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Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs

Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs

Reliability Modelling of a Computer System with Independent H/W and S/W Failures Subject to Maximum Operation and Repair Times · Ashish Kumar, S. C. Malik, M. S. Static analysis tools have demonstrated effectiveness at finding bugs in real world code. Such tools are increasingly widely adopted to improve software quality. Barrister Natasha Malik of Halifax-based ADL Solicitors told 'The News' Haider says he refused to help fix a one-day game against South.

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Doe Last Apache Cassandra. Retrieved
  • ^Rodriguez, Alain (27 Jul ). "About Deletes and Tombstones in Cassandra".
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "Schema in Cassandra ". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "What's new in Cassandra Secondary indexes". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "The Schema Management Renaissance in Cassandra ". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Lebresne, Sylvain (). "Coming in Collections support in CQL3". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^DataStax. "Apache Cassandra Documentation - Column Families". Apache Cassandra Documentation. Retrieved 29 October
  • ^"NodeTool". Cassandra Wiki. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"How to monitor Cassandra performance metrics". Datadog. 3 December Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"Metrics". Cassandra Wiki. Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"Monitoring". Cassandra Documentation. Retrieved 1 February
  • ^DB-Engines. "DB-Engines Ranking of Wide Column Stores".
  • ^DB-Engines. "DB-Engines Ranking".
  • ^Luca Martinetti: Apple runs more than k [production] Cassandra nodes. on Twitter
  • ^"Datastores on Appscale". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^"Top Cassandra Summit Sessions For Advanced Cassandra Users". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^"Multi-Tenancy in Cassandra at BlackRock".
  • ^A Persistent Back-End for the ATLAS Online Information Service (P-BEAST).
  • ^"Re: Cassandra users survey". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved
  • ^Finley, Klint (). "This Week in Consolidation: HP Buys Vertica, Constant Contact Buys Bantam Live and More". Read Write Enterprise.
  • ^Eure, Ian. "Looking to the future with Cassandra".
  • ^Quinn, John. "Saying Yes to NoSQL; Going Steady with Cassandra". Archived from the original on
  • ^Schonfeld, Erick. "As Digg Struggles, VP Of Engineering Is Shown The Door".
  • ^"Is Cassandra to Blame for Digg v4's Failures?".
  • ^Vishnevskiy, Stanislav (). "How Discord Stores Billions of Messages". Discord Blog. Retrieved
  • ^Cozzi, Martin (). "Cassandra at Formspring".
  • ^Nunes, Alexandre (). "Cassandra At The Heart Of Globo's Live Streaming Platform".
  • ^Blackie, William (). "Cloud infrastructure at Grubhub". Grubhub Bytes. Retrieved
  • ^"arenaqq.us powered by Apache Cassandra™"(PDF). arenaqq.us. Santa Clara, CA, USA: DataStax. Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved
  • ^Watch Cassandra at arenaqq.us John (1 rows)
  • Known issues[edit]

    Up to Cassandra , Cassandra was not row level consistent,[23] meaning that inserts and updates into the table that affect the same row that are processed at approximately the same time may affect the non-key columns in inconsistent ways. One update may affect one column while another affects the other, resulting in sets of values within the row that were never specified or intended. Cassandra solved this issue by introducing row-level isolation.[24]

    Tombstones[edit]

    Deletion markers called "Tombstones" are known to cause severe performance degradation.[25]

    Data model[edit]

    Cassandra is wide column store, and, as such, essentially a hybrid between a key-value and a tabular database management system. Its data model is a partitioned row store with tunable consistency.[19] Rows are organized into tables; the first component of a table's primary key is the partition key; within a partition, rows are clustered by the remaining columns of the key.[26] Other columns may be indexed separately from the primary key.[27]

    Tables may be created, dropped, and altered at run-time without blocking updates and queries.[28]

    Cassandra cannot do joins or subqueries. Rather, Cassandra emphasizes denormalization through features like collections.[29]

    A column family (called "table" since CQL 3) resembles a table in an RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). Column families contain rows and columns. Each row is uniquely identified by a row key. Each row has multiple columns, each of which has a name, value, and a timestamp. Unlike a table in an RDBMS, different rows in the same column family do not have to share the same set of columns, and a column may be added to one or multiple rows at any time.[30]

    Each key in Cassandra corresponds to a value which is an object. Each key has values as columns, and columns are grouped together into sets called column families. Thus, each key identifies a row of a variable number of elements. These column families could be considered then as tables. A table in Cassandra is a distributed multi dimensional map indexed by a key. Furthermore, applications can specify the sort order of columns within a Super Column or Simple Column family.

