Wondershare PDF Password Remover With Crack Free Download | Get Softwares

PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen

PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen

Accent PDF Password Recovery allows you to instantly remove the Step 2. Enter the below registration key to start the installation of the full version. All the versions of PDF Password Remover 10.0 Crack are compatible with Windows all versions and smooth work on Mac as well. 2 Work Methods: –. Key Features: Copies PDF content;; Converts PDF documents to other formats;; Prints PDF files;; Supports Drag and drop;; Works in a batch mode.

PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen - apologise, but

Remove User/Owner Password / EUR40 / Win / macOS / Linux

guapdf mac ss PDF Password Recovery / Remover For Secure Protected PDF

The primary goal of GuaPDF is to – remove restrictions on any PDF document (you should have the right to do it, for example, if you forgot the password). Any Acrobat version up to XI is supported, even with 256-bit AES or 128-bit RC4 encryption. PDF permission password removal is an instant process. Decrypted file can be opened in any PDF viewer without any restrictions so you may edit/copy/print it. GuaPDF can be also used for – remove the PDF open password. Decryption of the file with password for opening is guaranteed for PDF files with 40-bit key only (Acrobat 3, 4 compatible encryption). This process takes several days on one home computer.

There are two types of secured PDF documents: your file can ask for password when opening the document, or, your file opens normally, but some operations are restricted (e.g, printing or editing) and requires a password for unlocking it. The first password is known as document open (or user) password, and the second is permissions password (also known as a master or owner password). Adobe Acrobat uses different algorithms to apply PDF security with 40, 128 and 256 bit keys.

  • PDF restrictions are insecure and permissions password could be removed instantly.
  • If open password uses 40-bit keys (Acrobat 3 compatible encryption), it also could be removed with guarantee.
  • Searching for open password with 128 or 256-bit PDF encryption is only possible using PDF password recovery software.

If the password is not known, our options to help you are very limited. First, the strength and type of the encryption needs to be evaluated. Passwords of the oldest type, also known as RC4 40bit, can always be removed. This is an operation that requires lots of computing power, but is always within reasonable limits. Since last month, we offer a fully automated service that guarantees the removal of such passwords in less than an hour.

However, due to the cost we incur by launching tens of high-end servers to unlock the file in such a short period of time, this service cannot be offered for free. To purchase this service, just upload the file, and you will be presented with instructions how to proceed. The other option would be to purchase the appropriate software, such as GuaPDF, and run it on your computer. Expect it to take anything from a few hours to a couple of days, depending on your computer. It will also consume all the CPU power available, making using the computer for anything else hard.

Removing user passwords that utilize newer encryption, such as 128bit RC4 or AES (128 bit or 256 bit) is different. It’s fair to say that there are no guarantees that, with currently modern computers, such a password would ever be removed. There are simply too many possibilities. The key here becomes knowing something about the password, and using that knowledge to somehow limit the passwords that are attempted. Any experiences with removing this type of password would be appreciated in the comments!

↓ 14 – Advanced PDF Password Recovery Remove User/Owner Password / Windows

qpdf password pdf PDF Password Recovery / Remover For Secure Protected PDF

QPDF is a command-line program that does structural, content-preserving transformations on PDF files. It could have been called something like pdf-to-pdf. It also provides many useful capabilities to developers of PDF-producing software or for people who just want to look at the innards of a PDF file to learn more about how they work. Supports these five kinds of encryption/decryption:

  • 40-bit encryption (method 40 bit) in Acrobat 3 (PDF 1.1) and above
  • 128-bit encryption (method 128bit) in Acrobat 5 (PDF 1.4) and above
  • 128-bit AES encryption (method AES) in Acrobat 7 (PDF 1.6) and above
  • 256-bit AES encryption (method AES256) in Acrobat 9 (PDF 1.7) – this is deprecated – do not use for new documents
  • 256-bit AES encryption (method AES256ISO) in PDF 2.0

↓ 05 – Soda PDF Unlock Remove User/Owner Password / USD40 / Win

recover pdf password PDF Password Recovery / Remover For Secure Protected PDF

Remove any password from your PDF file with the help of convenient password search methods. We bet you are familiar with such an issue as having an important password-protected PDF file, but the password to it is lost or forgotten. Of course you can spend a lot of time and effort on creating this document anew, or you can save your precious time and use Recover PDF Password – the software developed specifically for such cases that will help you with your PDF password recovery.

Open, print, copy or edit password-protected PDF – PDF can be protected in two ways: using “user” password or “owner” password. First one prevents opening a document without knowing the password. The second protects information in a document from being printed, copied or edited. Recovering a PDF Password helps you remember any of them in a very simple way.

  • Recover PDF password at the drop of a hat – Now you can search for PDF password using the network distributed search involving multiple computers at the same time, which speeds up the PDF password recovery a lot. Just choose the recovery method and connect the necessary number of computers on the network – they’ll be the search agents, and then start the search. Recover PDF Password allows using CPU partially, not interfering with computer functioning.
  • Get an unprotected copy of PDF file without password search – “Decrypt” option is a very convenient thing. Say, your PDF document was protected with “owner” password only and you don’t want to spend time recollecting this password or searching for it. Good news: your file can be decrypted right away with Recover PDF Password. Just add your PDF to the application and press the “Decrypt” button. The next thing you’ll have is your unprotected and totally unrestricted PDF file. In case your document was protected with a “user” password, “Decrypt” option is still available. First thing you should do in this case is recover the password with Recover PDF Password for Windows and after that decrypt the document to use it with no limitations at all.
  • Use various methods to recover PDF passwords – Search by password length – if you can remember the approximate length of the password and what characters it may contain you can set the minimum and maximum length of the password and what symbols Recover PDF Password should search through. Search by template – if you remember the password partially you can set the template for it with the mask symbols for those parts you can’t remember, thus there will be less passwords variations to verify or use Exhaustive search – this method guarantees 100% success but requires maximum time. Use it if the PDF file has both user and owner passwords and they are long and complicated.
  • Dictionary search through the passwords – Mostly the passwords are created manually and consist of words that can be found in a dictionary. So performing a dictionary search by going over the words, their combinations and variations allows saving your precious time. Recover PDF Password offers the dictionary that contains more than 400 000 words.
  • View already recovered PDF file passwords – “History” tab lets you view already recovered PDF file passwords at any time. Moreover, you can delete one or all entries in “History” by clicking “Remove” or “Remove All” buttons, copy “owner” or “user” passwords and view date and time when the selected password has been recovered.

