 57% Mid69Y, 93M88Y, 105MBYoung and middle age subjects(122)
Questionnaire Physical activity amount = 60–150 minutes a weekMZ = 45% DZ = 30%MZ = 55%1003386BTwins from the Washington State twin registry. The more PA you undergo the less the genetic influence there is.(148)
Questionnaire Physical activity amount > 150 minutes a week (current guidelines)MZH=31% DZ= 25%MZ = 69%
Baecke and exercise Questionnaire40–65%60–35%359232MNationwide Swedish twins, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. No shared environmental effect.(166)
Sport participation between ages of 13–160%16–22%10951533BDutch population. Does not include common environmental(496)
Sport participation between ages of 17–1836%17%
Sport participation after age of 1885%15%
Adulthood exercise43%26% from competitive sports121MFinnish twin study. Also found that sports from ages 12–18 was a predictor of adulthood exercise.(476)
Respiration chamber (doubly labeled H2O) activity-induced energy expenditure8%30%128BAged 17–39 yr old. Univariate analysis using the additive genetic, but excluding the common environmental component.(259)
Respiration chamber physical activity by accelerometer0%59%
Doubly labeled H2OFree living activity induced energy expenditure72%29%
Free living PA by accelerometer78%22%
RMR3%38%6238BAged 4–10. Correlations are corrected 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen body weight and do not include common environmental(189)
Total EE by Doubly labeled H2O19%23%
Physical Activity energy expenditure0%31%
VO2max, Vmax, HRmax40, 50, 60%N.D.10666BAlso 42 brothers included in the study(57)
Fiber TypeN.S.N.D.3526B32 brothers also included MZ twins had inter-pair correlation, but DZ and brothers suggested strong (but not quantified) environmental component.(58)
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial activitiesN.S.
Oxidative to glycolytic ratio25–50%

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As expected many of the tested health parameters had both genetic and environmental components. In many studies, questionnaires were used to evaluate physical activity levels, a less than optimal method to collect such data. Thus, while the design of the studies analyzed was not optimized for elucidating the effects of physical activity independent of genotype, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, some cautious conclusions may be made from Tables 2–6, presented next.

9.4 Important physical activity component to activity adaptation

The data indicate that inactivity increases both visceral and total fat masses independent of genetic disposition. Additionally, Alzheimer's and dementia both have a large physical inactivity component. However, changes in muscle morphology (length, shortening velocity, of ventricular diameter) do not exhibit compelling genetic components. Genotype is apparently not a major determinant of the changes in insulin levels and sensitivity brought about by negative energy balance with exercise (390) (see insulin resistance later in article).

9.5 Important gene component to activity adaptation

In these studies, while physical activity levels themselves exhibit a large genetic component; it varies tremendously between countries and cultures, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. In addition to activity levels, a major genetic component is found for both measures of strength fitness (muscle strength and power) and in endurance fitness as well as responses (lactate levels, blood pressure) to exercise. More surprisingly is the minor effect of physical activity on overall “well-being”, which is in contrast to a number of cross-sectional studies suggesting that physical activity is strongly negatively correlated with depression and anxiety. Another surprisingly result is that twins discordant for physical activity do not differ in generalized bone 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen or spinal cord bone mass (542), despite the well-known effects of bed rest and inactivity on increasing bone loss. These contradictory results may simply be due to the lack of specific measures of bone mass in the active limbs, or to the variation in types of load-bearing physical activity, and thus bone health, in the physically active group.

9.6 Clinical significance

Taken together, data in Tables 2–6 provide conclusive evidence that physical inactivity alone is sufficient to 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen chronic diseases and death. “Together, the 80 monozygotic publications unequivocally show that co-twins with lower physical activity levels exhibit increased risks for chronic diseases regardless of genotype. Such data, therefore, empowers physicians and other health care providers to prescribe physical activity as primary preventative medicine”

10. Variety of training types to primarily prevent disease

Specificity of training (i.e., adaptation to training is specific to the class of exercise (aerobic vs. resistance) is dogma. For example in 1976, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, one of us wrote that the nature of the exercise stimulus determines the type of adaptation (243). One type of adaptation involves hypertrophy of the muscle cells with an increase 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen strength; it is exemplified in its most extreme form by the muscles of weight lifters and body builders. The second type of adaptation involves an increase in the capacity of muscle for aerobic metabolism with an increase in endurance and is found in its most highly developed form in the muscles of competitive middle- and long-distance runners, long-distance cross-country skiers, bicyclists, and swimmers. Further, hypertrophied muscles of weight lifters did not have the increased mitochondria of aerobic training and that prolonged daily run training increases mitochondria, but does not hypertrophy the muscles. Application of the information to elderly individuals is that they must perform both types of exercise to prevent physical (endurance and strength) frailty.