    Management and monitoring[edit]

    Cassandra is a Java-based system that can be managed and monitored via Java Management Extensions (JMX). The JMX-compliant nodetool utility, for instance, can be used to manage a Cassandra cluster (adding nodes to a ring, draining nodes, decommissioning nodes, and so on).[31] Nodetool also offers a number of commands to return Cassandra metrics pertaining to disk usage, latency, compaction, garbage collection, and more.[32]

    Since Cassandra in , measures of several metrics are produced via the Dropwizard metrics framework,[33] and may be queried via JMX using tools such as JConsole or passed to external monitoring systems via Dropwizard-compatible reporter plugins.[34]

    Notable applications[edit]

    According to DB-Engines ranking, Cassandra is the most popular wide column store,[35] and in September became the 9th most popular database.[36]

    • Apple uses , Cassandra nodes, as revealed at Cassandra Summit San Francisco ,[37] although it has not elaborated for which products, services or features.
    • AppScale uses Cassandra as a back-end for Google App Engine applications[38]
    • BlackRock uses Cassandra in their Aladdin investment management platform[39][40]
    • CERN used Cassandra-based prototype for its ATLAS experiment to archive the online DAQ system's monitoring information[41]
    • Cisco's WebEx uses Cassandra to store user feed and activity in near real time.[42]
    • Constant Contact uses Cassandra in their email and social media marketing applications.[43] Over nodes are deployed.
    • Digg, a social news website, announced on Sep 9th, that it is rolling out its use of Cassandra[44] and confirmed this on March 8, [45]TechCrunch has since linked Cassandra to Digg v4 reliability criticisms and recent company struggles.[46] A lead engineer at Digg later rebuked these criticisms in a social media post as red herring and blamed a lack of load testing.[47]
    • Discord switched to Cassandra to store billions of messages from MongoDB in November, [48]
    • Formspring uses Cassandra to count responses, as well as store social graph data (followers, following, blockers, blocking) for 26 Million accounts with 10 million responses a day[49]
    • arenaqq.us uses Cassandra as a back-end database for their streaming services[50]
    • Grubhub uses Cassandra as their primary persistent data store for their backend services.[51]
    • arenaqq.us used Cassandra to record user activity logs and topics for their Q&A website[52][53]
    • Monzo, a UK Bank, uses Cassandra for almost all of their persistent data storage.[54][55]
    • Netflix uses Cassandra as their back-end database for their streaming services[56][57]
    • Nutanix appliances use Cassandra to store metadata and stats.[58]
    • Ooyala built a real-time analytics engine using Cassandra[59]
    • Openwave uses Cassandra as a distributed database and as a distributed storage mechanism for their messaging platform[60]
    • OpenX is running over nodes on Cassandra for their OpenX Enterprise product to store and replicate advertisements and targeting data for ad delivery[61]
    • Rackspace uses Cassandra internally.[62]
    • Reddit switched to Cassandra from memcacheDB on March 12, [63] and experienced some problems in May of that year due to insufficient nodes in their cluster.[64]
    • RockYou uses Cassandra to record every single click for 50 million Monthly Active Users in real-time for their online games[65]
    • SoundCloud uses Cassandra to store the dashboard of their users[66]
    • Uber uses Cassandra to store around 10, features in their daily updated company-wide Feature Store for low-latency access during live model predictions[67]
    • Urban Airship uses Cassandra with the mobile service hosting for over million application installs across 80 million unique devices[68]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^arenaqq.us
    2. ^Casares, Joaquin (). "Multi-datacenter Replication in Cassandra". DataStax. Retrieved
    3. ^"Apache Cassandra Documentation Overview". Retrieved
    4. ^Hamilton, James (July 12, ). "Facebook Releases Cassandra as Open Source". Retrieved
    5. ^"Is this the new hotness now?". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved
    6. ^"Cassandra is an Apache top level project". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved
    7. ^"The meaning behind the name of Apache Cassandra". Archived from the original on Retrieved
    8. ^"The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache Cassandra Release &#;: The Apache Software Foundation Blog". Retrieved 5 January
    9. ^"The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache Cassandra &#;: The Apache Software Foundation Blog". Retrieved 5 January
    10. ^Eric Evans. "[Cassandra-user] [RELEASE] ". Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 5 January
    11. ^"Cassandra Is Ready for the Enterprise". InfoQ. Retrieved 5 January
    12. ^"The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache Cassandra™ v&#;: The Apache Software Foundation Blog". Retrieved 5 January
    13. ^"The Apache Software Foundation Announces Apache Cassandra™ v&#;: The Apache Software Foundation Blog". arenaqq.us. Retrieved 11 December
    14. ^Sylvain Lebresne (10 September ). "[VOTE SUCCESS] Release Apache Cassandra ". arenaqq.us. Retrieved 11 December
    15. ^"Cassandra , , and beyond". 16 June Retrieved 22 April
    16. ^"Cassandra Server Releases". arenaqq.us. Retrieved 15 December
    17. ^"Deploying Cassandra across Multiple Data Centers". DataStax. Retrieved 11 December
    18. ^"The CAP Theorem - Learn Cassandra". arenaqq.us.
    19. ^ abDataStax (). "About data consistency". Archived from the original on Retrieved
    20. ^"Hadoop Support"Archived at the Wayback Machine article on Cassandra's wiki
    21. ^"DataStax C/C++ Driver for Apache Cassandra". DataStax. Retrieved 15 December
    22. ^"CQL". Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January
    23. ^"WAT - Cassandra: Row level consistency #$@&%*! - arenaqq.us". arenaqq.us. Retrieved 28 November
    24. ^Lebresne, Sylvain (). "Coming up in Cassandra Row Level Isolation". DataStax: always-on data platform DataStax Episodes

      How Microsoft helped imprison a man for &#;counterfeiting&#; software it gives away for free

      In a sickening concession to bad copyright law and Microsoft&#;s bottom line over basic technical truths and common sense, Eric Lundgren will spend 15 months in prison for selling discs that let people reinstall Windows on licensed machines. A federal appeals court this week upheld the sentence handed down in ignorance by a Florida district judge, for a crime the man never committed.