↓ 16 – Tenorshare PDF Password Recovery Remove User/Owner Password / Windows

pdf crack PDF Password Recovery / Remover For Secure Protected PDF

PDFCrack is a GNU/Linux (other POSIX-compatible systems should work too) tool for recovering passwords and content from PDF-files. It is small, command line driven without external dependencies. The application is Open Source (GPL). Features

  • Supports the standard security handler (revision 2, 3 and 4) on all known PDF-versions
  • Supports cracking both owner and userpasswords
  • Both wordlists and bruteforcing the password is supported
  • Simple permutations (currently only trying first character as Upper Case)
  • Save/Load a running job
  • Simple benchmarking
  • Optimised search for owner-password when user-password is known

↓ 04 – qpdf

PDF Password Remover


Freeware programs can be downloaded used free of charge and without any time limitations. Freeware products can be used free of charge for both personal and professional (commercial use).

Open Source

Open Source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify or enhance. Programs released under this license can be used at no cost for both personal and commercial purposes. There are many different open source licenses but they all must comply with the Open Source Definition - in brief: the software can be freely used, modified and shared.

Free to Play

This license is commonly used for video games and it allows users to download and play the game for free. Basically, a product is offered Free to Play (Freemium) and the user can decide if he wants to pay the money (Premium) for additional features, services, virtual or physical goods that expand the functionality of the game. In some cases, ads may be show to the users.


Demo programs have a limited functionality for free, but charge for an advanced set of features or for the removal of advertisements from the program's interfaces. In some cases, all the functionality is disabled until the license is purchased. Demos are usually not time-limited (like Trial software) but the functionality is limited.


Trial software allows the user to evaluate the software for a limited amount of time. After that trial period (usually 15 to 90 days) the user can decide whether to buy the software or not. Even though, most trial software products are only time-limited some also have feature limitations.


Usually commercial software or games are produced for sale or to serve a commercial purpose.

Click here to close

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]


Used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval

For other uses, see Password (disambiguation).

For assistance with your Wikipedia password, see Help:Reset password.

"Passcode" redirects here. For the Japanese idol group, see Passcode (group).

A password field in a sign in form.

A password, sometimes called a passcode (for example in Apple devices),[1] is secret data, typically a string of characters, usually used to confirm a user's identity.[1] Traditionally, passwords were expected to be memorized, but the large number of password-protected services that a typical individual accesses can make memorization of unique passwords for each service impractical.[2] Using the terminology of the NIST Digital Identity Guidelines,[3] the secret is held by a party called the claimant while the party verifying the identity of the claimant is called the verifier. When the claimant successfully demonstrates knowledge of the password to the verifier through an established authentication protocol,[4] the verifier is able to infer the claimant's identity.

In general, a password is an arbitrary string of characters including letters, digits, or other symbols. If the permissible characters are constrained to be numeric, the corresponding secret is sometimes called a personal identification number (PIN).

Despite its name, a password does not need to be an actual word; indeed, a non-word (in the dictionary sense) may be harder to guess, which is a desirable property of passwords. A memorized secret consisting of a sequence of words or other text separated by spaces is sometimes called a passphrase. A passphrase is similar to a password in usage, but the former is generally longer for added security.[5]


Passwords have been used since ancient times. Sentries would challenge those wishing to enter an area to supply a password or watchword, and would only allow a person or group to pass if they knew the password. Polybius describes the system for the distribution of watchwords in the Roman military as follows:

The way in which they secure the passing round of the watchword for the night is as follows: from the tenth maniple of each class of infantry and cavalry, the maniple which is encamped at the lower end of the street, a man is chosen who is relieved from guard duty, and he attends every day at sunset at the tent of the tribune, and receiving from him the watchword—that is a wooden tablet with the word inscribed on it – takes his leave, and on returning to his quarters passes on the watchword and tablet before witnesses to the commander of the next maniple, who in turn passes it to the one next to him. All do the same until it reaches the first maniples, those encamped near the tents of the tribunes. These latter are obliged to deliver the tablet to the tribunes before dark. So that if all those issued are returned, the tribune knows that the watchword has been given to all the maniples, and has passed through all on its way back to him. If any one of them is missing, he makes inquiry at once, as he knows by the marks from what quarter the tablet has not returned, and whoever is responsible for the stoppage meets with the punishment he merits.[6]

Passwords in military use evolved to include not just a password, but a password and a counterpassword; for example in the opening days of the Battle of Normandy, paratroopers of the U.S. 101st Airborne Division used a password—flash—which was presented as a challenge, and answered with the correct response—thunder. The challenge and response were changed every three days. American paratroopers also famously used a device known as a "cricket" on D-Day in place of a password system as a temporarily unique method of identification; one metallic click given by the device in lieu of a password was to be met by two clicks in reply.[7]

Passwords have been used with computers since the earliest days of computing. The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), an operating system introduced at MIT in 1961, was the first computer system to implement password login.[8][9] CTSS had a LOGIN command that requested a user password. "After typing PASSWORD, the system turns off the printing mechanism, if possible, so that the user may type in his password with privacy."[10] In the early 1970s, Robert Morris developed a system of storing login passwords in a hashed form as part of the Unix operating system. The system was based on a simulated Hagelin rotor crypto machine, and first appeared in 6th Edition Unix in 1974. A later version of his algorithm, known as crypt(3), used a 12-bit salt and invoked a modified form of the DES algorithm 25 times to reduce the risk of pre-computed dictionary attacks.[11]

In modern times, user names and passwords are commonly used by people during a log in process that controls access to protected computer operating systems, mobile phones, cable TV decoders, automated teller machines (ATMs), etc. A typical computer user has passwords for many purposes: logging into accounts, retrieving e-mail, accessing applications, databases, networks, web sites, and even reading the morning newspaper online.

