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Nexus Repository OSS is distributed with Sencha Ext JS pursuant to a FLOSS Exception agreed upon between Sonatype, Inc. and Sencha Inc. Sencha Ext JS is licensed under GPL v3 and cannot be redistributed as part of a closed source work.

This page contains links to archived versions of the commercial Sonatype Nexus Repository Manager, formerly known as Nexus Professional. A valid license is required to make use of all features.

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Wikipedia

Multilingual free online encyclopedia

This article is about Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia. For a list of Wikipedias in other languages, see List of Wikipedias. For other uses, see Wikipedia (disambiguation).

Wikipedia (wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or wik-ee-) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers through a model of open collaboration, using a wiki-based editing system. Individual contributors, also called editors, are known as Wikipedians. It is the largest and most-read reference work in history,[3] and consistently one of the 15 most popular websites ranked by Alexa; as of ,[update] Wikipedia was ranked the 13th most popular site.[3][4] A visitor spends an average time on Wikipedia of 3 minutes and 45 seconds each day.[5] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through small donations.[6]

Wikipedia was launched on January 15, , by Jimmy Wales[7] and Larry Sanger; Sanger coined its name as a blending of "wiki" and "encyclopedia".[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 57 million articles, attracting around 2&#;billion unique device visits per month, and more than 17 million edits per month (&#;edits per second).[10][11] In , Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world", and is "a testament to the vision of one man, Jimmy Wales".[12]

Wikipedia has received praise for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced amount of commercial bias, but criticism for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[13][14]Its reliability was frequently criticized in the s, but has improved over time and has been generally praised in the late s and early s.[3][13][15] Its coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events such as the COVID pandemic has received substantial media attention. It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site. It has become an element of popular culture, with references in books, films and academic studies. In , Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[16][17]

History

Main article: History of Wikipedia

Nupedia

Main article: Nupedia

Logo reading "arenaqq.us the free encyclopedia" in blue with the large initial "N"
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project called Nupedia.

Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were as successful.[18] Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.[19] It was founded on March 9, , under the ownership of Bomis, a web portal company. Its main figures were Bomis CEO Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and later Wikipedia.[1][20] Nupedia was initially licensed under its own Nupedia Open Content License, but even before Wikipedia was founded, Nupedia switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman.[21] Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,[22][23] while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal.[24] On January 10, , Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.[25]

Launch and early growth

The domainsarenaqq.us (later redirecting to arenaqq.us) and arenaqq.us were registered on January 12, ,[26] and January 13, ,[27] respectively, and Wikipedia was launched on January 15, [19] as a single English-language edition at arenaqq.us,[28] and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.[22] Its policy of "neutral point-of-view"[29] was codified in its first few months. Otherwise, there were initially relatively few rules, and it operated independently of Nupedia.[22] Bomis originally intended it as a business for profit.[30]

The Wikipedia home page on December 20,

English Wikipedia editors with > edits per month[31]

Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. Language editions were also created, with a total of by the end of [33] Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in , and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia passed the mark of two million articles on September 9, , making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, surpassing the Yongle Encyclopedia made during the Ming Dynasty in , which had held the record for almost &#;years.[34]

Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control, users of the Spanish Wikipediaforked from Wikipedia to create Enciclopedia Libre in February [35] Wales then announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and changed Wikipedia's domain from arenaqq.us to arenaqq.us.[36][37]

Though the English Wikipedia reached three million articles in August , the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of new articles and of editors, appears to have peaked around early [38] Around 1, articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in ; by that average was roughly [39] A team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the project's increasing exclusivity and resistance to change.[40] Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called "low-hanging fruit"—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created and built up extensively.[41][42][43]

In November , a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49, editors during the first three months of ; in comparison, it lost only 4, editors during the same period in [44][45]The Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend.[46] Wales disputed these claims in , denying the decline and questioning the study's methodology.[47] Two years later, in , he acknowledged a slight decline, noting a decrease from "a little more than 36, writers" in June to 35, in June In the same interview, he also claimed the number of editors was "stable and sustainable".[48] A MIT Technology Review article, "The Decline of Wikipedia", questioned this claim, revealing that since , Wikipedia had lost a third of its volunteer editors, and that those remaining had focused increasingly on minutiae.[49] In July , The Atlantic reported that the number of administrators was also in decline.[50] In the November 25, , issue of New York magazine, Katherine Ward stated, "Wikipedia, the sixth-most-used website, is facing an internal crisis."[51]

Milestones

Cartogramshowing number of articles in each European language as of January&#;[update]One square represents 10, articles. Languages with fewer than 10, articles are represented by one square. Languages are grouped by language family and each language family is presented by a separate color.

In January , Wikipedia first became one of the ten most popular websites in the US, according to comscore Networks. With &#;million unique visitors, it was ranked #9, surpassing The New York Times (#10) and Apple (#11). This marked a significant increase over January , when Wikipedia ranked 33rd, with around &#;million unique visitors.[52] As of March&#;[update], it ranked 13th[4] in popularity according to Alexa Internet. In , it received eight billion page views every month.[53] On February 9, , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia had 18&#;billion page views and nearly &#;million unique visitors a month, "according to the ratings firm comScore".[10] Loveland and Reagle argue that, in process, Wikipedia follows a long tradition of historical encyclopedias that have accumulated improvements piecemeal through "stigmergic accumulation".[54][55]

On January 18, , the English Wikipedia participated in a series of coordinated protests against two proposed laws in the United States Congress—the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the PROTECT IP Act (PIPA)—by blacking out its pages for 24 hours.[56] More than &#;million people viewed the blackout explanation page that temporarily replaced its content.[57][58]

On January 20, , Subodh Varma reporting for The Economic Times indicated that not only had Wikipedia's growth stalled, it "had lost nearly ten percent of its page views last year. There was a decline of about two billion between December and December Its most popular versions are leading the slide: page-views of the English Wikipedia declined by twelve percent, those of German version slid by 17 percent and the Japanese version lost nine percent."[59] Varma added, "While Wikipedia's managers think that this could be due to errors in counting, other experts feel that Google's Knowledge Graphs project launched last year may be gobbling up Wikipedia users."[59] When contacted on this matter, Clay Shirky, associate professor at New York University and fellow at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society said that he suspected much of the page-view decline was due to Knowledge Graphs, stating, "If you can get your question answered from the search page, you don't need to click [any further]."[59] By the end of December , Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular website globally.[60]

In January , Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October , Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July , of the 7, page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April , an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash.[61][62] In June , scientists reported that all 16&#;GB of article text from the English Wikipedia had been encoded into synthetic DNA.[63]

Current state

On January 23, , the English-language Wikipedia, which is the largest language section of the online encyclopedia, published its six millionth article.

By February , Wikipedia ranked eleventh in the world in terms of Internet traffic.[64] As a key resource for disseminating information related to COVID, the World Health Organization has partnered with Wikipedia to help combat the spread of misinformation.[65][66]

Wikipedia accepts cryptocurrency donations and Basic Attention Token.[67][68][69]

Openness

Differences between versions of an article are highlighted

Unlike traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia follows the procrastination principle[note 3] regarding the security of its content.[70]

Restrictions

Due to Wikipedia's increasing popularity, some editions, including the English version, have introduced editing restrictions for certain cases. For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article.[71] On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees.[72][73] A frequently vandalized article can be "semi-protected" or "extended confirmed protected", meaning that only "autoconfirmed" or "extended confirmed" editors can modify it.[74] A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators can make changes.[75] A article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia's page-protection policies as "[p]erhaps the most important" means at its disposal to "regulate its market of ideas".[76]

In certain cases, all editors are allowed to submit modifications, but review is required for some editors, depending on certain conditions. For example, the German Wikipedia maintains "stable versions" of articles[77] which have passed certain reviews. Following protracted trials and community discussion, the English Wikipedia introduced the "pending changes" system in December Under this system, new and unregistered users' edits to certain controversial or vandalism-prone articles are reviewed by established users before they are published.[79]

Wikipedia's editing interface

Review of changes

Although changes are not systematically reviewed, the software that powers Wikipedia provides tools allowing anyone to review changes made by others. Each article's History page links to each revision.[note 4][80] On most articles, anyone can undo others' changes by clicking a link on the article's History page. Anyone can view the latest changes to articles, and anyone registered may maintain a "watchlist" of articles that interest them so they can be notified of changes. "New pages patrol" is a process where newly created articles are checked for obvious problems.[81]

In , economics Ph.D. student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs of participating in a wiki created a catalyst for collaborative development, and that features such as allowing easy access to past versions of a page favored "creative construction" over "creative destruction".[82]

Vandalism

Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia

Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises Wikipedia's integrity is considered vandalism. The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor; it can also include advertising and other types of spam.[83] Sometimes editors commit vandalism by removing content or entirely blanking a given page. Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information, can be more difficult to detect. Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the article's underlying code, or use images disruptively.[84]

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix it is a few minutes.[85][86] However, some vandalism takes much longer to detect and repair.[87]

In the Seigenthaler biography incident, an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May , falsely presenting him as a suspect in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.[87] It remained uncorrected for four months.[87] Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today and founder of the Freedom ForumFirst Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University, called Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales and asked whether he had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales said he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced.[88][89] After the incident, Seigenthaler described Wikipedia as "a flawed and irresponsible research tool".[87] The incident led to policy changes at Wikipedia for tightening up the verifiability of biographical articles of living people.[90]

In , Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.0, to visit the show's Wikipedia article and edit it at will. On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.[91][92]

Edit warring

Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeated competing changes to an article, known as "edit warring".[93][94] It is widely seen as a resource-consuming scenario where no useful knowledge is added,[95] and criticized as creating a competitive[96] and conflict-based[97] editing culture associated with traditional masculine gender roles.[98]

Policies and laws

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular, copyright laws) of the United States and of the US state of Virginia, where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located. Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content. Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.[99] Editors can enforce these rules by deleting or modifying non-compliant material. Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia. They have since diverged to some extent.[77]

Content policies and guidelines

According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.[] A topic should also meet Wikipedia's standards of "notability",[] which generally means that the topic must have been covered in mainstream media or major academic journal sources that are independent of the article's subject. Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized.[] It must not present original research. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source. Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.[] This can at times lead to the removal of information that, though valid, is not properly sourced.[] Finally, Wikipedia must not take sides.[]

Governance

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration

Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.[][] An article is not considered to be owned by its creator or any other editor, nor by the subject of the article.[]

Administrators

Editors in good standing in the community can request extra user rights, granting them the technical ability to perform certain special actions. In particular, editors can choose to run for "adminship",[][] which includes the ability to delete pages or prevent them from being changed in cases of severe vandalism or editorial disputes. Administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent disruptive editors from making unproductive edits.[][]

By , fewer editors were becoming administrators compared to Wikipedia's earlier years, in part because the process of vetting potential administrators had become more rigorous.[]

Dispute resolution

Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semiformal dispute resolution process. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums,[note 5] seek outside input through third opinion requests, or initiate a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

Arbitration Committee

Main article: Arbitration Committee

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted. Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted,[] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate. Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies (for example, if the new content is considered biased). Its remedies include cautions and probations (used in 63% of cases) and banning editors from articles (43%), subject matters (23%), or Wikipedia (16%).[when?] Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.[]

Main article: Wikipedia community

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.[]

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike,[] although not always with entirely negative connotations.[] Its preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as "anti-elitism".[]

Wikipedians sometimes award one another "virtual barnstars" for good work. These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.[]

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification.[] As Wikipedia grew, "Who writes Wikipedia?" became one of the questions frequently asked there.[] Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community&#; a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization".[] In , a Slate magazine article reported that: "According to researchers in Palo Alto, one percent of Wikipedia users are responsible for about half of the site's edits."[] This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.[]

The English Wikipedia has 6,, articles, 42,, registered editors, and , active editors. An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days.

Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments, may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions. Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".[] Editors who do not log in are in some sense second-class citizens on Wikipedia,[] as "participants are accredited by members of the wiki community, who have a vested interest in preserving the quality of the work product, on the basis of their ongoing participation",[] but the contribution histories of anonymous unregistered editors recognized only by their IP addresses cannot be attributed to a particular editor with certainty.

Studies

A study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia&#; are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site".[] Jimmy Wales stated in that "[I]t turns out over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users&#; people&#; And in fact, the most active 2%, which is people, have done % of all the edits."[] However, Business Insider editor and journalist Henry Blodget showed in that in a random sample of articles, most Wikipedia content (measured by the amount of contributed text that survives to the latest sampled edit) is created by "outsiders", while most editing and formatting is done by "insiders".[]

A study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others,[][] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.[] According to a study, there is "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content".[]

Diversity

Several studies have shown that most Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.[] Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage women to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.[]Andrew Lih, a professor and scientist, wrote in The New York Times that the reason he thought the number of male contributors outnumbered the number of females so greatly was because identifying as a woman may expose oneself to "ugly, intimidating behavior".[] Data has shown that Africans are underrepresented among Wikipedia editors.[]

Language editions

Main article: List of Wikipedias

Most popular edition of Wikipedia by country in January
Most viewed editions of Wikipedia over time.
Most edited editions of Wikipedia over time.

There are currently language editions of Wikipedia (also called language versions, or simply Wikipedias). As of November , the six largest, in order of article count, are the English, Cebuano, Swedish, German, French, and Dutch Wikipedias.[] The second and third-largest Wikipedias owe their position to the article-creating botLsjbot, which as of [update] had created about half the articles on the Swedish Wikipedia, and most of the articles in the Cebuano and Waray Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

In addition to the top six, twelve other Wikipedias have more than a million articles each (Russian, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Egyptian Arabic, Japanese, Vietnamese, Waray, Chinese, Arabic, Ukrainian and Portuguese), seven more have over , articles (Persian, Catalan, Serbian, Indonesian, Norwegian, Korean and Finnish), 44 more have over ,, and 82 more have over 10,[][] The largest, the English Wikipedia, has over million articles. As of January&#;,[update] the English Wikipedia receives 48% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages. The top 10 editions represent approximately 85% of the total traffic.[]

1 3

English 6,,

Cebuano 6,,

Swedish 2,,

German 2,,

French 2,,

Dutch 2,,

Russian 1,,

Spanish 1,,

Italian 1,,

Polish 1,,

Egyptian Arabic 1,,

Japanese 1,,

Vietnamese 1,,

Waray 1,,

Chinese 1,,

Arabic 1,,

Ukrainian 1,,

Portuguese 1,,

Persian ,

Catalan ,

The unit for the numbers in bars is articles.

Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences (e.g. colour versus color)[] or points of view.[]

Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.[][][]

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".[] Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects (Wikipedia and others).[] For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,[] and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.[] The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, and mathematics. It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet the notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Estimation of contributions shares from different regions in the world to different Wikipedia editions[]

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles. Articles available in more than one language may offer "interwiki links", which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.[citation needed]

A study published by PLOS One in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world. It reported that the proportion of the edits made from North America was 51% for the English Wikipedia, and 25% for the simple English Wikipedia.[]

English Wikipedia editor numbers

Number of editors on the English Wikipedia over time.

On March 1, , The Economist, in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by the Wikimedia Foundation stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years."[] The attrition rate for active editors in English Wikipedia was cited by The Economist as substantially in contrast to statistics for Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia). The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down. The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in at approximately 50, and dropping to 30, by the start of

In contrast, the trend analysis published in The Economist presents Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) as successful in retaining their active editors on a renewable and sustained basis, with their numbers remaining relatively constant at approximately 42,[] No comment was made concerning which of the differentiated edit policy standards from Wikipedia in other languages (non-English Wikipedia) would provide a possible alternative to English Wikipedia for effectively ameliorating substantial editor attrition rates on the English-language Wikipedia.[]

Reception

See also: Academic studies about Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia

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Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation, which includes more than fifty policies and nearly , words as of [update][][]

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In , columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[] Articles in The Chronicle of Higher Education and The Journal of Academic Librarianship have criticized Wikipedia's "Undue Weight" policy, concluding that the fact that Wikipedia explicitly is not designed to provide correct information about a subject, but rather focus on all the major viewpoints on the subject, give less attention to minor ones, and creates omissions that can lead to false beliefs based on incomplete information.[][][]

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged (in and respectively) that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.[][] A article in Education Next Journal concluded that as a resource about controversial topics, Wikipedia is subject to manipulation and spin.[]

In , Omer Benjakob and Stephen Harrison noted that "Media coverage of Wikipedia has radically shifted over the past two decades: once cast as an intellectual frivolity, it is now lauded as the 'last bastion of shared reality' online."[]

In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia.[]

Accuracy of content

Main article: Reliability of Wikipedia

Articles for traditional encyclopedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica are written by experts, lending such encyclopedias a reputation for accuracy.[] However, a peer review in of forty-two scientific entries on both Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica by the science journal Nature found few differences in accuracy, and concluded that "the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three."[] Joseph Reagle suggested that while the study reflects "a topical strength of Wikipedia contributors" in science articles, "Wikipedia may not have fared so well using a random sampling of articles or on humanities subjects."[] Others raised similar critiques.[] The findings by Nature were disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica,[][] and in response, Nature gave a rebuttal of the points raised by Britannica.[] In addition to the point-for-point disagreement between these two parties, others have examined the sample size and selection method used in the Nature effort, and suggested a "flawed study design" (in Nature's manual selection of articles, in part or in whole, for comparison), absence of statistical analysis (e.g., of reported confidence intervals), and a lack of study "statistical power" (i.e., owing to small sample size, 42 or 4&#;× 101 articles compared, vs >105 and >106 set sizes for Britannica and the English Wikipedia, respectively).[]

As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.[] Concerns have been raised by PC World in regarding the lack of accountability that results from users' anonymity,[] the insertion of false information,[]vandalism, and similar problems.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that some traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases, and novel results, in his opinion, are over-reported in journal articles as well as relevant information being omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.[]Amy Bruckman has argued that, due to the number of reviewers, "the content of a popular Wikipedia page is actually the most reliable form of information ever created".[]

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.[] Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia may be reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not clear.[] Editors of traditional reference works such as the Encyclopædia Britannica have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.[] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales has claimed that Wikipedia has largely avoided the problem of "fake news" because the Wikipedia community regularly debates the quality of sources in articles.[]

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls, spammers, and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.[80][] In response to paid advocacy editing and undisclosed editing issues, Wikipedia was reported in an article in The Wall Street Journal, to have strengthened its rules and laws against undisclosed editing.[] The article stated that: "Beginning Monday [from the date of the article, June 16, ], changes in Wikipedia's terms of use will require anyone paid to edit articles to disclose that arrangement. Katherine Maher, the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.'"[][][][][] These issues, among others, had been parodied since the first decade of Wikipedia, notably by Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report.[]

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell (), cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".[]

Discouragement in education

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Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work, preferring primary sources;[] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations. Wales stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate to use as citable sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.[] Wales once ( or earlier) said he receives about ten emails weekly from students saying they got failing grades on papers because they cited Wikipedia; he told the students they got what they deserved. "For God's sake, you're in college; don't cite the encyclopedia," he said.[]

In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi, although without realizing the articles might change.[] In June , former president of the American Library AssociationMichael Gorman condemned Wikipedia, along with Google,[] stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs with everything".

In contrast, academic writing[clarification needed] in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.[]

Medical information

See also: Health information on Wikipedia

On March 5, , Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' #1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the (Wikipedia) site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information."[] Beck continued to detail in this article new programs of Amin Azzam at the University of San Francisco to offer medical school courses to medical students for learning to edit and improve Wikipedia articles on health-related issues, as well as internal quality control programs within Wikipedia organized by James Heilman to improve a group of health-related articles of central medical importance up to Wikipedia's highest standard of articles using its Featured Article and Good Article peer-review evaluation process.[] In a May 7, , follow-up article in The Atlantic titled "Can Wikipedia Ever Be a Definitive Medical Text?", Julie Beck quotes WikiProject Medicine's James Heilman as stating: "Just because a reference is peer-reviewed doesn't mean it's a high-quality reference."[] Beck added that: "Wikipedia has its own peer review process before articles can be classified as 'good' or 'featured'. Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed."[]

Quality of writing

Screenshot of English Wikipedia's article on Earth, a featured-class article

In a mention of Jimmy Wales, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[]

In , researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.[] For instance, when contributors rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Roy Rosenzweig, a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.[] Contrasting Wikipedia's treatment of Abraham Lincoln to that of Civil War historian James McPherson in American National Biography Online, he said that both were essentially accurate and covered the major episodes in Lincoln's life, but praised "McPherson's richer contextualization&#; his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln's voice&#; and&#; his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words." By contrast, he gives an example of Wikipedia's prose that he finds "both verbose and dull". Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history". While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill, he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians&#; remember him as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while others continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero."[]

Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style. Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage."[] A study of Wikipedia articles on cancer was conducted in by Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University. The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level. Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability (to non-college readers) may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".[]The Economist argued that better-written articles tend to be more reliable: "inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information".[]

Coverage of topics and systemic bias

See also: Notability in the English Wikipedia and Criticism of Wikipedia §&#;Systemic bias in coverage

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Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article. Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.[] The exact degree and manner of coverage on Wikipedia is under constant review by its editors, and disagreements are not uncommon (see deletionism and inclusionism).[][] Wikipedia contains materials that some people may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic. The "Wikipedia is not censored" policy has sometimes proved controversial: in , Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy. The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China[] and Pakistan,[] amongst other countries.