      Now, to be clear, Lundgren did commit a crime, and admitted as much — but not the crime he was convicted for, the crime Microsoft alleges he did, the crime that carries a year-plus prison term. Here&#;s what happened.

      In feds seized a shipment of discs, which they determined were counterfeit copies of Windows, heading to the U.S., where they were to be sold to retailers by Lundgren. U.S. Prosecutors, backed by Microsoft&#;s experts, put him on the hook for about $ million — the retail price of Windows multiplied by the number of discs seized.

      The only problem with that was that these weren&#;t counterfeit copies of Windows, and they were worth almost nothing. The confusion is understandable — here&#;s why.

      When you buy a computer, baked into the cost of that computer is usually a license for the software on it — for instance, Windows. And included with that computer is often a disc that, should you have to reinstall that OS for whatever reason (virus infection, general slowdown), allows you to do so. This installation only works, of course, if you feed it your license key, which you&#;ll probably find on a sticker attached to your computer, its &#;Certificate of Authenticity.&#;

      But what if you lose that disc? Fortunately, all those years Microsoft itself provided disc images, files that you could use to burn a new copy of the disc at no cost. Look, you can still do it, and you used to be able to get one without a license key. In fact that&#;s how many Windows installs were created — buy a license key directly from Microsoft or some reseller, then download and burn the install disc yourself.

      Of course, if you don&#;t have a DVD burner (remember, this was a while back — these days you&#;d use a USB drive), you&#;d have to get one from a friend who has one, a licensed refurbisher, or your manufacturer (for instance, Dell or Lenovo) for a fee.

      This option is still available, and very handy — I&#;ve used it many times.

      What Lundgren did was have thousands of these recovery discs printed so that repair and refurbishing shops could sell them for cheap to anyone who can&#;t make their own. No need to go call Alienware customer service, just go to a computer store and grab a disc for a couple bucks.

      Lundgren, by the way, is not some scammer looking to fleece a few people and make a quick buck. He has been a major figure on the e-waste scene, working to minimize the toxic wages of planned obsolescence and running a company of to responsibly refurbish or recycle old computers and other devices.

      His actual crime, which he pleaded guilty to, was counterfeiting the packaging to make the discs pass for Dell-branded ones.

      But the fundamental idea that this was counterfeit software, with all that implies, is simply wrong.

      Software vs. license

      The whole thing revolves around the fact that Microsoft — and every other software maker — doesn&#;t just plain sell software; they sell licenses to that software. Because software can easily be copied from computer to computer, piracy is easy if you make a program that anyone can just install. It&#;s more effective to distribute the software itself freely, but only unlock it for use with a special one-off code sold to the customer: a license, or product key.

      When you buy a &#;copy&#; of Windows, you&#;re really buying a license to use Windows, not the bits and bytes that make up the OS. The company literally provided up to date disc images of Windows on its website! You could easily install it using those. But without a license key, the OS won&#;t work properly; it&#;ll nag you, remove functionality and may shut down entirely. No one would confuse this with a licensed copy of the OS.

      This distinction between software and license is a fine one, but important. Not just for overarching discussions of copyright law and where it fails us as technology moves beyond the severely dated DMCA. Because in this case it&#;s the difference between a box of Windows recovery discs being worth millions of dollars, as prosecutors originally said they were, and being worth essentially nothing, which is what an expert witness and advocates countered.

      More importantly, it&#;s the difference between someone getting 15 months in prison for a nonviolent crime harming no one and causing no actual financial loss, and getting a suitable punishment for counterfeiting labels.

      A Microsoft representative told me, reasonably enough, that they want customers to be able to trust their software. So going after counterfeiters is a high priority. After all, if you buy a cheap, fake DVD of Windows on eBay and it turns out the disc has been pre-loaded with malware, that&#;s bad news for the consumer and hurts the Microsoft brand. Makes sense.

      It said in an official statement (then provided an updated one later, which is at the end of the article):

      We participate in cases like these because counterfeit software exposes our customers to malware and other forms of cybercrime. There are responsible ways to refurbish computers and save waste, but Mr. Lundgren intentionally deceived people about the software they were buying and put their security at risk.

      (Update: Microsoft has also published a full blog post going into further detail on some of these issues, but they are largely already addressed in this article.)

      First, it is worth mentioning that the court record is replete with tests showing these discs were perfectly normal copies of software that Microsoft provides for free. Prosecutors went through the entire install process several times and encountered nothing unusual — in fact, their arguments rely on the fact that these were perfect copies, not a compromised one. This may not affect Microsoft&#;s reasoning for pursuing the case, but it sure has a bearing on this one.