Choosing a secure and memorable password[edit]

The easier a password is for the owner to remember generally means it will be easier for an attacker to guess.[12] However, passwords that are difficult to remember may also reduce the security of a system because (a) users might need to write down or electronically store the password, (b) users will need frequent password resets and (c) users are more likely to re-use the same password across different accounts. Similarly, the more stringent the password requirements, such as "have a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters and digits" or "change it monthly", the greater the degree to which users will subvert the system.[13] Others argue longer passwords provide more security (e.g., entropy) than shorter passwords with a wide variety of characters.[14]

In The Memorability and Security of Passwords,[15] Jeff Yan et al. examine the effect of advice given to users about a good choice of password. They found that passwords based on thinking of a phrase and taking the first letter of each word are just as memorable as naively selected passwords, and just as hard to crack as randomly generated passwords.

Combining two or more unrelated words and altering some of the letters to special characters or numbers is another good method,[16] but a single dictionary word is not. Having a personally designed algorithm for generating obscure passwords is another good method.[17]

However, asking users to remember a password consisting of a "mix of uppercase and lowercase characters" is similar to asking them to remember a sequence of bits: hard to remember, and only a little bit harder to crack (e.g. only 128 times harder to crack for 7-letter passwords, less if the user simply capitalises one of the letters). Asking users to use "both letters and digits" will often lead to easy-to-guess substitutions such as 'E' → '3' and 'I' → '1', substitutions that are well known to attackers. Similarly typing the password one keyboard row higher is a common trick known to attackers.[18]

In 2013, Google released a list of the most common password types, all of which are considered insecure because they are too easy to guess (especially after researching an individual on social media):[19]

  • The name of a pet, child, family member, or significant other
  • Anniversary dates and birthdays
  • Birthplace
  • Name of a favorite holiday
  • Something related to a favorite sports team
  • The word "password"

Alternatives to memorization[edit]

Traditional advice to memorize passwords and never write them down has become a challenge because of the sheer number of passwords users of computers and the internet are expected to maintain. One survey concluded that the average user has around 100 passwords.[2] To manage the proliferation of passwords, some users employ the same password for multiple accounts, a dangerous practice since a data breach in one account could compromise the rest. Less risky alternatives include the use of password managers, single sign-on systems and simply keeping paper lists of less critical passwords.[20] Such practices can reduce the number of passwords that must be memorized, such as the password manager's master password, to a more manageable number.

Factors in the security of a password system[edit]

The security of a password-protected system depends on several factors. The overall system must be designed for sound security, with protection against computer viruses, man-in-the-middle attacks and the like. Physical security issues are also a concern, from deterring shoulder surfing to more sophisticated physical threats such as video cameras and keyboard sniffers. Passwords should be chosen so that they are hard for an attacker to guess and hard for an attacker to discover using any of the available automatic attack schemes. See password strength and computer security for more information.[21]

Nowadays, it is a common practice for computer systems to hide passwords as they are typed. The purpose of this measure is to prevent bystanders from reading the password; however, some argue that this practice may lead to mistakes and stress, encouraging users to choose weak passwords. As an alternative, users should have the option to show or hide passwords as they type them.[21]

Effective access control provisions may force extreme measures on criminals seeking to acquire a password or biometric token.[22] Less extreme measures include extortion, rubber hose cryptanalysis, and side channel attack.

Some specific password management issues that must be considered when thinking about, choosing, and handling, a password follow.

Rate at which an attacker can try guessed passwords[edit]

The rate at which an attacker can submit guessed passwords to the system is a key factor in determining system security. Some systems impose a time-out of several seconds after a small number (e.g., three) of failed password entry attempts, also known as throttling.[3]: 63B Sec 5.2.2  In the absence of other vulnerabilities, such systems can be effectively secure with relatively simple passwords if they have been well chosen and are not easily guessed.[23]

Many systems store a cryptographic hash of the password. If an attacker gets access to the file of hashed passwords guessing can be done offline, rapidly testing candidate passwords against the true password's hash value. In the example of a web-server, an online attacker can guess only at the rate at which the server will respond, while an off-line attacker (who gains access to the file) can guess at a rate limited only by the hardware on which the attack is running.

Passwords that are used to generate cryptographic keys (e.g., for disk encryption or Wi-Fi security) can also be subjected to high rate guessing. Lists of common passwords are widely available and can make password attacks very efficient. (See Password cracking.) Security in such situations depends on using passwords or passphrases of adequate complexity, making such an attack computationally infeasible for the attacker. Some systems, such as PGP and Wi-Fi WPA, apply a computation-intensive hash to the password to slow such attacks. See key stretching.

Limits on the number of password guesses[edit]

An alternative to limiting the rate at which an attacker can make guesses on a password is to limit the total number of guesses that can be made. The password can be disabled, requiring a reset, after a small number of consecutive bad guesses (say 5); and the user may be required to change the password after a larger cumulative number of bad guesses (say 30), to prevent an attacker from making an arbitrarily large number of bad guesses by interspersing them between good guesses made by the legitimate password owner.[24] Attackers may conversely use knowledge of this mitigation to implement a denial of service attack against the user by intentionally locking the user out of their own device; this denial of service may open other avenues for the attacker to manipulate the situation to their advantage via social engineering.

Form of stored passwords[edit]

Some computer systems store user passwords as plaintext, against which to compare user logon attempts. If an attacker gains access to such an internal password store, all passwords—and so all user accounts—will be compromised. If some users employ the same password for accounts on different systems, those will be compromised as well.