A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July to January ) in each field:[]

  • Culture and Arts: 30% (%)
  • Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
  • Geography and places: 14% (52%)
  • Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
  • History and events: 11% (%)
  • Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (%)
  • Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
  • Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
  • Health: 2% (42%)
  • Mathematics and logic: 1% (%)
  • Thought and Philosophy: 1% (%)

These numbers refer only to the number of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones. Through its "Wikipedia Loves Libraries" program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.[]

A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the "people and arts" category, while males focus more on "geography and science".[]

Coverage of topics and selection bias

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven. Africa is the most underrepresented.[] Across 30 language editions of Wikipedia, historical articles and sections are generally Eurocentric and focused on recent events.[]

An editorial in The Guardian in claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.[] Data has also shown that Africa-related material often faces omission; a knowledge gap that a July Wikimedia conference in Cape Town sought to address.[]

Systemic biases

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In , Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".[48] The October 22, , essay by Tom Simonite in MIT's Technology Review titled "The Decline of Wikipedia" discussed the effect of systemic bias and policy creep on the downward trend in the number of editors.[49]

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally,[vague] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.[] It may more specifically follow the biases of Internet culture, inclining to be young, male, English-speaking, educated, technologically aware, and wealthy enough to spare time for editing. Biases, intrinsically, may include an overemphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.[]

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford, in , studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.[][] His research examined the counterproductive work behavior of edit warring. Yasseri contended that simple reverts or "undo" operations were not the most significant measure of counterproductive behavior at Wikipedia and relied instead on the statistical measurement of detecting "reverting/reverted pairs" or "mutually reverting edit pairs". Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs". The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W. Bush, anarchism, and Muhammad.[] By comparison, for the German Wikipedia, the three largest conflict rates at the time of the Oxford study were for the articles covering Croatia, Scientology, and 9/11 conspiracy theories.[]

Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics. The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.[][]

Explicit content

See also: Internet Watch Foundation and Wikipedia and Reporting of child pornography images on Wikimedia Commons

"Wikipedia censorship" redirects here. For the government censorship of Wikipedia, see Censorship of Wikipedia. For Wikipedia's policy concerning censorship, see Wikipedia:Wikipedia is not censored

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information about graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content (such as feces, cadaver, human penis, vulva, and nudity) contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children.

The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer—a album from the GermanrockbandScorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December , access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.[]

In April , Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.[][] Sanger later clarified that the images, which were related to pedophilia and one about lolicon, were not of real children, but said that they constituted "obscene visual representations of the sexual abuse of children", under the PROTECT Act of [] That law bans photographic child pornography and cartoon images and drawings of children that are obscene under American law.[] Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[]Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh strongly rejected Sanger's accusation,[] saying that Wikipedia did not have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[] Following the complaint by Sanger, Wales deleted sexual images without consulting the community. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status. He wrote in a message to the Wikimedia Foundation mailing-list that this action was "in the interest of encouraging this discussion to be about real philosophical/content issues, rather than be about me and how quickly I acted".[] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the pornographic images deleted from Wikipedia since have reappeared.[]

Privacy

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[][note 6] It is a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January , a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker. On February 9, , the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.[]

Wikipedia has a "Volunteer Response Team" that uses Znuny, a free and open-source software fork of OTRS[] to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties. This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.[]

Sexism

Main article: Gender bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia was described in as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment.[][]

The perceived toxic attitudes and tolerance of violent and abusive language were reasons put forth in for the gender gap in Wikipedia editorship.[]

Edit-a-thons have been held to encourage female editors and increase the coverage of women's topics.[]

A comprehensive survey, published in , found significant gender differences in: confidence in expertise, discomfort with editing, and response to critical feedback. "Women reported less confidence in their expertise, expressed greater discomfort with editing (which typically involves conflict), and reported more negative responses to critical feedback compared to men."[]

Operation

Wikimedia Foundation and Wikimedia movement affiliates

Main article: Wikimedia Foundation

Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks. The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.[] The foundation's IRS Form shows revenue of $&#;million and expenses of almost $29&#;million, with assets of $&#;million and liabilities of about $&#;million.[]

In May , Wikimedia Foundation named Lila Tretikov as its second executive director, taking over for Sue Gardner.[] The Wall Street Journal reported on May 1, , that Tretikov's information technology background from her years at University of California offers Wikipedia an opportunity to develop in more concentrated directions guided by her often repeated position statement that, "Information, like air, wants to be free."[][] The same Wall Street Journal article reported these directions of development according to an interview with spokesman Jay Walsh of Wikimedia, who "said Tretikov would address that issue (paid advocacy) as a priority. 'We are really pushing toward more transparency&#; We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.' Initiatives to involve greater diversity of contributors, better mobile support of Wikipedia, new geo-location tools to find local content more easily, and more tools for users in the second and third world are also priorities," Walsh said.[]

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in June [] Maher has stated that one of her priorities would be the issue of editor harassment endemic to Wikipedia as identified by the Wikipedia board in December. Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority&#; (and that correction requires that) it has to be more than words."[]

Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently-run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates. These include Wikimedia chapters (which are national or sub-national organizations, such as Wikimedia Deutschland and Wikimédia France), thematic organizations (such as Amical Wikimedia for the Catalan language community), and user groups. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia.

Software operations and support

See also: MediaWiki

The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open sourcewiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database system.[] The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed[] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software.

In April , a Lucene extension[][] was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Lucene was later replaced by CirrusSearch which is based on Elasticsearch.[]

In July , after extensive beta testing, a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) extension, VisualEditor, was opened to public use.[][][][] It was met with much rejection and criticism, and was described as "slow and buggy".[] The feature was changed from opt-out to opt-in afterward.

Automated editing

Main article: Wikipedia bots

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.[][][] One controversial contributor, Sverker Johansson, creating articles with his bot was reported to create up to 10, articles on the Swedish Wikipedia on certain days.[] Additionally, there are bots designed to automatically notify editors when they make common editing errors (such as unmatched quotes or unmatched parentheses).[] Edits falsely identified by bots as the work of a banned editor can be restored by other editors. An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly.[] Bots are able to indicate edits from particular accounts or IP address ranges, as occurred at the time of the shooting down of the MH17 jet incident in July when it was reported that edits were made via IPs controlled by the Russian government.[] Bots on Wikipedia must be approved before activation.[]

According to Andrew Lih, the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.[]

Hardware operations and support

See also: Wikimedia Foundation §&#;Hardware

Wikipedia receives between 25, and 60,page requests per second, depending on the time of the day.[][needs update] As of ,[update] page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Varnish

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How to install a game or update?

 

 

First, you will need the Daemon Tool and WinRAR (or similar software) before you start installing the game. If you do not have them, you can download from here:

(Option Step) Daemon Tool

(Option Step) WinRAR

 

Installation Instructions

1. Extract files

Always remember to turn off the Firewall as well as Antivirus before extracting and installing, as they will block or delete cracked files during extracting/installation. (If you want to ask why this happens, you should read F.A.Q)

After extracting .rar files, there will be 3 cases:

2. CASE 1: You get the .iso file (or mds, cue, ..) after extracting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enjoy ^^

2. CASE 2: You get the setup file after extracting

The name of the setup file may be different for your situation, but you only need to consider the .exe file. Double click on it, and follow step by step instructions during installation.

2. CASE 3: There are no .iso files as well as no setup files after extracting

This case is very easy, you don&#; need to do anything, just play the game right now. (We have included crack before upload)

 

Источник: [arenaqq.us]

NEXUS3 Reference Manual

Introduction

NEXUS3 is a flexible, high-quality hybrid virtual analog synthesizer utilizing both real-time alias-free waveform generation and high-quality sample playback of recorded synths and real acoustic instruments. NEXUS3 also incorporates a suite of quality filters, effects, arpeggiator, and modulation features to produce unique, complex sounds with minimal impact to your CPU.

NEXUS3 is designed with ease of use in mind and requires no prior knowledge of synthesis, offering detailed and rich sounds straight out of the box. Included is a comprehensive factory library which can be further expanded with an extensive library of expansions that cover all genres of production.

Dive into the world of NEXUS3 and experience a totally new dimension of sound.

Under The Hood

NEXUS3 is built on a powerful synthesis engine featuring all the oscillators, filters, modulators, and effects you would expect in a modern virtual instrument. What makes NEXUS3 different is the perfect balance it strikes between flexibility and simplicity. Instead of presenting page after page of baffling parameters, NEXUS3 makes it easy to get to the most important parameters instantly, providing a great degree of editing potential with a minimum of complexity.

If you want to become an expert at editing NEXUS3 patches, you need to understand a bit about how sounds are constructed and how the signal flows. Below you find information on the basic concepts.

Every sound starts out with at least one oscillator. An oscillator can be a generated waveform (such as sine or square) or a multisample. NEXUS3 has 64 oscillators.

An oscillator's output is routed into one or more layers where it is filtered, processed with layer effects, and shaped with envelopes. Layers are very flexible. For example, a single sawtooth wave could be routed into multiple layers for parallel processing, or a 16 oscillator patch could utilize four layers, each containing four oscillators.

Once the layers are summed together, the signal is passed through the effects block where the following chain of effects processes the signal globally: two insert effects, filter, EQ, delay, reverb, impulse, two trailing inserts and limiter (to avoid clipping). The final signal is then fed to the output.

What's New in Nexus 3?

NEXUS3 incorporates all the core features of NEXUS2, including the quality playback engine, expansive preset browser, and fast and intuitive control of every sound. NEXUS3 builds on the success of NEXUS2 with some exciting new features:

New GUI Look

NEXUS3 has a completely new vector-based resizable GUI that is modern, sleek, and suitable for all screen resolutions. It is now much easier to see and access all the features of NEXUS3.

Improved Preset Librarian

The preset librarian browser has been redesigned to display more information on screen and includes a host of useful features such as new folder/category layout, larger display for more information, preset counts for folders and categories, preset search feature, and advanced filters to easily find sounds based on their character.

New "Features" Section

The Mixer from Nexus2 is now called "Features" and includes a much more detailed overview of a preset's layers and FX, allowing quick access to switch layer FX on/off and adjust layer mix settings.

Arpeggiator Overhaul

NEXUS3 incorporates an updated arpeggiator section that now offers access to adjust each layer arpeggiator separately. Arpeggiators now extend the pattern length from 32 steps to allowing for more complex and evolving sounds.

New Sequencer

A new sequencer mode has been added to the arpgeggiator, allowing multiple notes per step.

More Modulation and New Macros

Modulation has been doubled from ten to 20 slots to allow more sources to connect to more destinations. This is especially useful with the new Macro controls!

Improved Speed and Efficiency

Loading and browsing sounds has been improved, allowing much faster preset switching, especially with larger sound sources. The improved layout and design also make digging into settings much easier.

Native Instruments NKS Support

NEXUS3 supports Native Instruments' NKS, including lightguide (if your keyboard and host support it) and sound preview features. Non-NKS users can also take advantage of the sound previews within the NEXUS3 browser and hear samples of the presets when clicking on a preset before loading.

NKS preset files are scheduled to be included with a NEXUS3 update within a few weeks after the release of NEXUS3.

reFX Cloud and Online Activation

A new cloud-based manager and activator tool is available to manage your downloads and updates of NEXUS3 and expansion libraries. No need for an elicenser dongle to activate, just connect with your reFX account, download, and activate.

Welcome to reFX Cloud

Installing your reFX products is now a simple process with the reFX Cloud App.

With reFX Cloud you can easily manage all your available products, edit the content installation location, automatically download any new updates, and check the integrity of files for troubleshooting and automatic fixes.

Installing reFX Cloud

To install NEXUS3 and any expansions you need to first download and install the reFX Cloud app.

First, login with your details and visit the "Downloads" page of your account.

Download the reFX Cloud app for Mac or PC and install it to your computer.

Once installed, launch reFX Cloud and you are prompted for your reFX account details. Enter your account email and password to connect to your account.

Once you have logged in, you see the products you have available for installation:

Cl_N3

Configuring reFX Cloud Settings and Installation Paths

Before starting the installation of your content, you must first set the path where you want the large library of NEXUS3 content to be installed. This should be a location that has a suitable amount of space available for the libraries. Keep in mind that to install all available NEXUS3 libraries requires + GB of HDD space.