      Lundgren deceived people that this was an official disc from Dell, certainly. That&#;s a crime and he admitted to it right off the bat. But from what I can tell, the discs were indistinguishable from Dell discs except for inconsistencies in the packaging. There&#;s nothing in the record to think otherwise. I was told Microsoft declined to look into whether the discs might have had malware because it would have no bearing on the case, which strikes me as ridiculous. It would be trivial to check the integrity and contents of a disc Microsoft itself provides the data for, and malware or the like would provide evidence of criminal intent by Lundgren or his supplier.

      If on the other hand the discs were identical to those they are meant to imitate, we would expect to hear little about their content except that they are functional, which is what we see in the record.

      From the court records, the discs seized produced ordinary Windows installs when tested by multiple parties.

      Furthermore: People weren&#;t buying software, let alone &#;counterfeit software.&#; The discs in question are at best &#;unauthorized&#; copies of software provided for free by Microsoft, not really a term that carries a lot of legal or even rhetorical weight. I could make a recovery disc, then make another for my friend who doesn&#;t have a DVD burner. Is that copy authorized or not? And how could it be unauthorized if it&#;s an image made available to users specifically for the purpose of burning recovery discs? How can it be counterfeit if it&#;s just a copy of that image? Furthermore, how can it be &#;pirated&#; if the business model requires the end user to purchase a license key to activate the product?

      If the data on the disc is worth anything at all, why does Microsoft provide it for free? There was in fact no piracy because no license to use the software, which amounts to the entire value of the software, was ever sold.

      What damage?

      But how, then, could this freely available software produce damage in the millions, as first alleged, and later in the hundreds of thousands?

      What Microsoft alleged, when it became clear that the data on the discs was worth precisely nothing without a license key, as evidenced by its own free distribution thereof, was that the discs Lundgren was selling were intended to short-circuit its official refurbishment program.

      That&#;s the official registered refurbisher program where a company might buy old laptops, wipe them and contact Microsoft saying &#;Hey, give us 12 Windows 7 Home licenses,&#; which are then provided for a deep discount — $ each, down from the full retail price of hundreds. It encourages reuse of perfectly good hardware and keeps costs down, both of which are solid goals.

      Every disc Lundgren sold to refurbishers, Microsoft argued, caused $ (times , the profit ratio) of lost OS sales because it would be used in place of the official licensing process. A simplified version of this ($25 times 28, units) was the basis for the $, figure used in part to determine the severity of his crime and sentence.

      There are several things wrong with this assertion:

      • Lundgren was not necessarily selling these discs to refurbishers for use in refurbishing computers — the discs would be perfectly useful to any Dell owner who walked in and wanted a recovery disc for their own purposes. The government case rests on an assumption that was not demonstrated by any testimony or evidence.
      • The discs are not what Microsoft charges for. As already established, the disc and the data on it are provided for free. Anyone could download a copy and make their own, including refurbishers. Microsoft charges for a license to activate the software on the disc. The discs themselves are just an easy way to move data around. There&#;s no reason why refurbishers would not buy discs from Lundgren and order licenses from Microsoft.
      • Dell computers (and most computers from dealers) come with a Certificate of Authenticity with a corresponding Windows product key. So if intentions are to be considered, fundamentally these discs were intended for sale to and use by authorized, licensed users of the OS.
      • Furthermore, since many computers come with COAs, if the refurbishers decide to skip getting a new license use a given computer&#;s COA, that is not the fault of Lundgren, and could easily be accomplished with the free software Microsoft itself provides.
      • That process — using the COA instead of buying a new license — is not permitted by Microsoft and is murky copyright-wise. But in this case the defendants say it was admitted by U.S. prosecutors that the COA &#;belongs&#; to the hardware, not the first buyer. The alternative is that, for example, if I sold a computer to a friend with Windows installed, he would be required to buy a new copy of Windows to install over the first, which is absurd.
      • Naturally no actual damage was actually done. The damage is entirely theoretical and incorrect at that. A copy of Windows cannot be sold because it is freely provided; only a license key can be sold, and those sales are what Microsoft alleges were affected — but Lundgren neither had nor sold any license keys.

      In fact an expert witness, Glenn Weadock, who had previously been involved in a government antitrust case against Microsoft, appeared in court to argue these very points.

      Weadock was asked what the value of the discs is without a license or COA. &#;Zero or near zero,&#; he said. The value is a &#;convenience factor,&#; he said, in that someone can use a pre-made disc instead of burning their own or having the manufacturer provide it.

      Real damage

      This fact, a difference between selling a license that activates a piece of software and provides its real value, and the distribution of the software itself — again, provided for free to any asker — was completely ignored by the courts:

      The government’s expert testified that the lowest amount Microsoft charges buyers in the relevant market—the small registered computer refurbisher market—was $25 per disc. Although the defense expert testified that discs containing the relevant Microsoft OS software had little or no value when unaccompanied by a product key or license, the district court explicitly stated that it did not find that testimony to be credible.

      As I&#;ve already established, discs are free; $25 is the price of the license accompanying the disc. Again, a fine but very important distinction.

      Weadock&#;s testimony and all arguments along these lines were disregarded by the judges, who decided that the &#;infringing item&#; &#;is or appears to be a reasonably informed purchaser to be, identical or substantially equivalent to the infringed item.&#;

      This isfundamentally wrong.