More secure systems store each password in a cryptographically protected form, so access to the actual password will still be difficult for a snooper who gains internal access to the system, while validation of user access attempts remains possible. The most secure don't store passwords at all, but a one-way derivation, such as a polynomial, modulus, or an advanced hash function.[14]Roger Needham invented the now-common approach of storing only a "hashed" form of the plaintext password.[25][26] When a user types in a password on such a system, the password handling software runs through a cryptographic hash algorithm, and if the hash value generated from the user's entry matches the hash stored in the password database, the user is permitted access. The hash value is created by applying a cryptographic hash function to a string consisting of the submitted password and, in many implementations, another value known as a salt. A salt prevents attackers from easily building a list of hash values for common passwords and prevents password cracking efforts from scaling across all users.[27]MD5 and SHA1 are frequently used cryptographic hash functions, but they are not recommended for password hashing unless they are used as part of a larger construction such as in PBKDF2.[28]

The stored data—sometimes called the "password verifier" or the "password hash"—is often stored in Modular Crypt Format or RFC 2307 hash format, sometimes in the /etc/passwd file or the /etc/shadow file.[29]

The main storage methods for passwords are plain text, hashed, hashed and salted, and reversibly encrypted.[30] If an attacker gains access to the password file, then if it is stored as plain text, no cracking is necessary. If it is hashed but not salted then it is vulnerable to rainbow table attacks (which are more efficient than cracking). If it is reversibly encrypted then if the attacker gets the decryption key along with the file no cracking is necessary, while if he fails to get the key cracking is not possible. Thus, of the common storage formats for passwords only when passwords have been salted and hashed is cracking both necessary and possible.[30]

If a cryptographic hash function is well designed, it is computationally infeasible to reverse the function to recover a plaintext password. An attacker can, however, use widely available tools to attempt to guess the passwords. These tools work by hashing possible passwords and comparing the result of each guess to the actual password hashes. If the attacker finds a match, they know that their guess is the actual password for the associated user. Password cracking tools can operate by brute force (i.e. trying every possible combination of characters) or by hashing every word from a list; large lists of possible passwords in many languages are widely available on the Internet.[14] The existence of password cracking tools allows attackers to easily recover poorly chosen passwords. In particular, attackers can quickly recover passwords that are short, dictionary words, simple variations on dictionary words, or that use easily guessable patterns.[31] A modified version of the DES algorithm was used as the basis for the password hashing algorithm in early Unix systems.[32] The crypt algorithm used a 12-bit salt value so that each user's hash was unique and iterated the DES algorithm 25 times in order to make the hash function slower, both measures intended to frustrate automated guessing attacks.[32] The user's password was used as a key to encrypt a fixed value. More recent Unix or Unix-like systems (e.g., Linux or the various BSD systems) use more secure password hashing algorithms such as PBKDF2, bcrypt, and scrypt, which have large salts and an adjustable cost or number of iterations.[33] A poorly designed hash function can make attacks feasible even if a strong password is chosen. See LM hash for a widely deployed and insecure example.[34]

Methods of verifying a password over a network[edit]

Simple transmission of the password[edit]

Passwords are vulnerable to interception (i.e., "snooping") while being transmitted to the authenticating machine or person. If the password is carried as electrical signals on unsecured physical wiring between the user access point and the central system controlling the password database, it is subject to snooping by wiretapping methods. If it is carried as packeted data over the Internet, anyone able to watch the packets containing the logon information can snoop with a very low probability of detection.

Email is sometimes used to distribute passwords but this is generally an insecure method. Since most email is sent as plaintext, a message containing a password is readable without effort during transport by any eavesdropper. Further, the message will be stored as plaintext on at least two computers: the sender's and the recipient's. If it passes through intermediate systems during its travels, it will probably be stored on there as well, at least for some time, and may be copied to backup, cache or history files on any of these systems.

Using client-side encryption will only protect transmission from the mail handling system server to the client machine. Previous or subsequent relays of the email will not be protected and the email will probably be stored on multiple computers, certainly on the originating and receiving computers, most often in clear text.

Transmission through encrypted channels[edit]

The risk of interception of passwords sent over the Internet can be reduced by, among other approaches, using cryptographic protection. The most widely used is the Transport Layer Security (TLS, previously called SSL) feature built into most current Internet browsers. Most browsers alert the user of a TLS/SSL-protected exchange with a server by displaying a closed lock icon, or some other sign, when TLS is in use. There are several other techniques in use; see cryptography.

Hash-based challenge–response methods[edit]

Unfortunately, there is a conflict between stored hashed-passwords and hash-based challenge–response authentication; the latter requires a client to prove to a server that they know what the shared secret (i.e., password) is, and to do this, the server must be able to obtain the shared secret from its stored form. On many systems (including Unix-type systems) doing remote authentication, the shared secret usually becomes the hashed form and has the serious limitation of exposing passwords to offline guessing attacks. In addition, when the hash is used as a shared secret, an attacker does not need the original password to authenticate remotely; they only need the hash.

Zero-knowledge password proofs[edit]

Rather than transmitting a password, or transmitting the hash of the password, password-authenticated key agreement systems can perform a zero-knowledge password proof, which proves knowledge of the password without exposing it.

Moving a step further, augmented systems for password-authenticated key agreement (e.g., AMP, B-SPEKE, PAK-Z, SRP-6) avoid both the conflict and limitation of hash-based methods. An augmented system allows a client to prove knowledge of the password to a server, where the server knows only a (not exactly) hashed password, and where the unhashed password is required to gain access.

Procedures for changing passwords[edit]

Usually, a system must provide a way to change a password, either because a user believes the current password has been (or might have been) compromised, or as a precautionary measure. If a new password is passed to the system in unencrypted form, security can be lost (e.g., via wiretapping) before the new password can even be installed in the password database and if the new password is given to a compromised employee, little is gained. Some websites include the user-selected password in an unencrypted confirmation e-mail message, with the obvious increased vulnerability.

Identity management systems are increasingly used to automate the issuance of replacements for lost passwords, a feature called self service password reset. The user's identity is verified by asking questions and comparing the answers to ones previously stored (i.e., when the account was opened).