Open the settings menu using the "gear" icon at the top of the window:

gear

The screen flips to the settings tab:

settings

Network: You can set the appropriate speed profile for your internet connection here. Reduce it if you wish to limit the amount of bandwidth available to the reFX Cloud app. If unsure, just leave as default.

Library Folders: Set where you want the library content to be installed. This can be any available drive (including external hard drives) with enough space for the required libraries.

Options: Enable (blue toggle) and disable (gray toggle) system notifications, silent product installations (without displaying each installer), and downloading any updates automatically when launching the app.

Click the "gear" icon again to close the settings menu.

Upgrading From Nexus2 / Using Existing Library Path

If you are upgrading from NEXUS2, then the reFX Cloud app automatically detects your existing library installation and begins to verify and update your existing libraries for a smooth transition to NEXUS3.

All libraries for NEXUS2 are compatible with NEXUS3, but require some additional updates to add some extra functionality. Libraries are scanned and updated automatically.

If you are reinstalling NEXUS3 and have an existing library or had to move the library path, simply select the existing Library Folder path in the settings and allow the app to scan and verify the files.

Managing Downloads and Updates

Along the top of the reFX Cloud app are tabs to view your installed products, available updates, and queued downloads.

tabs

All: The default page. It lists all reFX products currently in your account. Left-click any icon to download and install the product. If it is installed already, you can right-click the icon and select "Verify" or "Uninstall". "Verify" checks the integrity of the file and fixes it in case issues are found. "Uninstall" deletes the product from your hard drive.

Installed: Shows all content currently installed. The right-click options "Verify" and "Uninstall" are available.

Not Installed: This tab shows any products you have in your account that are not currently installed. Left-click to install them.

Outdated: This lists all the items that have updates available. If auto-updates are enabled in preferences, then these are updated automatically. Otherwise, you can manually choose to update each item by left-clicking it.

Queued: This shows the currently queued files and updates to be downloaded with the ability to cancel any update.

Verifying Files

It is possible to verify the integrity of files by right-clicking any installed item in the reFX Cloud app and choosing "Verify". This scans and fixes the files if issues are found.

Batch Actions

If you wish to apply an action to all items at once, locate the 3-dot menu at the top of the section you are viewing and left-click it.

3-dot

You can download, update, verify, or uninstall all items in that section with a single mouse click.

Delete / Uninstall Products

If you need to uninstall any products, just right-click on the product in the reFX Cloud app and choose "Uninstall". The files are removed from your computer and from the NEXUS3 library. The removed items are then listed under "Not Installed" for easy reinstallation.

Search Bar

If you would like to check if a specific expansion is installed, use the search bar at the top of the reFX Cloud app.

The name of the expansion does not need to begin with the search term. For instance, searching for "bass" returns the expansions "Bass" as well as "Drum and Bass" and "Future Bass".

search

Activating NEXUS3

The first time you load NEXUS3 in your DAW, you are asked for your login credentials to activate NEXUS3. Use the same email address and password you use for reFX Cloud or to log in on arenaqq.us

To deactivate NEXUS3, simply load the plug-in in your DAW, click on the 3-dot menu next to your avatar in the top right corner, and select 'sign out'.

You may have NEXUS3 activated on a maximum of three computers at any time.

You can use NEXUS3 while you are offline but you need to have the plug-in connect to the internet at least once every 30 days to keep the authorization active.

Interface Overview

The NEXUS3 interface has been designed with a clean, modern look which is fully scalable. You can easily resize the interface by dragging the bottom right out.

The main interface is divided up into five main sections:

main_top

Top Section: The top of the interface shows the currently loaded preset along with the extended preset information, volume, and level meter. A "Favorite" marker (a heart symbol) is also available to mark a selected preset as a favorite for quick recall.

main_tab

Tab Windows: Below the top section are tabs that select the different editor windows for NEXUS3 for the Librarian, Arp, Trancegate, Modulation, Effects, Features and System.

Main Section: The Librarian and tabbed windows are in the center. What is displayed in this section depends on which tabbed window is selected.

Global FX / Modulation: The control panels on the left and right of the screen are global filter and effects controls that apply to the overall sound and can be accessed throughout the instrument.

Macros and Keyboard: At the bottom of the window are the macro controls, mod / pitch wheel controls, and the virtual keyboard that can be used to play a preset with the mouse. The virtual keyboard also visualises incoming MIDI data.

Preset Librarian

The Librarian is the heart of NEXUS3 and has a host of useful features to help you find the sounds you need fast.

N3_librarian

New in NEXUS3

  • New window layout introduces "Category" browser section.
  • File counts displayed for all folders and categories.
  • Easy access to search and filter features.
  • New "Favorites" system replaces rating system.
  • New "Bookmark" feature allows building of custom preset collections.
  • Filter search results based on character of sound ("tags").

Librarian Layout

There are three main sections to the librarian preset browser:

FOLDERS: Shows you the preset folders (expansions) that you have installed along with the total preset count of each folder. Selecting one of these folders narrows your selection to that folder.

CATEGORIES: Displays the sound categories available for the selected folder/s along with the total number of presets available.

PRESETS: Lists the available presets for the selection you have made. Presets display an abbreviated category stamp so you can instantly see what kind of sound it is even when you are not using any category filter.

TIP:

  • You can select multiple folders and categories by holding CTRL(PC) / CMD(MAC) and left-clicking.
  • You can select a range of folders by selecting the first entry and holding SHIFT then selecting the last.

Favorite Presets

NEXUS3 replaces the previous star rating system of NEXUS2 with a simple "favorites" system which improves efficiency when marking sounds for later consideration.

main_favorite

To mark a sound as a favorite simply click the "Heart" icon to the right of a preset name in the list or within the info header. Presets then appear with a favorite mark in the preset list, allowing you to use the filter controls to switch to only showing your favorite sounds.

Search For a Preset

In addition to selecting folders and categories, you can use the search box to search for presets based on the preset name. You can use wildcards ("*") to search for just a part of a name.

main_search

TIP:

  • In a list of search results, you can right-click a preset and choose "Select folder" to select the expansion folder the preset belongs to.

Filtering Results

A new filter feature allows you to filter sounds based on their character. It can filter to include or exclude the selected characteristic/s by clicking the buttons. Click once to select an attribute to filter by (the box gets highlighted), click again to exclude an attribute (the highlighted field turns red and the letters change from dark gray to white).

Sounds are characterised with the following descriptive tags if they are applicable to the sound:

  • Dirty: A type of sound that contains distortion or a gritty unclean sound.

  • Spikey: Applies to sounds that have a fast attack and an initial loud spike.

  • Bright: Sounds that are clear and "bright" and designed for mid to high registers.

  • Moving: Sounds that have movement, such as panning or LFO based modulation.

  • Simple: Sounds that have a simple waveform, limited layers and effects.

main_tags

Results can also be narrowed down to your favorite results by activating the "Favorites" filter at the far left.

For illustration, in the example above, the search results in all "bright" sounds that do not have the tags "dark" or "active".

The 3-dot menu at the far right offers the following four options:

  • reset filters: You can clear all search filters with one mouse-click.

  • reset font-size: You can reset the font-size to default settings.

  • set as default font-size: Set the current font-size as the new default size.

  • sort by name: When enabled, the presets are listed in alphabetical order of the preset names, ignoring the category. When disabled, the presets are sorted by category in alphabetical order.

Saving Presets

You can save any preset as your own version to be recalled at any time. Simply load a preset and adjust it as you wish. In the top info bar, press the 3-dot button and select "save preset".

main_save_preset

The preset is saved to the "User presets" folder in the browser (at the bottom of the folder list). It retains the category filter.

You can rename/delete a saved preset by selecting the foler "User presets" folder, right-clicking on the preset, and selecting the desired option.

Bookmark Presets

A new "Bookmark" feature has been added in NEXUS3 which allows you to create your own custom folders and add presets of your choosing. This is a great way to build collections of your favorite types of sounds or for specific projects.

Creating a Bookmark Folder

Bookmark folders are simply a custom created folder where you can then add your selected presets.

In the "Folders" list, right-click and select "Create new bookmark folder". Bookmark folders are added at the end of the folder list. You can assign a name when creating the folder.

main_new_folder

To rename or delete an existing bookmark folder, right-click the folder and choose rename / delete.

Adding Presets to Bookmark Folders

Simply drag a preset to the bookmark folder you wish to add it to. The destination folder is highlighted for easy use. If you haven't created any bookmark folders, a new folder is created.

Alternatively, right-click the preset you want to add to a bookmark folder and choose "Add to bookmarks >" and select which bookmark folder to add it to. You must have created at least one bookmark folder before the option becomes available.

Bookmarking a preset creates a shortcut to the sound and does not actually move the sound from its original location.

You can remove a preset from a bookmark folder by selecting the folder, right-clicking the preset, and selecting "Remove from bookmarks".

Main Controls

The main controls on the left and right of NEXUS3 offer "global modifier" controls that can be used to "override" a presets main sound characteristics. These controls are always displayed, no matter which page of NEXUS3 you are on.

Main controls apply "modifiers" to presets and affect all layers. By default, modifiers are at a 12'oclock setting. They can be adjusted up or down to affect the preset's settings. This means that if a layer has a low-pass filter set, then increasing the global filter does not increase past the point at which the layer's filter is set, but can decrease it further. This is used as a simple way to affect the sound without overriding the way in which it was designed to work.

Regardless of what you are doing with NEXUS3, here are a handful of interface tips that make your life easier:

TIPS:

  • To reset a control to its default value, double-click it.
  • To make fine adjustments, hold down the "Shift" key while dragging the control or use the right mouse button to initiate the adjustment.
  • Numeric values can be changed by dragging them vertically as if they were faders, or by double-clicking on them, then typing in a value and pressing "Return".
  • You can disable effects and filters globally while browsing presets by clicking the 3-dot button to the right of an effects label.

Main Controls: Modifiers

Each layer in NEXUS3 has its own independent filter and amp controls to affect the sound of that specific layer. The main modifier controls offer a global way to adjust all layer controls in parallel.

Filter Modifier

The filter modifier adjusts the filter and envelope for each layer globally.

The filter modifier settings are stored with the preset. To prevent settings from being loaded with the preset, click on the context menu option to the right of the filter mod label and select "locked". You can completely disable the filter mod by selecting "global off".

filter_mod

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: Enable / disable the delay effect.

  • 3-dot menu: Context menu options; "locked" and "global off".

  • vel: You can adjust the amount of modifier based on key velocity.

  • env: Set the amount of filter envelope modulation applied to the cutoff frequency. At the far left position, filter envelope modulation is disabled, and the following controls (attack, decay, sustain, release) have no effect.

  • cutoff: Adjust the filter cutoff of each layer's filter stage.

  • res: Adjust how much the frequencies around the cutoff are boosted. Especially with a high slope setting, high values can result in an intense "whistling" or "ringing" sound.

  • atk: You can modify the attack time of each layer's filter envelope. Move to the right to increase the attack time and left to decrease it.

  • dec: Modify the decay time of each layer's filter envelope. Move to the right to increase the decay time, move left to decrease it.

  • sus: Modify the sustain level of each layer's filter envelope. Move to the right to increase the sustain level, move left to decrease it.

  • rel: Modify the release time of each layer's filter envelope. Move to the right to increase the release time and left to decrease it.