      The &#;infringing&#; item is a disc. The &#;infringed&#; item is a license. The ones confusing the two aren&#;t purchasers but the judges in this case, with Microsoft&#;s help.

      &#;[Defendants] cannot claim that Microsoft suffered minimal pecuniary injury,&#; wrote the judges in the ruling affirming the previous court&#;s sentencing. &#;Microsoft lost the sale of its software as a direct consequence of the defendants&#; actions.&#;

      Microsoft does not sell discs. It sells licenses.

      Lundgren did not sell licenses. He sold discs.

      These are two different things with different values and different circumstances.

      I don&#;t know how I can make this any more clear. Right now a man is going to prison for 15 months because these judges didn&#;t understand basic concepts of the modern software ecosystem. Fifteen months! In prison!

      What would a reasonable punishment be for counterfeiting labels to put on software anyone can download for free? I couldn&#;t say. That would be for a court to decide. Possibly, based on Lundgren&#;s suggestion that if damages had to be calculated, that $4 per disc was more realistic, he would still face time. But instead the court has made an ignorant decision based on corporate misinformation that will deprive someone of more than a year of his life — not to mention all the time and money that has been spent explaining these things to deaf ears for the last few years.

      Microsoft cannot claim that it was merely a victim or bystander here. It has worked with the FBI and prosecutors the whole time pursuing criminal charges for which the defendant could face years in prison. And as you can see, those charges are wildly overstated and produced a sentence far more serious than Lundgren&#;s actual crime warranted.

      The company could at any point have changed its testimony to reflect the facts of the matter. It could have corrected the judges that the infringing and infringed items are strictly speaking completely different things, a fact it knows and understands, since it sells one for hundreds and gives the other away. It could have cautioned the prosecution that copyright law in this case produces a punishment completely out of proportion with the crime, or pursued a civil case on separate lines.

      This case has been ongoing for years and Microsoft has supported it from start to finish; it has as much sentenced Lundgren to prison for a crime he didn&#;t commit as the fools of judges it convinced of its great &#;pecuniary loss.&#; I expect the company to push back against this idea, saying that it only had consumers&#; best interests in mind, but the bad-faith arguments we have seen above, and which I have heard directly from Microsoft, seem to suggest it was in fact looking for a strong judgment at any cost to deter others.

      If it was possible that Microsoft was not aware how bad the optics on this case are, they&#;ve been warned over and over as the case has worn on. Now that Lundgren is going to prison it seems reasonable to say that his imprisonment is as much a Microsoft product as the OS it accused him wrongly of pirating.


      Update: Microsoft later provided an second statement:

      Microsoft actively supports efforts to address e-waste and has worked with responsible e-recyclers to recycle more than 11 million kilograms of e-waste since Unlike most e-recyclers, Mr. Lundgren sought out counterfeit software which he disguised as legitimate and sold to other refurbishers. This counterfeit software exposes people who purchase recycled PCs to malware and other forms of cybercrime, which puts their security at risk and ultimately hurts the market for recycled products.

      Lundgren provided some commentary on this shortly afterward:

      Microsoft claims that the disks I had &#;expose people who purchase recycled PCs to malware, Security Risks and other forms of cybercrime.&#; Two separate Forensic Experts in court records show that these Restore Disks disks are mirror image duplicates exactly the same software Microsoft makes available for free download. So unless Microsoft&#;s software is also compromised, I don&#;t understand how they could make this claim. Microsoft also claimed this software was &#;sold to other refurbishers,&#; which again is confirmed to be false by court documents as all product was seized and none was sold. Finally, the License is worth $25 from Microsoft, Not the Restore CD. The Restore CD is purchased for pennies and free to download. Microsoft does not sell software, they sell the License of which ONLY Microsoft can supply.

      Источник: [arenaqq.us]
      OpenXArchived at the Wayback Machine
    25. ^"Hadoop and Cassandra (at Rackspace)". Stu Hood. Retrieved
    26. ^david [ketralnis] (). "what's new on reddit: She who entangles men". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved
    27. ^the reddit admins at (). "arenaqq.us -- what's new on reddit: reddit's May "State of the Servers" report". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved
    28. ^Pattishall, Dathan Vance (). "Cassandra is my NoSQL Solution but".
    29. ^"Cassandra at SoundCloud". Archived from the original on Retrieved
    30. ^Hermann, Jeremy (5 September ). "Meet Michelangelo: Uber's Machine Learning Platform".
    31. ^Onnen, Erik (19 July ). "From s to s of Millions".