Recent information expands and emphasizes the specificity dogma, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. High-intensity interval training (HIT) (near peak performance for short bursts alternating with longer periods of low-intensity aerobic activity) has been said to “prove more benefit than traditional continuous exercise programs in several metabolic, muscular, and cardiovascular parameters” (278). For example, HIT-walking resulted in greater increases in VO2peak and thigh muscle strength and a greater reduction in SBP than moderate-intensity continuous walking in older men and women (375). In contrast, one HIT report indicates that HIT by untrained men produced greater (VO2max), the same (improvements in oral glucose tolerance), and less (resting bradycardia, total-body fat percentage, and reducing ratio between total and HDL plasma cholesterol.) adaptations than in a second group performing continuous training (384).

11. Diseasome of physical inactivity (35 diseases/conditions)

The term “diseasome of physical inactivity” was presented by Pedersen (403) to describe a clustering of diseases. Our article enlarges Pedersen's cluster to include over 35 diseases/conditions and death, which constitute most of the remaining article (Fig. 3). (Cross-reference: Muscle as an endocrine organ) Joyner and Pedersen (260) contend that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many common diseases. They further argue that a lack of fluency to use key physiological concepts (like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy) as major intellectual tools to understand at multiple levels how whole animals adapt to exercise and maladapt to physical inactivity.

12. Inactivity accelerates loss of functional capacities with years of life

12.1 Definitions

Primary aging

Inevitable deterioration of cellular structure and function, independent of disease (241)

Maximal lifespan

Maximum amount of time one member of a species has been observed to survive between birth and death

Secondary aging

Aging processes which result from disease, bodily abuse, and/or disuse and which are often preventable

Life expectancy

Average lifespan of a population

Functional capacity 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen maximal value of a function

Relative functional capacity Relative age of functional capacity of an organ system, an organ, or cell to its lifetime highest value at a given calendar age

12.2 Etiology

Primary prevention

The next quotation is impactful because of its source, a report from top exercise scientists that was 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen by the top official of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

The data very strongly support an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. Active individuals — both men and women — have approximately a 30% lower risk of dying during follow-up, compared with inactive individuals. This inverse association has been observed among persons residing in the United States, as well as in other countries, older persons (aged 65 years and older), and persons of different race/ethnic groups. In one study of persons with impaired mobility (unable to walk 2 km and climb 1 flight with no difficulty), physical activity also appeared to be associated with lower all-cause mortality rates. (412)

Less physical activity shortens years of life relative to average lifespan

Healthy behavioral choices in Californian Adventists extend life expectancy by several years, even as much as a decade, (190). Various reports estimate that higher physical activity levels may extend life expectancy relative to average lifespan by 2.1 (405), 2.5 (395), 5.1 (men)(181), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, and 5.7 (women)(181) yrs for the physically active population.

Another example of lifetime physical activity shortening years lived is the increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (See type 2 diabetes later in article). Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes at the age of 20 yrs is associated with 17.2 and 17.9 yrs of life lost in males and females, respectively (366).

Less physical activity increases percentage of population that is disabled

At the same age for death, the high physical activity group spent less time disabled than the overall population of men (2.5 vs. 3.0 years), while the low physical activity group actually spends more time disabled than all men (2.6 vs. 1.4 years)(181). Thus, less lifetime physical activity shortens years of life, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. (Cross-reference: Implications of aging and athletics)

12.3 Dose-response relationship between sitting time and prediction of premature death

Longitudinal studies

Katzmarzyk et al. (268) reported a dose-response association existed between sitting time and mortality from 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen causes and CVD, but not for cancer, independent of leisure time physical activity in 17,000 Canadians, such that hazard ratio was 1.54 for the greatest sitting time. Dunstan et al. (151) found that each 1-hour increase in TV viewing time was associated with 11% and 18% increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively, in 20,000 Australian men and women. Further, all-cause and CVD mortalities increased 46% and 80%, respectively for TV viewing time >4hr/day as compared to <2 hrs/day, which were independent of smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol, diet, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, waist circumference, and leisure-time exercise.

Mechanisms

While light physical activity is associated with rather low-intensity muscle contractions, it still has favorable improvements on plasma glucose in glucose tolerance tests (228), and differs substantially from the absence of muscle activity while sitting The detrimental effects of sitting have been hypothesized by Stamatakis et al. (489) to occur in the following sequence of events: excessive sitting lowers skeletal muscle blood flow, lowering shear stress on vascular endothelial cells,and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression. They also noted that the low-grade inflammatory marker, CRP was approximately 2 times greater in subjects with >4 hr/day in screen time, compared to those <2 hr/day. However, two weeks of reduced daily stepping (286) and 5 days of bed rest (216) do not increase inflammatory markers so CRP is unlikely to be the first initiating mechanism. Rapid biochemical changes in a rodent models of sitting, hindlimb unloading, have demonstrated decreases in rat skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates within the first 6 hrs (54, 357, 507, 529, 550) and loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into the mouse soleus muscle after 1 day (466).