Amp Modifier

The amp modifier adjusts panning and basic amp volume envelope settings that affect the volume characteristics of the sound.

The amp modifier settings are stored with the preset. To prevent settings from being loaded with the preset, click on the context menu option to the right of the amp mod label and select "locked". You can completely disable the amp mod by selecting "global off".

amp_mod

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: Enable / disable the delay effect.

  • 3-dot menu: Context menu options; "locked" and "global off".

  • drive: Increase the amp drive and distortion, making the sound much more powerful/harsher.

  • pan: Set the panning of the sound to play more from left or right channels.

  • spike: Increase the initial volume of the attack of a sound to produce an audible "spike" at the start of the sound. Good for use on hits.

  • spread: You can switch the pan position from one note to the next. Turn the dial to the right to increase the width of the alternating panning. If spread has been programmed into the sound, move the dial to the left to decrease the width.

  • atk: Adjust the speed at which the attack (initial hit) of the sound occurs. Turn to the left to make the sound immediately louder when played, turn to the right to increase the fade-in time of the sound.

  • dec: Adjust the speed at which the sound moves from the attack level to the sustain level (level at which the sound rests while the note is held). Whether the sound increases or decreases as the key is held depends on the setting of the sustain control.

  • sus: Set the level at which the sound rests while the note is held. Increase to the right to have the sound rest at its max level, decrease to the left to have the sound rest at a lower level. The decay control adjusts the transition speed from attack to sustain level.

  • rel: You can adjust the speed at which the sound releases (fades out).

Main Controls: Effects

NEXUS3 contains two commonly used and high quality Reverb and Delay effects modules that are simple to use and offer high quality processing to the sound.

Delay

The Front Panel Delay has multiple modes for different types of delay, and offers modulation and filtering for adding movement and vibe to the repeats.

Front Panel Delay settings are stored with the preset. To prevent delay settings from being loaded with the preset, click on the context menu option to the right of the delay label and select "locked". You can completely disable the delay by selecting "global off".

Note:

If the Front Panel Delay is activated, all layer delays are deactivated. Front Panel Delay and layer delays cannot be used simultaneously.

delay

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: Enable / disable the delay effect.

  • 3-dot menu: Context menu options; "locked" and "global off".

  • drop-down menu: You can set the delay type to one of the following four different modes.

    • mono: A simple mono delay which mixes left and right together.
    • stereo: A simple stereo delay. Both channels are processed independently.
    • cross: Left and right channels are swapped at each repeat. This type is most useful for presets which produce audibly different output in the left and right channels.
    • pingpong: The repeats alternate between the left and right channels. This type produces the widest and most obvious stereo effect.
  • mix: You can adjust how much of the delay effect to mix with the original sound. Adjust to the right to increase the delay mix, adjust to the left to decrease.

  • time: You can adjust the amount of time between the repeats. Times are automatically synchronized to your host application, and range from 1/32 notes to dotted whole notes. As you adjust the delay time, watch the Data Area in the display to see the exact value:

    • Standard durations are notated as simple fraction (1/8).
    • Triplet durations include a "T" after the fraction (1/8T).
    • Dotted durations include a "D" after the fraction (1/8D).
  • f-back: Adjust the feedback amount. In practice, this determines the number of repeats before the delay fades to silence.

  • mod: Adjust the amount that the delay time is modulated by the delay's built-in LFO. As the delay time is modulated, the pitch of the repeats changes. Use low values for subtle warmth and high values for vibrato and chorus-type effects.

  • lo-cut: The cutoff frequency of a high-pass filter that processes the repeats. When set to a position other than the default (far left), each repeat gets progressively thinner as the signal is repeatedly passed through the filter.

  • hi-cut: The cutoff frequency of a low-pass filter that processes the repeats. When set to a position other than the default (far right), each repeat gets progressively darker (similar to an analog or tape delay) as the signal is repeatedly passed through the filter.

Reverb

NEXUS3 includes seven high-end reverb effects, three of which are licensed from Arts Acoustic. They are unsurpassed in the world of virtual instruments - you cannot find a better quality built-in reverb anywhere.

The Front Panel Reverb processes the signal after the Front Panel Delay. It features all seven reverb types, and is highly customizable with a simple set of controls.

Front Panel Reverb settings are stored with the preset. To prevent reverb settings from being loaded with the preset, click on the context menu option to the right of the reverb label and select "locked". You can completely disable the reverb by selecting "global off".

Note:

If the Front Panel Reverb is activated, all layer reverbs are deactivated. Front Panel Reverb and layer reverb cannot be used simultaneously.

reverb

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: Enable / disable the reverb effect.

  • 3-dot menu: Context menu options; "locked" and "global off".

  • drop-down menu: Select one of seven reverb types. room, hall, and arena may be familiar to you from NEXUS2. nuclear, solar, nova, and space are new reverb types introduced in NEXUS3.

  • mix: Adjust how much of the reverb effect to mix with the original sound. Adjust to the right to increase the reverb mix, adjust to the left to decrease.

  • pre-dly: Adjust the amount of time before the reverb signal is heard. Longer pre-delay settings create the perception of a larger space and can help preserve the clarity of the original signal when long decay times are used.

  • dec: Adjusts the reverb's decay (how long it takes for the reverb tail to fade to silence).

  • mod: Adjust how much the reverb time is modulated by a built-in LFO. Modulation introduces subtle pitch changes, creating additional movement and depth.

  • lo-cut: You can remove low frequencies from the reverb tail. As the dial is turned clockwise from its default position (at the far left), it raises the cutoff frequency of a high-pass filter that processes the reverb signal.

  • hi-cut: You can removes high frequencies from the reverb tail. As the dial is turned counterclockwise from its default position (at the far right), it lowers the cutoff frequency of a low-pass filter that processes the reverb signal.

Main Controls: Main Filter

The Main Filter processes the signal before it enters into the EQ, reverb, and delay effects, so high frequency tails can still be processed when a filter sweep is performed.

This filter is useful for shaping of the overall sound, and for automating filter sweeps. It is completely independent of the Filter Modifier section, and very easy to use. If you are looking for the quickest way to apply a filter tweak to a NEXUS3 preset, the Main Filter is a great place to begin.

main_filter

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: Enable / disable the reverb effect.

  • 3-dot menu: Context menu options; "locked" and "global off".

  • drop-down menu: The Main Filter can be set to one of four different filter types using the selector. Note that each filter type has three different slope settings to set the level of filter applied (6 / 12 / 24).

    • LP (low-pass): Frequencies above the cutoff frequency are attenuated.
    • HP (high-pass): Frequencies below the cutoff frequency are attenuated.
    • BP (band-pass): Frequencies above and below the cutoff frequency are attenuated.
    • NTCH (notch): The cutoff frequency and the frequencies immediately around it are attenuated.
  • cutoff: You can set the filter's cutoff (the frequency at which it begins to attenuate frequencies).

  • res: You can adjust how much the frequencies around the cutoff are boosted. Especially with a high Slope setting, high values can result in an intense "whistling" or "ringing" sound.

Main Controls: Macros

NEXUS3 includes four quick access macro controls that can be mapped to parameters within NEXUS3 using the Modulation Matrix section.

main_macros

This allows a Macro control to be used as a quick access or "limited range" control based on the matrix setting and the original parameters set position. This can be useful to limit an envelope or filter sweep to a very specific range.

Mapping Macros

To map a macro control to a function open the Modulation tab.

mod_macro

  1. In "MOD-MATRIX" on the right-hand side, select the macro control (mcr1-mcr4) and ensure the active button is ON.

  2. Select the desired destination parameter.

  3. Set the modulation amount that increases / decreases the destination parameter.

Note:

The modulation amount allows the macro control to increase or decrease the destination parameter by a set amount from the destination's current setting. This means you can set it to affect a parameter in either a positive way (increase parameter) or negative way (decrease parameter).

If you wish to apply a full range of control for the macro, you should set the destination control to zero (or the lowest point you want the destination to reach), then increase the bias to +

An orange activity indicator shows the macro effect on a control when used.

Arpeggiator (arp)

NEXUS3 incorporates an improved and sophisticated arpeggiator section that provides melodic patterns from sustained notes. You can create patterns from scratch or load one of the many Arpeggiator presets and adjust it to your taste.

New In Nexus3

  • Main Arp increased from 32 steps to step length.
  • New tools (pencil, paint, select, eraser) for editing notes
  • Access to each layer's arp with full adjustment of each layer.
  • New "Sequence" mode allows multiple note sequences.

Layer vs Main Arpeggiator

Layer Arpeggiators

Each layer in a preset sound can have a separate arpeggiator enabled and NEXUS3 now offers user access to each layer's arpeggiator for manipulation. You see tabbed buttons at the top of the arp window for each available layer along with "main". Each layer's arpeggiator is completely separate but they all play together when the sound is played.

Main Arpeggiator

The main arpeggiator applies to the whole preset (all layers). When enabled, it overrides all layer arps and changes their settings to "disabled".

All arpeggiator features are the same for all layers.

Arpeggiator Options

arp

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: To enable the arp for a layer, activate the toggle above the "mode" setting. Enabling the main arp causes all layer arps to become disabled.

  • mode: The Mode determines the order in which sustained notes are played. In the menu, select one of the following options:

    • up: Notes are played from lowest to highest.
    • down: Notes are played from highest to lowest.
    • alter: Notes are played from lowest to highest, and then from highest to lowest.
    • order: Notes are played in the same order they are triggered via MIDI.
    • random: Notes are randomly selected from the notes being sustained.
    • poly (polyphonic): All notes are played simultaneously in a rhythmic pattern. Strictly speaking, this mode does not generate arpeggios - it is useful for playing chords in a repeating rhythm.
    • seq (sequence): New sequencer mode allows patterns to be created with multiple notes per step. This allows chords and drum patterns to be easily created.
  • octaves: The number of octaves over which the arpeggio is transposed. The transposition occurs after each full iteration of the arpeggiator pattern. For example, if mode is set to "up" and octaves is set to 2, the arpeggiator plays all sustained notes from lowest to highest, then repeats them again one octave up.

  • speed: The rate at which notes are played. The arpeggiator's speed is synchronized to the host tempo, and is set in standard note durations, ranging from 64th notes (1/64) to dotted whole notes (1/1D).

  • gate: The duration of notes generated by the arpeggiator. At 0, each note is a short blip, while at each note sustains until the next one plays. When legato portamento is enabled (see port-mode), note glides are only triggered within an arpeggio when gate is set to and notes in the pattern editor are contiguous.

  • length: The length of the arpeggio pattern. For basic arpeggiator use, this setting can be left at its default value of Patterns can be increased up to steps. Patterns can be programmed using the pattern editor section of the arpeggiator which is simple to use.

  • filter: Filters incoming notes before they are passed to the arpeggiator. This feature forces the arpeggiator to play a pattern based on single-note input, even if a chord is being played. Select one of the following modes to enable filtering:

    • first: Only the first note played is passed to the arpeggiator.
    • last: Only the last note played is passed to the arpeggiator.
    • lowest: Only the lowest note played is passed to the arpeggiator.
    • highest: Only the highest note played is passed to the arpeggiator.
    • fixed (c0-c4): The note C is passed to the arpeggiator regardless of the notes played. Use the transpose function of the pattern editor to alter this fixed pitch.
  • strum: Strum can be used when using "poly" mode to create a staggered playback when multiple notes are pressed at the same time. Lower notes play first, followed by higher notes. The time between each note is adjusted by the "strum" setting.