    Bibliography[edit]

    External links[edit]

    • Lakshman, Avinash (). "Cassandra - A structured storage system on a P2P Network". Engineering @ Facebook's Notes. Retrieved
    • "The Apache Cassandra Project". Forest Hill, MD, USA: The Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved
    • "Project Wiki". Forest Hill, MD, USA: The Apache Software Foundation. Archived from the original on Retrieved
    • Hewitt, Eben (). "Adopting Apache Cassandra". arenaqq.us. InfoQ, C4Media Inc. Retrieved
    • Lakshman, Avinash; Malik, Prashant (). "Cassandra - A Decentralized Structured Storage System"(PDF). arenaqq.us. The authors are from Facebook. Retrieved
    • Ellis, Jonathan (). "What Every Developer Should Know About Database Scalability". arenaqq.us. Retrieved From the OSCON talk on RDBMS vs. Dynamo, Bigtable, and Cassandra.
    • "Cassandra-RPM - Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) build for the Apache Cassandra project". arenaqq.us. Menlo Park, CA, USA: Google Project Hosting. Retrieved
    • Roth, Gregor (). "Cassandra by example - the path of read and write requests". arenaqq.us. Retrieved
    • Mansoor, Umer (). "A collection of Cassandra tutorials". Retrieved
    • Bushik, Sergey (). "A vendor-independent comparison of NoSQL databases: Cassandra, HBase, MongoDB, Riak". NetworkWorld. Framingham, MA, USA and Staines, Middlesex, UK: IDG. Archived from the original on Retrieved
    Источник: [arenaqq.us]
    Apache Cassandra, Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs. Retrieved
  • ^Rodriguez, Alain (27 Jul ). "About Deletes and Tombstones in Cassandra".
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "Schema in Cassandra ". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "What's new in Cassandra Secondary indexes". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Ellis, Jonathan (). "The Schema Management Renaissance in Cassandra ". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^Lebresne, Sylvain (). "Coming in Collections support in CQL3". DataStax. Retrieved
  • ^DataStax. "Apache Cassandra Documentation - Column Families". Apache Cassandra Documentation. Retrieved 29 October
  • ^"NodeTool". Cassandra Wiki. Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"How to monitor Cassandra performance metrics". Datadog. 3 December Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"Metrics". Cassandra Wiki. Retrieved 5 January
  • ^"Monitoring". Cassandra Documentation. Retrieved 1 February
  • ^DB-Engines. "DB-Engines Ranking of Wide Column Stores".
  • ^DB-Engines. "DB-Engines Ranking".
  • ^Luca Martinetti: Apple runs more than k [production] Cassandra nodes. on Twitter
  • ^"Datastores on Appscale". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^"Top Cassandra Summit Sessions For Advanced Cassandra Users". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^"Multi-Tenancy in Cassandra at BlackRock".
  • ^A Persistent Back-End for the ATLAS Online Information Service (P-BEAST).
  • ^"Re: Cassandra users survey". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved
  • ^Finley, Klint (). "This Week in Consolidation: HP Buys Vertica, Constant Contact Buys Bantam Live and More". Read Write Enterprise.
  • ^Eure, Ian. "Looking to the future with Cassandra".
  • ^Quinn, John. "Saying Yes to NoSQL; Going Steady with Cassandra". Archived from the original on
  • ^Schonfeld, Erick. "As Digg Struggles, VP Of Engineering Is Shown The Door".
  • ^"Is Cassandra to Blame for Digg v4's Failures?".
  • ^Vishnevskiy, Stanislav (). "How Discord Stores Billions of Messages". Discord Blog. Retrieved
  • ^Cozzi, Martin (). "Cassandra at Formspring".
  • ^Nunes, Alexandre (). "Cassandra At The Heart Of Globo's Live Streaming Platform".
  • ^Blackie, William (). "Cloud infrastructure at Grubhub". Grubhub Bytes. Retrieved
  • ^"arenaqq.us powered by Apache Cassandra™"(PDF). arenaqq.us. Santa Clara, CA, USA: DataStax. Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved
  • ^Watch Cassandra at arenaqq.us OpenXArchived at the Wayback Machine
  • ^"Hadoop and Cassandra (at Rackspace)". Stu Hood. Retrieved
  • ^david [ketralnis] (). "what's new on reddit: She who entangles men". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved
  • ^the reddit admins at (). "arenaqq.us -- what's new on reddit: reddit's May "State of the Servers" report". arenaqq.us Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved
  • ^Pattishall, Dathan Vance (). "Cassandra is my NoSQL Solution but".
  • ^"Cassandra at SoundCloud". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^Hermann, Jeremy (5 September ). "Meet Michelangelo: Uber's Machine Learning Platform".
  • ^Onnen, Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs, Erik (19 July ). "From s to s of Millions".
  • Bibliography[edit]

    External links[edit]

    Источник: [arenaqq.us] BlipArchived at the Wayback Machine
  • ^"We had issues with Monzo on 29th July. Here's what happened, and what we did to fix it". Monzo. Retrieved
  • ^"We secured thousands of Cassandra clients to keep Monzo's data safe". Monzo. Retrieved
  • ^Cockcroft, Adrian (). "Migrating Netflix from Datacenter Oracle to Global Cassandra". arenaqq.us. Retrieved
  • ^Izrailevsky, Yury (). "NoSQL at Netflix".
  • ^"Nutanix Bible". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  • ^Ooyala (). "Designing a Scalable Database for Online Video Analytics"(PDF). arenaqq.us. Mountain View CA, USA. Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved
  • ^Mainstay LLC (). "DataStax Case Study of Openwave Messaging"(PDF). arenaqq.us, Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs. Santa Clara, CA, USA: DataStax. Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved
  • ^Ad Serving Technology - Advanced Optimization, Forecasting, & Targeting

    Developing Software

    Complete: 5
    Detailed Review status

    Goals of this page

    When you finish this page, you should understand the basic concepts to consider when developing your own Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (GTA San Andreas) crack serial keygen. Additionally, you should know how to document your code so that it appears in the CMS online documentation. Eventually this page will also contain instructions for contributing analysis documentation to the main documentation repository.