Some password reset questions ask for personal information that could be found on social media, such as mother's maiden name. As a result, some security experts recommend either making up one's own questions or giving false answers.[35]

Password longevity[edit]

"Password aging" is a feature of some operating systems which forces users to change passwords frequently (e.g., quarterly, monthly or even more often). Such policies usually provoke user protest and foot-dragging at best and hostility at worst. There is often an increase in the number of people who note down the password and leave it where it can easily be found, as well as help desk calls to reset a forgotten password. Users may use simpler passwords or develop variation patterns on a consistent theme to keep their passwords memorable.[36] Because of these issues, there is some debate as to whether password aging is effective.[37] Changing a password will not prevent abuse in most cases, since the abuse would often be immediately noticeable. However, if someone may have had access to the password through some means, such as sharing a computer or breaching a different site, changing the password limits the window for abuse.[38]

Number of users per password[edit]

Allotting separate passwords to each user of a system is preferable to having a single password shared by legitimate users of the system, certainly from a security viewpoint. This is partly because users are more willing to tell another person (who may not be authorized) a shared password than one exclusively for their use.[citation needed] Single passwords are also much less convenient to change because many people need to be told at the same time, and they make removal of a particular user's access more difficult, as for instance on graduation or resignation. Separate logins are also often used for accountability, for example to know who changed a piece of data.

Password security architecture[edit]

Common techniques used to improve the security of computer systems protected by a password include:

  • Not displaying the password on the display screen as it is being entered or obscuring it as it is typed by using asterisks (*) or bullets (•).
  • Allowing passwords of adequate length. (Some legacy operating systems, including early versions[which?] of Unix and Windows, limited passwords to an 8 character maximum,[39][40][41] reducing security.)
  • Requiring users to re-enter their password after a period of inactivity (a semi log-off policy).
  • Enforcing a password policy to increase password strength and security.
    • Assigning randomly chosen passwords.
    • Requiring minimum password lengths.[28]
    • Some systems require characters from various character classes in a password—for example, "must have at least one uppercase and at least one lowercase letter". However, all-lowercase passwords are more secure per keystroke than mixed capitalization passwords.[42]
    • Employ a password blacklist to block the use of weak, easily guessed passwords
    • Providing an alternative to keyboard entry (e.g., spoken passwords, or biometric identifiers).
    • Requiring more than one authentication system, such as two-factor authentication (something a user has and something the user knows).
  • Using encrypted tunnels or password-authenticated key agreement to prevent access to transmitted passwords via network attacks
  • Limiting the number of allowed failures within a given time period (to prevent repeated password guessing). After the limit is reached, further attempts will fail (including correct password attempts) until the beginning of the next time period. However, this is vulnerable to a form of denial of service attack.
  • Introducing a delay between password submission attempts to slow down automated password guessing programs.

Some of the more stringent policy enforcement measures can pose a risk of alienating users, possibly decreasing security as a result.

Password reuse[edit]

It is common practice amongst computer users to reuse the same password on multiple sites. This presents a substantial security risk, because an attacker needs to only compromise a single site in order to gain access to other sites the victim uses. This problem is exacerbated by also reusing usernames, and by websites requiring email logins, as it makes it easier for an attacker to track a single user across multiple sites. Password reuse can be avoided or minimised by using mnemonic techniques, writing passwords down on paper, or using a password manager.[43]

It has been argued by Redmond researchers Dinei Florencio and Cormac Herley, together with Paul C. van Oorschot of Carleton University, Canada, that password reuse is inevitable, and that users should reuse passwords for low-security websites (which contain little personal data and no financial information, for example) and instead focus their efforts on remembering long, complex passwords for a few important accounts, such as bank accounts.[44] Similar arguments were made by Forbes in not change passwords as often as many "experts" advise, due to the same limitations in human memory.[36]

Writing down passwords on paper[edit]

Historically, many security experts asked people to memorize their passwords: "Never write down a password". More recently, many security experts such as Bruce Schneier recommend that people use passwords that are too complicated to memorize, write them down on paper, and keep them in a wallet.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

Password manager software can also store passwords relatively safely, in an encrypted file sealed with a single master password.

After death[edit]

According to a survey by the University of London, one in ten people are now leaving their passwords in their wills to pass on this important information when they die. One-third of people, according to the poll, agree that their password-protected data is important enough to pass on in their will.[52]

Multi-factor authentication[edit]

Main article: Multi-factor authentication

Multi-factor authentication schemes combine passwords (as "knowledge factors") with one or more other means of authentication, to make authentication more secure and less vulnerable to compromised passwords. For example, a simple two-factor login might send a text message, e-mail, automated phone call, or similar alert whenever a login attempt is made, possibly supplying a code that must be entered in addition to a password.[53] More sophisticated factors include such things as hardware tokens and biometric security.

Password rules[edit]

Further information: Password policy

Most organizations specify a password policy that sets requirements for the composition and usage of passwords, typically dictating minimum length, required categories (e.g., upper and lower case, numbers, and special characters), prohibited elements (e.g., use of one's own name, date of birth, address, telephone number). Some governments have national authentication frameworks[54] that define requirements for user authentication to government services, including requirements for passwords.