  • shuffle: Applies 16th note shuffle (sometimes called "swing") to the arpeggiated pattern. As this value is increased, every other 16th note step (starting with the second) is delayed more.

Arpeggiator Presets

Below those options is a preset selector section where you can select from dozens of factory arpeggiator patterns. Use your mouse or the arrow keys to step through and try different presets.

Arpeggiator Pattern Editor

The arpeggiator pattern editor enables the customization of arpeggiator patterns. You can extend, remove, transpose notes, and alter their velocity. This feature can create subtle variations or be used as a powerful built-in step sequencer to create new melodies.

The editor section is divided into columns for each step, and rows for each octave.

Editing Tools

Pencil: The pencil tool can be selected from the toolbar or by pressing "1" on the keyboard. Left-clicking the pencil tool in an empty area creates new notes one at a time. Left-clicking in an empty area and dragging creates a new note and allows it to be moved. Click and dragging on an existing note allows it to be re-sized or moved.

Paint: The paint tool can be selected from the toolbar or by pressing "2" on the keyboard. Left-clicking and dragging the paint tool will create a series of notes al with the same pitch. Holding down shift allows notes of different pitches to be created. Like the pencil tool, the paint tool can move and re-size notes.

Select: The select tool can be selected from the toolbar or by pressing "3" on the keyboard. Left-clicking and dragging will select all notes in the marquee rectangle. Holding shift will add the newly selected notes to the already selected notes. Like the pencil tool, the select tool can move and re-size notes.

Eraser: The eraser tool can be selected from the toolbar or by pressing "4" on the keyboard. Left clicking any note will erase it.

All Tools: With all tools, holding CTRL (PC) / CMD (MAC) and left draging will select notes. Right-clicking in an empty area will clear the selection. Right-click on any notes will erase them.

Editing Notes

Add Note: While using the pncil or paint tool, left-click on the cell where you wish to place a note. If a note exists in that column (step), it moves to where you clicked (unless sequence mode is set).

Remove Note: With the eraser tool, left-click and note to remove it. With any other tool right-click on a note to remove it. Or, notes can be selected with select tool and then deleted by pressing the delete key.

Transpose Note: Select a note using left-click. Use the Up / Down arrow keys to move an octave at a time or drag the note using the mouse to move by semitone. When notes are set by semitone, you see a number on the note indicating + or - how many semitones it is from the closest octave.

Stretch Note: You can stretch a note over multiple steps to create a sustain. First, you need to remove any notes in the adjacent step/s, then position the mouse at the side edge of the note until you see a resize icon. Click and drag the edge of the note to the desired step. Notes do not drag past a step that already contains a note (unless in sequence mode).

Move notes: You can move notes by selecting and dragging them. Or you can select notes and then use shift + mouse wheel to move the notes forward and backwards.

Importing MIDI: Existing MIDI sequences can be imported by dragging the MIDI file from Windows Explorer / macOS Finder and dropping the MIDI file onto the pattern (sequencer only)

Note Velocity

Below each note at the bottom of the pattern editor is the note velocity setting. This sets the velocity (volume) of each note. Click in any spot of the velocity section to set the velocity to that point or click and drag up / down to adjust the notes velocity. Velocity can also be edited by holding "Alt" and using the scroll wheel.

Zoom / Scroll Pattern

To zoom in on a pattern horizontally hold CTRL (PC) / CMD (MAC) and use the mouse wheel to zoom in / out. To zoom vertically, hold SHIFT + CTRL (PC) / CMD (MAC) and use the mouse wheel to zoom. Press the "Zoom" button in the top right of the pattern editor to return the zoom view to the full pattern view. Pressing "G" & "H" will zoom in and out horizontally, while SHIFT + "G" & "H" will zoom vertically.

The pattern can be scrolled by using the horizontal and vertical scroll wheels or by pressing "S" and then left-clicking and dragging the pattern into position.

Loop Region

It is possible to create an arp pattern that has a lead-in section (only plays a single time) and a loop section (loops while the note is sustained). This can be handy to create buildups and fade ins.

arp_loop

Above the note editor is the pattern timeline where you find a position head (right facing triangle icon). This sets the start of a loop where the pattern returns to when the end of the pattern is reached. Drag this with the mouse left or right to position the loop marker. The loop is set from this point to the end of the pattern.

Keyboard Shortcuts

  • Shift + Up: Move selected notes up octave
  • Shift + Down: Move selected notes down octave
  • Up: Move selected notes up semitone
  • Down: Move selected notes down semitone
  • Left: Move selected notes one beat left
  • Right: Move selected notes one beat right
  • H: Zoom in
  • G: Zoom out
  • Shift + H: Zoom in vertical
  • Shift + G: Zoom out vertical
  • Ctrl + Z: Undo
  • Ctrl + Y: Redo (PC)
  • Command + Shift + Z: Redo (MAC)
  • Ctrl + D: Duplicate selected notes
  • Delete: Delete selected notes
  • Backspace: Delete selected notes
  • Ctrl + A: Select all notes
  • Ctrl + Shift + A: Deselect all notes
  • Ctrl + I: Invert note selection
  • Q: Quantize note positions
  • 1: Select pencil tool
  • 2: Select paint tool
  • 3: Select select tool
  • 4: Select eraser tool
  • S + mouse drag: Scroll pattern area

Note: On macOS, use Command key instead of Control key.

TIPS:

  • You can select multiple notes by using the select tool and holding SHIFT and clicking notes.
  • You can select a range of notes by holding CTRL (PC) / CMD (MAC) with and tool and click-dragging over a note selection with the mouse.
  • When multiple notes are selected, you can transpose / resize all at once.

New Mode: Sequencer

Setting the arp mode to "seq" opens the brand-new sequencer editor, allowing you to create complex patterns, such as chords. In sequencer mode, you can set multiple notes per step and edit the starting point of each note.

sequencer

For easy editing, zoom in and out on the x-axis using crtl + mousewheel, or crtl + shift + mousewheel to zoom in and out on the y-axis. Click the "zoom" button in the top right to reset the view.

Trance Gate

NEXUS3 features a powerful sequenced audio gate which is useful for turning sustained notes into rhythmic patterns. Unlike the arpeggiator, which generates patterns of MIDI notes, the Trance Gate works by rhythmically lowering and raising the volume of the audio signal.

Layer vs Main Trance Gate

Layer Trance Gate

Each layer in a preset sound can have a separate trance gate enabled and NEXUS3 now offers user access to each layer's trance gate for manipulation. You see tabbed buttons at the top of the trance gate window for each available layer along with "main". Each layer's trance gate can be edited separately but all layers play together when the sound is played.

Main Trance Gate

The main trance gate applies to the whole preset (all layers). When enabled, it overrides and, thus, disables all layer trance gates.

All trance gate features are the same for all layers.

Trance Gate Options

trancegate

The controls explained, from the top left to the bottom right:

  • on/off toggle: To enable the trance gate for a layer, activate the toggle above to the "mode" setting. Enabling the main trance gate disables all layer trance gates.

  • mode: In "mono" mode, the left and right channels are gated simultaneously. In "stereo" mode, there are independant gates for the left and right channels.

  • speed: The rate at which the trance gate pattern plays. Speed is synchronized to the host tempo, and can be adjusted from 64th notes (1/16) to dotted whole notes (1/1D).

  • length: The number of steps in the trance gate pattern. Adjustable from a minimum of two steps up to a maximum of 32 steps.

  • mix: Adjusts the level of the gated signal. At , the signal is muted when the gate is active. As the value is decreased, the effect of the trance gate becomes more subtle - the volume of the signal is reduced instead of muted. At zero, no effect is heard.

  • width: The stereo width of the trance gate ("stereo" mode only - in "mono" mode, this parameter has no effect). As the value is decreased from , the stereo effect becomes more subtle until zero is reached, at which point the gate functions in mono.

  • contour: The gate's fade time. As the value is decreased, the gating effect becomes less choppy as the fade time in and out of every gated step is increased. At the lowest values, the trance gate produces effects less like gating and more like tremolo.

  • delay: The amount of time that elapses between a note being played and the trance gate becoming active. Delay is synchronized to the host tempo, and can be adjusted from 16th notes (1/16) to four bars (4/1).

  • fade-in: The amount of time that elapses between a note being played and the trance gate's mix value reaching its specified value. When a "fade-in" value is specified, the mix value starts at zero when a note is played, then fades up to its programmed value over the length of time specified in the "fade-in" menu. "fade-in" is synchronized to the host tempo, and can be adjusted from 16th notes (1/16) to four bars (4/1).

  • shuffle: Applies 16th note shuffle (sometimes called "swing") to the trance gate pattern. As this value is increased, every other 16th note step (starting with the second) is delayed more.

Trance Gate Presets

Below those options is a preset selector section where you can select from dozens of factory trance gate patterns. Select a preset with your mouse or use the arrow keys to try different presets.

Trance Gate Pattern Editor

The trance gate pattern editor is divided into steps based on the length setting. A step is either "on: white" (allowing sound to pass) or "off: dark" (blocking or lowering the sound depending on the mix setting).

Editing Steps

Clicking on a step with the left mouse button toggles the step. The level of the note can be adjusted by clicking and dragging the colored bar at the top / bottom of each step.

When mode is set to "stereo", a thin line runs horizontally across the center of the pattern rditor, dividing it into two channels (shown above). The left channel runs along the top and the right channel runs along the bottom.

Loop Region

It is possible to create a Trance Gate pattern that has a lead-in section (only plays a single time) and a loop section (loops while the note is sustained). This can be handy to create buildups and fade ins.

trancegate_loop

Above the step editor is the pattern timeline where you find a position head (right facing triangle icon). This sets the start of a loop where the pattern returns to when the end of the pattern is reached. Drag this with the mouse left or right to position the loop marker. The loop is set from this point to the end of the pattern.

Modulation

The modulation section allows routing of macros, hardware controls, and LFOs to parameters within NEXUS3.

Vibrato

NEXUS3 has a few simple settings that allow you to enable vibrato (pitch modulation) for any sound.

mod_vibrato

  • source: The vibrato's depth is controlled by the modulation wheel, aftertouch, or both. If no vibrato "source" is selected, no vibrato is heard. Choose one of the following options:

    • modwheel: Modulation wheel messages (MIDI CC# 1) control vibrato depth.
    • aftertouch: Aftertouch controls vibrato depth.
    • mw + at: Modulation wheel and aftertouch control vibrato depth.
  • speed: Adjust the rate of the pitch modulation.

  • depth: Set the maximum amount of pitch modulation that occurs when the vibrato "source" is at its maximum.

Pitch Bend

Pitch bend range allows the bend range limits to be set for the pitch bend control of a keyboard. Unlike traditional pitch bend ranges that simply limit the up or down pitch ranges, NEXUS3 allows a positive or negative range to be applied to either direction of the pitch bend control. This makes it possible, for instance, to invert the pitch bend control or even cause an upward movement to do a fine bend down while a downward movement can do a course bend down.

mod_pitchbend

  • rng max: Range Max. Sets the range in semitones of pitch bend up. A positive value causes the note to bend up when the wheel is moved upward (normal) while a negative value causes a pitch bend down when the wheel is moved up (inverted).