    Contents

    Instruction for writing code

    Tools and instruction for writing code can be found in the Offline Guide Framework section. In particular, to avoid problems with memory leaks, you should follow the guidelines for using pointers.

    Writing Code to run in the CMSSW Framework

    Instructions for developing CMSSW code, adding packages, checking new code into the CVS repository, and maintaining your code are currently found in the CMSSW Developers Guide.

    Writing private code to run in CMSSW

    This section is intended for users who want to write "user" code which will never go into CMSSW public software releases. If you intend for your code to go into CMSSW releases, you should probably request a normal package with the normal procedure via the Tag Collector. For this see the Writing Codesection below.

    Creating a user area in the CMSSW repository

    There is an area called "UserCode" in the CMSSW repository where you can create yourself a package to store your private user code and cfg files, for example: To create such a user CVS area for yourself, do the following: 1) Choose a packagename for yourself. Typically this should be your name (e.g. with some capitalization as above, or your CERN unix username, etc.) so that it is semi-obvious whose package it is. 2) Then create your package (here for an example "JohnDoe" user): a) Set your CVSROOT to point to the CMSSW CVS repository. You do this by doing the following, for example: *********************************************** [malik@cmslpc02 ~/test]$ kserver_init Enter your username at CERN:malik Getting your Kerberos 5 credentials from CERN Password for malik@arenaqq.us: Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb_cern_ Default principal: malik@arenaqq.us Valid starting Expires Service principal 01/21/10 01/22/10 krbtgt/arenaqq.us@arenaqq.us renew until 01/28/10 *********************************************** b) 'cd' to some temporary area cvs co UserCode/README c) mkdir UserCode/JohnDoe d) cd UserCode e) cvs add JohnDoe In general it is advisable to structure it like a normal CMSSW package,
      1. e. with the same subdirectory structure. To do this, you can do:
    mkdir JohnDoe/src JohnDoe/interface cvs add JohnDoe/src JohnDoe/interface mkdir JohnDoe/data JohnDoe/test cvs add JohnDoe/data JohnDoe/test If you do not think you need some of these subdirectories at the moment, you simply do not 'mkdir' and 'cvs add' them. 3) Then you can 'cd' into the "src" area of some scram working/developer area and do: cvs co UserCode/JohnDoe and begin to add your code and cfg files to the subdirectories. If you need a arenaqq.usile, you can copy an example from Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs normal CMSSW package and edit it to serve your purposes.

    Commit your files to your own subdirectory

    Please note that you should not commit files to the directory itself, but only in your equivalent of the sub-directoryYou should find your code on the url hereto UserCodein CVS.

    General Principles for Software Development

    Test your new code locally, on small data samples

    When writing your own code, it is important to run on your local working environment and test the analysis code on a small number of events - this saves time and resources. You should develop your own code locally, and compile it, then run on small test samples to enable you to quickly track down and fix bugs, Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs. You should also save and test your code regularly - otherwise it can be very time-consuming to track down errors which might produce obscure messages. Once you are confident your user code is working correctly, you should run a short test job on the sample that you plan to use in your analysis (either data or Monte Carlo). This will enable you to test the compatibility between your code and the specific sample you want to analyse. Additionally it will enable Mirillis Action 4.0.3 mac Archives to test if your code runs properly in the case that a different submission process is used for the main job compared to local running (i.e., batch submission compared to interactive use) Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs certain commands or characters may cause the code to react differently. Batch systems for job submission are prioritized to provide fair access for all users, and very short jobs attract a high priority - therefore small test jobs can be run Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs. This can provide a significant saving of time on a busy system.

    Collating your results

    At the end of your analysis job, you will want to "summarise" your analysis jobs and produce plots of information from the analysis and reconstruction. This is typically a less compute-intensive job, and tends to be something people do in their local environment.

    Contributing documentation

    While you are developing your own software, it is likely that you will find areas in which you can improve the online documentation so that other users can benefit from your experiences. There are three principal ways in which you can do this.
    • The first is the CMS Offline WorkBook, of which the current page is a part. If there are pages relevant to your code, you should give feedback and suggest improvements.
    • The second is the CMS Offline Guide, which gives all the details of the CMS software. Whenever your code becomes public, you should provide a page which explains how it works and how to use it.
    • The third is to make your code "self-documenting" by adding descriptive comments to your code which can later be farmed by the Doxygen system.
    The CMS Software Documentation Policy is described in SWGuideDocumentationPolicy.

    Contribute to the CMS WorkBook

    Contributions to the documentation of the CMS WorkBook project are very welcome. Please see the Guide for contributors.

    Contribute to the CMSSW Reference Manual

    The Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs Reference Manual contains automatically generated documentation, produced by Doxygen, describing the classes and packages. The manual can be found at arenaqq.us. An explanation of how contributors can annotate their code to add material to the Reference Manual is available following the link from the bottom of the Reference Manual main page.