12.4 Biomarkers of premature death

Low values of functional capacities for maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and for maximal skeletal muscle mass/strength, each alone, are biomarkers for death as they are associated with shorter life expectancies.

Sedentary lifestyle speeds 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen aging of VO2max by 30 yrs (illustrated by shifting of age-VO2max relationship leftward in shown example)

As previously discussed, VO2max is a measure of CRF. CRF is a health-related component of physical fitness defined as the ability of the circulatory, respiratory, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen muscular systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity. While physically active and inactive individuals lose a VO2max at a similar rate (slope of the curve) due to primary aging, the inactive individuals have a leftward shift of the curve. For instance, 80-yr-old, physically active women had VO2max's that were equivalent to 50-yr-old physically inactive women, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. (Fig. 4) (503).

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Figure 4

Best-fit linear lines are shown for aerobic capacities of two cross-sectional groups (aerobic trained and sedentary) as a function of their increasing chronological age. At the chronological age of 80 yrs, a horizontal line is extended from the endurance trained line to the left where it intersects the sedentary line at age 50 yrs. Subjects were women who had been aerobically trained for at least 2 yrs with road-racing competition (closed circles) vs. women who were sedentary (open squares) who performed no regular exercise and had BMI's <35 kg/m2 (aerobic-trained women were matched across the entire age range for age-adjusted world-best 10-km running times to ensure homogeneity relative competitiveness). [Reproduced with permission from (503)].

Low VO2max increases prevalence of death

Convincing evidence exists that lower CRF is associated with increased mortality in both men and women, independently of other risk factors (79, 96, 277, 312, 313).

An inverse relationship between CRF and death was present with a cross-sectional comparison between lesser fit men and women with greater fit men and women showed. When CRF in the second lowest CRF quintile is compared to the lowest quantile, the risk of all-cause death in the lowest CRF quantile is increased by 39% and 67% in a prospective study of 40,451 men and 12,831 women, respectively (312) (Fig. 5), 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen. Likewise comparing the highest CRF quintile) to the second lowest increased all-cause death risk by 26% and 28% in men and women, respectively. Thus, comparing the top quintile to the lowest quintile increased all-cause death risk by 75% and 113% in men and women, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, respectively.

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Figure 5

Relative risk of death as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen in CRF. Relative risks of all-cause mortality by (CRF) quintiles for 12,831 women aged 20–100 years without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Relative risks were adjusted for age, year of examination, body mass index, smoking status, abnormal electrocardiogram, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and family history of CVD. [Reproduced with permission from (312)].

Changes in CRF level result in a similar change in mortality risk. Men (n = 9777; aged 20–82 at baseline) had two CRF assessments with an average period of 4.9 years between first and second examinations (44, 312). The men were then followed an average of 5.1 years for mortality after the second CRF test. Men who were unfit at both visits had the highest death risk while men who were fit at both visits had the lowest death risk. Remarkably, men who changed fitness status between the two CRF assessments had intermediate risk of death between the fit-that-stayed-fit group and unfit-who-stayed-unfit group. Fit-who-became-unfit between assessments had an increased risk of death. Unfit-men who-became-fit between CRF assessments decreased their risk of death. Erikssen et al. (165) found similar trend and concluded that even small improvements in physical fitness are associated with a significantly lowered risk of death.

Sedentary lifestyle speeds secondary aging of skeletal muscle power by 24 yrs (illustrated by shifting of age-power relationship leftward in shown example)

Low muscle strength has been inversely associated with all-cause-mortality in thirteen studies using subjects > 65 yrs of age (see (451) for refs). While, aging causes a similar rate of loss in power between 40 and 90 yrs of age, 3D Mark 2000 Build 335 crack serial keygen, untrained, healthy men generate 35% less average power than male competitors at a World Masters Weight-Lifting Championships (402) (Fig. 6). Recreational resistance training results in strength gains ranging from 10%–257% after 9–52 weeks of 2–3 days/week resistance training in subjects mainly aged between 60–80 years of age (252), however a cross-sectional study spanning 20–80 yrs of age in recreational weight-lifters is not available to our knowledge. (Cross-references: Influence of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism; Physical activity and skeletal muscle size)

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