Many websites enforce standard rules such as minimum and maximum length, but also frequently include composition rules such as featuring at least one capital letter and at least one number/symbol. These latter, more specific rules were largely based on a 2003 report by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), authored by Bill Burr.[55] It originally proposed the practice of using numbers, obscure characters and capital letters and updating regularly. In a 2017 Wall Street Journal article, Burr reported he regrets these proposals and made a mistake when he recommended them.[56]

According to a 2017 rewrite of this NIST report, many websites have rules that actually have the opposite effect on the security of their users. This includes complex composition rules as well as forced password changes after certain periods of time. While these rules have long been widespread, they have also long been seen as annoying and ineffective by both users and cyber-security experts.[57] The NIST recommends people use longer phrases as passwords (and advises websites to raise the maximum password length) instead of hard-to-remember passwords with "illusory complexity" such as "pA55w+rd".[58] A user prevented from using the password "password" may simply choose "Password1" if required to include a number and uppercase letter. Combined with forced periodic password changes, this can lead to passwords that are difficult to remember but easy to crack.[55]

Paul Grassi, one of the 2017 NIST report's authors, further elaborated: "Everyone knows that an exclamation point is a 1, or an I, or the last character of a password. $ is an S or a 5. If we use these well-known tricks, we aren’t fooling any adversary. We are simply fooling the database that stores passwords into thinking the user did something good."[57]

Pieris Tsokkis and Eliana Stavrou were able to identify some bad password construction strategies through their research and development of a password generator tool. They came up with eight categories of password construction strategies based on exposed password lists, password cracking tools, and online reports citing the most used passwords. These categories include user-related information, keyboard combinations and patterns, placement strategy, word processing, substitution, capitalization, append dates, and a combination of the previous categories[59]

Password cracking[edit]

Main article: Password cracking

Attempting to crack passwords by trying as many possibilities as time and money permit is a brute force attack. A related method, rather more efficient in most cases, is a dictionary attack. In a dictionary attack, all words in one or more dictionaries are tested. Lists of common passwords are also typically tested.

Password strength is the likelihood that a password cannot be guessed or discovered, and varies with the attack algorithm used. Cryptologists and computer scientists often refer to the strength or 'hardness' in terms of entropy.[14]

Passwords easily discovered are termed weak or vulnerable; passwords very difficult or impossible to discover are considered strong. There are several programs available for password attack (or even auditing and recovery by systems personnel) such as L0phtCrack, John the Ripper, and Cain; some of which use password design vulnerabilities (as found in the Microsoft LANManager system) to increase efficiency. These programs are sometimes used by system administrators to detect weak passwords proposed by users.

Studies of production computer systems have consistently shown that a large fraction of all user-chosen passwords are readily guessed automatically. For example, Columbia University found 22% of user passwords could be recovered with little effort.[60] According to Bruce Schneier, examining data from a 2006 phishing attack, 55% of MySpace passwords would be crackable in 8 hours using a commercially available Password Recovery Toolkit capable of testing 200,000 passwords per second in 2006.[61] He also reported that the single most common password was password1, confirming yet again the general lack of informed care in choosing passwords among users. (He nevertheless maintained, based on these data, that the general quality of passwords has improved over the years—for example, average length was up to eight characters from under seven in previous surveys, and less than 4% were dictionary words.[62])


  • On July 16, 1998, CERT reported an incident where an attacker had found 186,126 encrypted passwords. At the time the attacker was discovered, 47,642 passwords had already been cracked.[63]
  • In September, 2001, after the deaths of 960 New York employees in the September 11 attacks, financial services firm Cantor Fitzgerald through Microsoft broke the passwords of deceased employees to gain access to files needed for servicing client accounts.[64] Technicians used brute-force attacks, and interviewers contacted families to gather personalized information that might reduce the search time for weaker passwords.[64]
  • In December 2009, a major password breach of the Rockyou.com website occurred that led to the release of 32 million passwords. The hacker then leaked the full list of the 32 million passwords (with no other identifiable information) to the Internet. Passwords were stored in cleartext in the database and were extracted through a SQL injection vulnerability. The Imperva Application Defense Center (ADC) did an analysis on the strength of the passwords.[65]
  • In June 2011, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) experienced a security breach that led to the public release of first and last names, usernames, and passwords for more than 11,000 registered users of their e-bookshop. The data was leaked as part of Operation AntiSec, a movement that includes Anonymous, LulzSec, as well as other hacking groups and individuals. The aim of AntiSec is to expose personal, sensitive, and restricted information to the world, using any means necessary.[66]
  • On July 11, 2011, Booz Allen Hamilton, a consulting firm that does work for the Pentagon, had their servers hacked by Anonymous and leaked the same day. "The leak, dubbed 'Military Meltdown Monday,' includes 90,000 logins of military personnel—including personnel from USCENTCOM, SOCOM, the Marine corps, various Air Force facilities, Homeland Security, State Department staff, and what looks like private sector contractors."[67] These leaked passwords wound up being hashed in SHA1, and were later decrypted and analyzed by the ADC team at Imperva, revealing that even military personnel look for shortcuts and ways around the password requirements.[68]

Alternatives to passwords for authentication[edit]

The numerous ways in which permanent or semi-permanent passwords can be compromised has prompted the development of other techniques. Unfortunately, some are inadequate in practice, and in any case few have become universally available for users seeking a more secure alternative.[citation needed] A 2012 paper[69] examines why passwords have proved so hard to supplant (despite numerous predictions that they would soon be a thing of the past[70]); in examining thirty representative proposed replacements with respect to security, usability and deployability they conclude "none even retains the full set of benefits that legacy passwords already provide."