  • rng min: Range Min. Sets the range in semitones of pitch bend down. A negative value causes the note to bend down when the wheel is moved downward (normal) while a positive value causes a pitch bend up when the wheel is moved down (inverted).

  • speed: The amount of smoothing that is applied to coarse pitch bend data (sent by certain controllers). At zero (the default), maximum smoothing is applied. This works well for most cases. As the value is increased, less smoothing is applied. At , the pitch bend data from the controller is used as-is, without any smoothing.

Portamento

When portamento (sometimes called "glide") is enabled, the pitch of each note slides into the next.

mod_portamento

  • mode: To enable portamento, select one of the three portamento modes. Select "off" to disable portamento.

    • ply: Polyphonic portamento.

    • trg: Monophonic portamento. Pitch glide only occurs for overlapping notes. Envelopes are re-triggered for each note that is played.

    • lgt: Legato monophonic portamento. Pitch glide only occurs for overlapping notes. Envelopes are not re-triggered for overlapping notes. This is the mode to use for classic monosynth glide.

  • speed: The length of time it takes for one note to glide into the next when portamento is enabled. Portamento speed can be synchronized to the host tempo, from 64th notes (1/16) to dotted whole notes (1/1D), or set to instant which provides the fastest pitch glides regardless of tempo.

Misc

mod_misc

  • voices: You can set how many synth voices are played back through the sound engine ( max). The more voices, the more notes can be sustained at once but more CPU is required.

  • vel-vol: Velocity - Volume. Much like the "Modifier" dials on the front panel, this parameter makes relative changes to a preset's programmed settings. At zero, the preset plays exactly as programmed. When moved to the right (positive values) the sound's volume becomes increasingly sensitive to velocity. When moved to the left (negative values), the relationship of velocity to volume is inverted, with lower velocity notes becoming louder than high velocity notes.

User LFOs

NEXUS3 has two assignable LFOs: "User LFO1" and "User LFO2". The LFOs are assigned to destinations using the Modulation Matrix.

mod_user_lfo

  • mode: This setting determines whether or not the LFO is synchronized to the host tempo, and if it is re-triggered.

    • free: The LFO speed is not synchronized to the host tempo.

    • syn (Sync): The LFO speed is synchronized to the host tempo.

    • syTr (Sync Re-trigger): The LFO speed is synchronized to the host tempo. The LFO is restarted whenever a new note is played.

  • shape: Sets the waveform of the LFO to one of the following shapes.

    • sine: Sine wave.

    • triangle: Triangle wave.

    • sawtooth: Sawtooth (falling) wave.

    • ramp: A ramp (rising) wave.

    • square: Square wave.

    • chaos: A random value is generated every cycle (sometimes called sample and hold).

  • speed: Sets the speed of the LFO. In "free" mode, the speed is represented as a numeral between 0 and In either of the synced modes, speed is set to a note duration ranging from 16th note (1/16) to four bars (4/1).

  • granular: You can lower the resolution of the LFO's waveform to make it more coarse. This "granularity" adds an interesting twist to typically smooth LFO modulations, such as sine and triangle. At higher values, the modulated parameter audibly jumps from one value to the next instead of shifting continuously.

Key Zones

This allows you to set the active key range/s of the instrument/s in the preset.

mod_key

SINGLE ZONE presets have a single key zone which normally takes up the entire keyboard range. However, the bottom and top shelves can be adjusted to limit the range of the presets. This can be useful to layer with other instruments.

mod_key_multi

MULTI ZONE presets have multiple key zones for different instruments. They are split over the range of the keyboard. You can adjust each zone individually and even overlap the ranges.

Keyzone ranges are reflected by the led indicators above the keyboard in NEXUS3. For NKS attached keyboards that have lightguide, this is also reflected by the LEDs on the physical keyboard.

You can turn individual key zones on and off using the toggle on the left-hand side.

Mod Matrix

The modulation matrix includes 20 modulation slots to connect source inputs to destination parameters. This allows functions in NEXUS3 to be connected to pitch/mod wheel, CC control, aftertouch, LFO and macro control inputs.

mod_matrix

  • on/off toggle: Toggles the individual modulation slots on and off.

  • source: Set the source input for the modulation, such as MIDI control message, host automation, Macro control, or LFO.

  • amount: A bipolar value indicating how much modulation should be applied to the modulation destination.

  • destination: A NEXUS3 parameter, such as filter cutoff, oscillator pitch, or reverb decay.

NOTE: Modulated parameters display an orange ring around the control to indicate the level/range of modulation being applied to the parameter.

Mod Sources

Available modulation sources are: Modwheel (mw+/ -mw), Aftertouch (at+/ -at), Pitch Bend (pb), Midi CC (cc), Host-Automation (au), the two LFOs (LFO) and the four Macro Controls (mcr).

SourceDescription
""No source selected
mw+Mod-Wheel
-mwInverted Mod-Wheel
at+Aftertouch
-atInverted Aftertouch
pbPitch Bend
cc16MIDI CC #16
cc17MIDI CC #17
cc18MIDI CC #18
cc19MIDI CC #19
cc20MIDI CC #20
cc21MIDI CC #21
cc22MIDI CC #22
cc23MIDI CC #23
au1Host Automation Source 1
au2Host Automation Source 1
au3Host Automation Source 1
au4Host Automation Source 1
au5Host Automation Source 1
au6Host Automation Source 1
au7Host Automation Source 1
au8Host Automation Source 1
LFO1User LFO 1
LFO2User LFO 2
mcr1Macro Control 1
mcr2Macro Control 2
mcr3Macro Control 3
mcr4Macro Control 4

Effects

The Effects section in NEXUS3 is a powerful and easy to navigate FX chain that allows quick and easy adjustment of a loaded sound in a single editor window. The Effects section has been vastly improved from NEXUS2 and introduces a whole new display mode for editing effects.

effects

New in NEXUS3

  • Effects chain has been simplified with four insert effects.

  • Visual effects allow graphical editing and feedback of effects.

  • Visual effects for front panel filter, delay, and reverb effects in the chain.

  • Single screen editor shows more detailed information and is easier to navigate.

  • Signal meters show audio signal level present at each effects stage.

Effects are applied in series, in the order displayed on screen:

effects_bar

The audio signal flows from left to right through each effect. Clicking an effect block bypasses the effect (turning it grey). Below each effect is a signal meter to show signal activity in the chain.

Effect Editor

Each effect has a graphical editor that appears in the edit window when the effect is enabled in the chain. Effects appear in order of processing from input (top) to output (bottom).

insert1

Each effect has a set of dedicated parameters and options on the left and a graphical overview of the effect on the right.

As parameters are adjusted, the graphical overview is affected accordingly.

Effects such as EQ and Impulse allow adjustment of the effects parameters using handles on the graphical overview:

eq1

Insert Effects

There are four custom insert FX slots that are identical in operation but provided at different ends of the audio chain. There are 14 different types of insert effects that can be selected.

Inserts 1 and 2 are at the start of the effects chain and process the signal before any additional effects. This means that all filters and effects after these inserts affect the whole signal. Insert 1 feeds into Insert 2.

Inserts 3 and 4 are at the end of the effects chain and applied to the signal after all other effects. These insert effects are only affected by the limiter. Insert 3 feeds into Insert 4.

Insert Effects Types

There are 14 different effects that can be selected for the insert effects devices. Use the dropdown menu to select one of the following effects.

Chorus

Adds thickness and width to the sound by adding very short time-modulated delays.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • time: Set the offset time for the chorus effect.

  • speed: Set the speed of the effect.

  • depth: Adjust how deep the sound is affected.

  • width: Adjust the stereo spread amount of the chorus delay.

Flanger

Similar to Chorus, but a portion of the delayed signal is mixed back into the input, creating complex resonance.

  • dry: You can adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • time: Set the offset time for the flanger effect which delays the effect.

  • speed: Set the speed of the flanger effect.

  • depth: Adjust how deep the sound is affected.

  • feedback: Adjust the amount of output signal that is fed back to the input to drive the flanger.

Phaser

Creates sweeping phase cancellation effects with LFO-modulated notch filters.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • speed: Set the speed of the phaser effect.

  • depth: Adjust how deep the sound is affected.

  • feedback: Adjust the amount of output signal that is fed back to the input to drive the phaser.

Ensemble

A more complex chorus effect, with a greater number of delays and more modulation.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • time: Set the offset time for the ensemble effect.

  • speed: Set the speed of the effect.

  • depth: Adjust how deep the sound is affected.

  • width: Adjust the stereo spread amount of the ensemble delay.

Degrader

A bit-depth and sample-rate reduction effect with an additional distortion option.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • bits: Set the number of bits to sample the audio. Lower bits produce a fuzzier sound. Reducing too far causes loss of sound.

  • rate: Adjust the rate at which the bits are sampled. The lower the rate, the more digital the sound.

  • dist: Add distortion and fuzz to the sound.

  • high-cut: High-cut filter to trim high frequencies.

Distortion

Creates non-linear distortion around an adjustable center frequency.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • freq: Set the center frequency of the distortion tone.

  • drive: Adjust the amount of drive for the distortion effect.

  • gain: Increase the distortion output level.

Analog Phaser (analog phsr)

A smoother-sounding, more customizable version of the phaser effect.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • pre-filter: Set a high-cut filter position. This is visualised by the filter graphic under the effect display and can also be adjusted by mouse.

  • stages: Set how many phase stages are created. More stages equal a stronger effect.

  • low-freq: Set how much of the low frequencies to affect.

  • upper-fre: Set how much of the upper frequencies to affect.

  • LFO: Set the speed of the phaser LFO.

  • feedback: Adjust how much of the output is fed back into the input.

  • phase: Adjust the phase offset which exaggerates the phase effect with a higher value.

Stereo Enhancer (st enhcr)

Widens or narrows the stereo field across an adjustable frequency range.

  • width: Increase to create a wider sound, decrease to create a narrower sound. When set to 0 there is no change to the signal.

  • gain: Adjust the output gain of the signal.

  • low-freq: Used to trim low frequencies from being affected. Increase to adjust the low frequency range.

  • high-freq: Used to trim high frequencies from being affected. Increase to adjust the high frequency range.

A visual overview of the low/high frequency trim settings is displayed in the graphical overview and can be adjusted using the mouse.

Ringmod

A modulation effect which only preserves the sum and difference of the original signal and the modulator. It produces unusual, inharmonic results.

  • depth: Adjust how deep the ring modulation affects the sound.

  • freq: Set the frequency of the ring modulation.

  • width: Increase the stereo width of the effect by offsetting the modulation waveform between left and right channels.

  • timbre: Adjust the timbre characteristic of the ring modulation. When increased, the result is a harsher sound.

Gate

Reduces the gain of any audio that falls below an adjustable threshold.

  • open: Set the level the signal must reach to open the gate and pass to the output.

  • close: Set the level the signal must fall to to close the gate and cut the signal output.

  • floor: Set the "rest" level of the signal when it is cut. This is the level of the signal when the gate is "closed". Set to 0 to have the gate shut off completely

  • attack: The speed at which the gate triggers from the incoming signal. Increase attack to cause a slower gate reaction.

  • hold: The time the gate is held open when triggered. Increase to hold signal for longer.