    Review status

    Responsible: SudhirMalik
    Last reviewed by: SudhirMalik- 21 Jan
    Источник: [arenaqq.us]
    NoSQL

    Apache Cassandra

    Apache Cassandra is a free and open-source, distributed, wide-column store, NoSQLdatabase management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure. Cassandra offers support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters,[2] with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency operations for all clients. Cassandra was designed to implement a Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 3.6 crack serial keygen of Amazon's Dynamo distributed storage and replication techniques combined with Google's Bigtable data and storage engine model.[3]

    History[edit]

    Avinash Lakshman, one of the authors of Amazon's Dynamo, and Prashant Malik initially developed Cassandra at Facebook to power the Facebook inbox search feature. Facebook released Cassandra as an open-source project on Google Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs in July [4] In March it became an Apache Incubator project.[5] On February 17, it graduated to a top-level project.[6]

    Facebook developers named their database after the Trojan mythological prophet Cassandra, with classical allusions to a curse on an oracle.[7]

    Releases[edit]

    Releases after graduation include

    • , released Apr 12added support for integrated caching, and Apache HadoopMapReduce[8]
    • , released Jan 08Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs, added secondary indexes and online schema changes[9]
    • , Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs, released Jun 2added the Cassandra Query Language (CQL), self-tuning memtables, and support for zero-downtime upgrades[10]
    • , released Oct 17added integrated compression, leveled compaction, and improved read-performance[11]
    • , released Apr 23added self-tuning caches, row-level isolation, and support for mixed ssd/spinning disk deployments[12]
    • , released Jan 2added clustering across virtual nodes, inter-node communication, atomic batches, and request tracing[13]
    • , released Sep 4added lightweight transactions (based on the Paxos consensus protocol), triggers, improved compactions
    • released Sep 10 [14]
    • released July 20,
    • released November 11,
    • through releases were monthly releases using a tick-tock-like release model, with even-numbered releases providing both new features and bug fixes while odd-numbered releases will include bug fixes only.[15]
    • released June 23, as a stable release series and bug fix from the last tick-tock feature release.
    • released July 26,
    • released September 7,
    Version Original release date Latest version Release date Status[16]
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Old version, no longer maintained: No longer supported
    Older version, yet still maintained: Still supported, critical fixes only
    Older version, yet still maintained: Still supported
    Older version, yet still maintained: Still supported
    Current stable version: Latest release

    Legend:

    Old version

    Older version, still maintained

    Latest version

    Latest preview version

    Future release

    Main features[edit]

    Distributed
    Every node in the cluster has the same role. There is no single point of failure. Data is distributed across the cluster (so each node contains different data), but there is no master as every node can service any Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs replication and multi data center replication
    Replication strategies are configurable.[17] Cassandra is designed as a distributed system, for deployment of large numbers of nodes across multiple data centers. Key features of Cassandra’s distributed architecture are specifically tailored for multiple-data center deployment, for redundancy, for failover and disaster recovery.
    Scalability
    Designed to have read and write throughput both increase linearly as new machines are added, with the aim of no downtime or interruption to applications.
    Fault-tolerant
    Data is automatically replicated to multiple nodes for fault-tolerance. Replication across multiple data centers is supported. Failed nodes can be replaced with no downtime.
    Tunable consistency
    Cassandra is typically classified as an AP system, meaning that availability and partition tolerance are generally considered to be more important than consistency in Cassandra,[18] Writes and reads offer a tunable level of consistency, Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs, all the way from "writes never fail" to "block for all replicas to be readable", with the quorum level in the middle.[19]
    MapReduce support
    Cassandra has Hadoop integration, with MapReduce support. There is support also for Apache Pig and Apache Hive.[20]
    Query language
    Cassandra introduced the Cassandra Query Language (CQL). CQL is a simple interface for accessing Cassandra, as an alternative to the traditional Structured Query Language (SQL).
    Eventual consistency
    Cassandra manages eventual consistency of reads, upserts and deletes through Tombstones.

    Cassandra Query Language[edit]

    Cassandra introduced the Cassandra Query Language (CQL). CQL is a simple interface for accessing Cassandra, as an alternative to the traditional Structured Query Language (SQL). CQL adds an abstraction layer that hides implementation details of this structure and provides native syntaxes for collections and other common encodings. Language drivers are available for Java (JDBC), Python (DBAPI2), arenaqq.us (Datastax), Go (gocql) and C++.[21]

    The keyspace in Cassandra is a namespace that defines data replication across nodes. Therefore, replication is defined at the keyspace level. Below an example of keyspace creation, including a column family in CQL [22]

    CREATEKEYSPACEMyKeySpaceWITHREPLICATION={'class':'SimpleStrategy','replication_factor':3};USEMyKeySpace;CREATECOLUMNFAMILYMyColumns(idtext,Lasttext,Firsttext,PRIMARYKEY(id));INSERTINTOMyColumns(id,Last,First)VALUES('1','Doe','John');SELECT*FROMMyColumns;

    Which gives:

    id Repairing System Archives - Malik Softs

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_bot in /sites/arenaqq.us/browsers/repairing-system-archives-malik-softs.php on line 109

    Notice: Undefined variable: z_empty in /sites/arenaqq.us/browsers/repairing-system-archives-malik-softs.php on line 109

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