  • Single-use passwords. Having passwords that are only valid once makes many potential attacks ineffective. Most users find single-use passwords extremely inconvenient. They have, however, been widely implemented in personal online banking, where they are known as Transaction Authentication Numbers (TANs). As most home users only perform a small number of transactions each week, the single-use issue has not led to intolerable customer dissatisfaction in this case.
  • Time-synchronized one-time passwords are similar in some ways to single-use passwords, but the value to be entered is displayed on a small (generally pocketable) item and changes every minute or so.
  • PassWindow one-time passwords are used as single-use passwords, but the dynamic characters to be entered are visible only when a user superimposes a unique printed visual key over a server-generated challenge image shown on the user's screen.
  • Access controls based on public-key cryptography e.g. ssh. The necessary keys are usually too large to memorize (but see proposal Passmaze)[71] and must be stored on a local computer, security token or portable memory device, such as a USB flash drive or even floppy disk. The private key may be stored on a cloud service provider, and activated by the use of a password or two-factor authentication.
  • Biometric methods promise authentication based on unalterable personal characteristics, but currently (2008) have high error rates and require additional hardware to scan,[needs update] for example, fingerprints, irises, etc. They have proven easy to spoof in some famous incidents testing commercially available systems, for example, the gummie fingerprint spoof demonstration,[72] and, because these characteristics are unalterable, they cannot be changed if compromised; this is a highly important consideration in access control as a compromised access token is necessarily insecure.
  • Single sign-on technology is claimed to eliminate the need for having multiple passwords. Such schemes do not relieve users and administrators from choosing reasonable single passwords, nor system designers or administrators from ensuring that private access control information passed among systems enabling single sign-on is secure against attack. As yet, no satisfactory standard has been developed.
  • Envaulting technology is a password-free way to secure data on removable storage devices such as USB flash drives. Instead of user passwords, access control is based on the user's access to a network resource.
  • Non-text-based passwords, such as graphical passwords or mouse-movement based passwords.[73] Graphical passwords are an alternative means of authentication for log-in intended to be used in place of conventional password; they use images, graphics or colours instead of letters, digits or special characters. One system requires users to select a series of faces as a password, utilizing the human brain's ability to recall faces easily.[74] In some implementations the user is required to pick from a series of images in the correct sequence in order to gain access.[75] Another graphical password solution creates a one-time password using a randomly generated grid of images. Each time the user is required to authenticate, they look for the images that fit their pre-chosen categories and enter the randomly generated alphanumeric character that appears in the image to form the one-time password.[76][77] So far, graphical passwords are promising, but are not widely used. Studies on this subject have been made to determine its usability in the real world. While some believe that graphical passwords would be harder to crack, others suggest that people will be just as likely to pick common images or sequences as they are to pick common passwords.[citation needed]
  • 2D Key (2-Dimensional Key)[78] is a 2D matrix-like key input method having the key styles of multiline passphrase, crossword, ASCII/Unicode art, with optional textual semantic noises, to create big password/key beyond 128 bits to realize the MePKC (Memorizable Public-Key Cryptography)[79] using fully memorizable private key upon the current private key management technologies like encrypted private key, split private key, and roaming private key.
  • Cognitive passwords use question and answer cue/response pairs to verify identity.

"The password is dead"[edit]

That "the password is dead" is a recurring idea in computer security. The reasons given often include reference to the usability as well as security problems of passwords. It often accompanies arguments that the replacement of passwords by a more secure means of authentication is both necessary and imminent. This claim has been made by numerous people at least since 2004.[70][80][81][82][83][84][85][86]

Alternatives to passwords include biometrics, two-factor authentication or single sign-on, Microsoft's Cardspace, the Higgins project, the Liberty Alliance, NSTIC, the FIDO Alliance and various Identity 2.0 proposals.[87][88]

However, in spite of these predictions and efforts to replace them passwords are still the dominant form of authentication on the web. In "The Persistence of Passwords," Cormac Herley and Paul van Oorschot suggest that every effort should be made to end the "spectacularly incorrect assumption" that passwords are dead.[89] They argue that "no other single technology matches their combination of cost, immediacy and convenience" and that "passwords are themselves the best fit for many of the scenarios in which they are currently used."

Following this, Bonneau et al. systematically compared web passwords to 35 competing authentication schemes in terms of their usability, deployability, and security.[90][91] Their analysis shows that most schemes do better than passwords on security, some schemes do better and some worse with respect to usability, while every scheme does worse than passwords on deployability. The authors conclude with the following observation: "Marginal gains are often not sufficient to reach the activation energy necessary to overcome significant transition costs, which may provide the best explanation of why we are likely to live considerably longer before seeing the funeral procession for passwords arrive at the cemetery."