  • release: The speed of the gate's release when a note has been released. Increase to create a longer delay after release.

  • gain: Increase the output of the gate effect.

  • invert: Invert the operation of the gate.

Compressor

Reduces the gain of any audio that rises above an adjustable threshold.

  • threshold: Set the upper volume level where the signal is affected when it is reached.

  • attack: Set how fast the compressor acts on the signal. Increase to create a longer delay before the compressor reacts to the signal.

  • release: Set how long the compressor waits for another peak signal before releasing compressor. Increasing this causes the compressor to latch after a peak signal for longer.

  • gain: Increase the gain output after compression.

  • ratio: Set how much of the signal is compressed when the limit is reached. Increase to cause a greater level of compression.

  • low-freq: Low-cut filter that trims lower frequencies from the signal path. Increase to adjust the amount of low frequency affected.

  • high-freq: High-cut filter that trims higher frequencies from the signal path. Increase to adjust the amount of high frequency affected.

A visual overview of the low/high frequency trim settings is displayed in the graphical overview and can be adjusted using the mouse.

Talkbox

A vowel filter with LFO modulation.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • speed: Set the speed of the talkbox phase effect.

  • offset: Offset the phase of the waveforms which adjusts the character of the effect.

  • formant: Adjust the formant value which affects the voweling of the effect. This parameter can be modulated to create classic talkbox effects.

Limiter

Provides a more extreme form of compression in which the signal is never allowed to rise above a given threshold.

  • gain: Adjust the signal level into the effect.

  • threshold: Set the level where the signal is limited when it is reached. Increase to cause the signal to be limited at a lower level.

  • attack: The speed at which the limiter reacts to a signal that reaches the threshold level. Increase to cause a slower attack.

  • release: The time the limiter waits before resetting after the signal falls from the threshold. Increase to create a longer release time.

Overdrive

Overdrive is hard to explain. Our recommendation: play around with it!

Filter Effect

The filter effect block is tied to the main Main Filter controls and mirrors the settings of these controls. It is provided as a convenient way of visualising and manipulating the signal flow. When adjusting the main filter controls, you see it change in the filter effect block.

See the "Main Controls: Filter" section for an overview of parameters.

EQ Effects

There are four single band EQ effects blocks that are identical in operation. These EQ blocks can be combined to form a four band parametric EQ to filter and shape the EQ characteristics of the signal.

  • freq: Set the working frequency of the EQ in Hz.

  • gain: Adjust the gain of trim of the EQ.

  • q: Set the bandwidth of the frequency to affect. Lower values set a narrower frequency good for surgical cuts, while higher values set a greater bandwidth good for larger range boosts.

  • type (drop-down menu): The EQ type. Select one of the following:

    • l-pass (lowpass): Frequencies above the freq setting are attenuated.

    • h-pass (highpass): Frequencies below the freq setting are attenuated.

    • band (bandpass): Frequencies above and below the freq setting are attenuated.

    • band2 (narrow bandpass): Frequencies above and below the freq setting are attenuated more severely than bpass.

    • notch: Frequencies at and around the specified freq setting are cut severely.

    • peak: Frequencies at and around the specified freq setting are cut or boosted.

    • l-shelf: Frequencies below the specified freq setting are cut or boosted.

    • h-shelf: Frequencies above the specified freq setting are cut or boosted.

    • all-pass: Alter the phase of the signal.

Delay / Reverb Effects

The delay and reverb effects blocks are both tied to the main Main Delay / Reverb controls and mirror the settings of these controls. It is provided as a convenient way of visualising and manipulating the signal flow. When adjusting the main controls, you see the changes in the effect blocks.

See the "Main Controls: Effects" section for an overview of parameters.

Impulse Reverb Effect

This type of reverb is sometimes called "convolution reverb". It uses samples of real spaces and classic gear, called "impulse responses". This extremely powerful method of generating reverberation allows for a wide range of reverb types that go far beyond typical halls and rooms.

  • dry: Adjust the dry signal level output.

  • wet: Adjust the wet (effect) signal output level.

  • pre-delay: The length of time before the reverb sounds.

  • pitch: Act as a tone control for the reverb tail. Positive values make the reverb brighter, while negative values make it darker.

  • mid-boost: The amount of midrange (X kHz[24] ) cut or boost.

  • high-boost: The amount of high frequency (X kHz[25] ) cut or boost.

  • stereo: The stereo width of the reverb. At 0%, the reverb is mono.

  • gain: Boost or trim the signal output.

  • low-cut: The cutoff frequency of a high-pass filter for the reverb. Increase the value to increase the amount of low frequency cut.

  • high-cut: The cutoff frequency of a low-pass filter for the reverb. Decrease the value to increase the amount of high frequency cut.

  • type (drop-down menu): Determine the reverb type. In this menu, you find long decays, subtle ambiences, and some unusual effects such as reversed reverb. Each of these reverb types is based on a different impulse response, which you see an image of in the Envelope Editor.

  • env: You can enable the Envelope Editor which allows you to reshape the reverb to your taste. It is possible to make simple adjustments, such as changing the length of the reverb tail, or unusual adjustments, such as having the reverb fade in slowly. Drag the circular handles to adjust the attack, decay, sustain, and release of the envelope. The diamond-shaped handles are used to to create exponential (curved) volume changes for any of the envelope's stages.

Limiter Effect

The limiter is inserted in the signal path at the final output stage to prevent clipping. It is "on" by default, and configured to be minimally active; only preventing the loudest peaks.

  • gain: The volume of the signal before it is fed into the limiter.

  • threshold: The volume that must be exceeded for gain reduction to occur.

  • attack: The time it takes for the limiter to respond to a signal when it reaches the threshold.

  • release: The time the limiter remains active after the signal drops below the threshold.

Features (Layer Mixer)

The "Mix" screen from Nexus2 has now been renamed "Features" and includes all the same functionality as the previous mixer with a cleaner display that is easier to understand:

features

The "Features" screen displays the active layers in a preset, the active oscillators in each layer, and the signal flow and effects of each layer. Each layer also displays a signal meter when playing a sound so you know which layers are playing a sound for a given key range.

On this screen, you can enable and disable individual layers, oscillators, and effects as well as adjust the level, panning, and tuning of oscillators.

Presets can contain just a single layer or a maximum of 16 layers which can be used in different ways to form layered sounds, drum kits, or split keyranged instruments. It is worth experimenting with preset layers and discovering some new sounds that you can create with just a few clicks.

Enable \ disable Layers

At the top of the display are the layer switches. Click on these to toggle a layer on and off. When a layer is disabled, its switch is dimmed and the layer is removed from the editor window.

Layer Oscillators and Effects

A layer shows the complete signal flow from input to output.

Next, you see the oscillators for the layer labeled as "osc". Clicking on an osc label toggles that oscillator on and off.

The controls (red) available for adjustment for each oscillator are: Volume, Pan, Transpose and Detune. Some presets may have multiple layers to an oscillator where you see two independent volume controls for a single oscillator.

The signal flows out the oscillators and through any effects loaded for the layer. You cannot adjust the layer effects as they are designed with a complete sound in mind, but you can disable the effects by clicking the label for the effect to toggle it on and off.

System

The system menu holds options that affect the display and global functionality of NEXUS3 on your system.

system

Instance

Instance settings affect that specific instance of the plugin. These settings are not saved as global settings for the plugin, but only for the instance loaded.

  • tuning: You can adjust the fine tuning of NEXUS3 in steps of 1Hz. Default value is Hz.

  • transpose: Transpose NEXUS3 up or down in octaves.

  • vel-curve: Adjust how NEXUS3 responds to MIDI velocity. When moved further into negative values, NEXUS3 interprets an increasingly wider range of high- and medium-velocity notes as if they were low velocity. When moved further into positive values, NEXUS3 increases the range of low- and medium-velocity notes that it interprets as high velocity.

  • arp-vel-src: You can set how the velocity of notes affects arp playback.

    • First: This causes velocity of the first note played to be stored and used for all subsequent notes, regardless of how hard or soft the notes are played.

    • Last: The velocity of the arp is based off the last note played. It changes if the playing style varies.

  • out-gain: Boost or trim the signal output from the plugin by 6dB. By default no boost/trim is set.

  • tempo-sync: Set the sync resolution of NEXUS3 to half / normal / double the speed of the host.

  • preview: Hear a preview of a preset when clicking on its name in the librarian (without actually loading the preset).

Preferences

  • cloud sync: Enable cloud sync to have your settings, favorites, bookmarks, and user presets stored in the cloud. When (re-) installing NEXUS3, the data is imported automatically.

  • midi preset-select: Set to "yes" to allow presets to be cycled using MIDI CC controls.

  • midi volume / expression: Set to "yes" to allow MIDI CC Expression and Volume control.

  • overwrite warnings: Set to "yes" to display warnings when overwriting existing files when saving.

  • delete warnings: Set to "yes" to display warnings when deleting files.

  • split meta-data: Split some meta-data (such as BPM) from preset names.

  • default preview: Toggle sound preview by default.

  • ui hardware accelaration: Enable hardware accelaration (pc only?)

Appendices

Appendix A - MIDI implementation chart

FunctionTxdRxdRemarks
Basic ChannelDefault:xMessages are always
Change:xreceived on all channels
ModeDefaultxMode 1OMNI Mode is always on
messagesxx
Note numberSound rangex
VelocityNote On:xo
Note Off:xo
AftertouchKey:xx
Channels:xo
Pitchbendxo
Control Changeoo
Program ChangeActual No.xx
System Exclusivexx
System CommonSong Pos:xx
Song Sel:xx
Tune:xx
System RealtimeClock:xx
Commands:xx
Aux MessagesLocal On/Offxx
All Sound Offxo
All Notes Offxo
Act. Sensingxx
Reset:xx

Appendix B - MIDI continuous controller support

In addition to the messages specified in the MIDI implementation chart, the following MIDI continuous controller messages are recognized, affecting the parameters listed below. By sending MIDI-CC messages from your host application, you can change or even automate these parameters at any time.

CC#Name
7Channel Volume
8AMP Spread
9Output volume
10AMP Pan
11Expression
24AMP Sustain
25Delay Feedback
26Delay Highcut
27Reverb Decay
28FLT Attack
29FLT Decay
30FLT Sustain
31FLT Release
44FLT Envelope
45FLT Cutoff
46FLT Resonance
71Main Filter Resonance
72AMP Release
73AMP Attack
74Main Filter Cutoff
75AMP Decay
91Reverb Mix
94Delay Mix
96Previous preset
97Next preset
98Previous category
99Next category
All Sound Off
All Notes Off

Appendix C - category prefixes

This is a list of prefixes used by us to categorize the factory content and expansions:

PrefixName
ARArpeggio
ATAtmosphere
BABass
BRBrass
CLClassical Instrument
DLDrumloop
DRDrum
FXFX Sound
GTGuitar
LDLead
LLLive Loop
LPLive Loop Menu
MAMallet
OCOrchestra
OROrgan
PDPads
PLPlucked
PNPiano
SQSequence
STStrings
SYSynth
TGTrancegate
VOVocal / Choir
WWWoodwinds

Disclaimer

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of reFX. The software described by this document is subject to a License Agreement and may not be distributed. No part of this documentation may be copied, reproduced or otherwise transmitted or recorded, for any purpose, without prior written permission by reFX.

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