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ab"passcode". YourDictionary. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  2. ^ abWilliams, Shannon (21 Oct 2020). "Average person has 100 passwords - study". NordPass. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  3. ^ abGrassi, Paul A.; Garcia, Michael E.; Fenton, James L. (June 2017). "NIST Special Publication 800-63-3: Digital Identity Guidelines". National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). doi:10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63-3. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  4. ^"authentication protocol". Computer Security Resource Center (NIST). Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  5. ^"Passphrase". Computer Security Resource Center (NIST). Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  6. ^Polybius on the Roman MilitaryArchived 2008-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. Ancienthistory.about.com (2012-04-13). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  7. ^Mark Bando (2007). 101st Airborne: The Screaming Eagles in World War II. Mbi Publishing Company. ISBN . Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  8. ^McMillan, Robert (27 January 2012). "The World's First Computer Password? It Was Useless Too". Wired magazine. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  9. ^Hunt, Troy (26 July 2017). "Passwords Evolved: Authentication Guidance for the Modern Era". Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  10. ^CTSS Programmers Guide, 2nd Ed., MIT Press, 1965
  11. ^Morris, Robert; Thompson, Ken (1978-04-03). "Password Security: A Case History". Bell Laboratories. CiteSeerX
  12. ^Vance, Ashlee (2010-01-10). "If Your Password Is 123456, Just Make It HackMe". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2017-02-11.
  13. ^"Managing Network Security". Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-31.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Fred Cohen and Associates. All.net. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  14. ^ abcdLundin, Leigh (2013-08-11). "PINs and Passwords, Part 2". Passwords. Orlando: SleuthSayers.
  15. ^The Memorability and Security of PasswordsArchived 2012-04-14 at the Wayback Machine (pdf). ncl.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  16. ^Michael E. Whitman; Herbert J. Mattord (2014). Principles of Information Security. Cengage Learning. p. 162. ISBN .
  17. ^"How to Create a Random Password Generator". PCMAG. Retrieved 2021-09-05.
  18. ^Lewis, Dave (2011). Ctrl-Alt-Delete. p. 17. ISBN . Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  19. ^Techlicious / Fox Van Allen @techlicious (2013-08-08). "Google Reveals the 10 Worst Password Ideas | TIME.com". Techland.time.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  20. ^Fleishman, Glenn (November 24, 2015). "Write your passwords down to improve safety — A counter-intuitive notion leaves you less vulnerable to remote attack, not more". MacWorld. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  21. ^ abLyquix Blog: Do We Need to Hide Passwords?Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. Lyquix.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  22. ^Jonathan Kent Malaysia car thieves steal fingerArchived 2010-11-20 at the Wayback Machine. BBC (2005-03-31)
  23. ^Stuart Brown "Top ten passwords used in the United Kingdom". Archived from the original on November 8, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-14.. Modernlifeisrubbish.co.uk (2006-05-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  24. ^US patent 8046827 
  25. ^Wilkes, M. V. Time-Sharing Computer Systems. American Elsevier, New York, (1968).
  26. ^Schofield, Jack (10 March 2003). "Roger Needham". The Guardian.
  27. ^The Bug Charmer: Passwords MatterArchived 2013-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. Bugcharmer.blogspot.com (2012-06-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-30.
  28. ^ abAlexander, Steven. (2012-06-20) The Bug Charmer: How long should passwords be?Archived 2012-09-20 at the Wayback Machine. Bugcharmer.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-30.
  29. ^"passlib.hash - Password Hashing Schemes"Archived 2013-07-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ abFlorencio et al., An Administrator's Guide to Internet Password ResearchArchived 2015-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf) Retrieved on 2015-03-14.
  31. ^Cracking Story – How I Cracked Over 122 Million SHA1 and MD5 Hashed Passwords « Thireus' Bl0gArchived 2012-08-30 at the Wayback Machine. Blog.thireus.com (2012-08-29). Retrieved on 2013-07-30.
  32. ^ abMorris, Robert & Thompson, Ken (1979). "Password Security: A Case History". Communications of the ACM. 22 (11): 594–597. CiteSeerX doi:10.1145/359168.359172. S2CID 207656012. Archived from the original on 2003-03-22.
  33. ^Password Protection for Modern Operating SystemsArchived 2016-03-11 at the Wayback Machine (pdf). Usenix.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  34. ^How to prevent Windows from storing a LAN manager hash of your password in Active Directory and local SAM databasesArchived 2006-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. support.microsoft.com (2007-12-03). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  35. ^"Why You Should Lie When Setting Up Password Security Questions". Techlicious. 2013-03-08. Archived from the original on 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
  36. ^ abJoseph Steinberg (12 November 2014). "Forbes: Why You Should Ignore Everything You Have Been Told About Choosing Passwords". Forbes. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  37. ^"The problems with forcing regular password expiry". IA Matters. CESG: the Information Security Arm of GCHQ. 15 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 5 Aug 2016.
  38. ^Schneier on Security discussion on changing passwordsArchived 2010-12-30 at the Wayback Machine. Schneier.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  39. ^Seltzer, Larry. (2010-02-09) "American Express: Strong Credit, Weak Passwords"Archived 2017-07-12 at the Wayback Machine. Pcmag.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  40. ^"Ten Windows Password Myths"Archived 2016-01-28 at the Wayback Machine: "NT dialog boxes ... limited passwords to a maximum of 14 characters"
  41. ^"You must provide a password between 1 and 8 characters in length". Jira.codehaus.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-20. Archived May 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^"To Capitalize or Not to Capitalize?"Archived 2009-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. World.std.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  43. ^Thomas, Keir (February 10, 2011). "Password Reuse Is All Too Common, Research Shows". PC World. Archived from the original on August 12, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  44. ^Pauli, Darren (16 July 2014). "Microsoft: You NEED bad passwords and should re-use them a lot". The Register. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  45. ^Bruce Schneier : Crypto-Gram NewsletterArchived 2011-11-15 at the Wayback Machine May 15, 2001
  46. ^"Ten Windows Password Myths"Archived 2016-01-28 at the Wayback Machine: Myth #7. You Should Never Write Down Your Password
  47. ^Kotadia, Munir (2005-05-23) Microsoft security guru: Jot down your passwords. News.cnet.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  48. ^"The Strong Password Dilemma"Archived 2010-07-18 at the Wayback Machine by Richard E. Smith: "we can summarize classical password selection rules as follows: The password must be impossible to remember and never written down."
  49. ^Bob Jenkins (2013-01-11). "Choosing Random Passwords". Archived from the original on 2010-09-18.
  50. ^"The Memorability and Security of Passwords – Some Empirical Results"Archived 2011-02-19 at the Wayback Machine (pdf)
    "your password ... in a secure place, such as the back of your wallet or purse."
  51. ^"Should I write down my passphrase?"Archived 2009-02-17 at the Wayback Machine. World.std.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  52. ^Jaffery, Saman M. (17 October 2011). "Survey: 11% of Brits Include Internet Passwords in Will". Hull & Hull LLP. Archived from the original on 25 December 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  53. ^Two-factor authenticationArchived 2016-06-18 at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^Improving Usability of Password Management with Standardized Password PoliciesArchived 2013-06-20 at the Wayback Machine (pdf). Retrieved on 2012-10-12.
  55. ^ abHate silly password rules? So does the guy who created them, ZDNet
  56. ^The Man Who Wrote Those Password Rules Has a New Tip: N3v$r M1^d!, Wall Street Journal
  57. ^ abExperts Say We Can Finally Ditch Those Stupid Password Rules, Fortune
  58. ^NIST’s new password rules – what you need to know, Naked Security
  59. ^P. Tsokkis and E. Stavrou, "A password generator tool to increase users' awareness on bad password construction strategies," 2018 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC), Rome, 2018, pp. 1-5, doi:10.1109/ISNCC.2018.8531061.
  60. ^"Password". Archived from the original on April 23, 2007. Retrieved 2012-05-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). cs.columbia.edu
  61. ^Schneier, Real-World PasswordsArchived 2008-09-23 at the Wayback Machine. Schneier.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  62. ^MySpace Passwords Aren't So DumbArchived 2014-03-29 at the Wayback Machine. Wired.com (2006-10-27). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  63. ^"CERT IN-98.03". 1998-07-16. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
  64. ^ abUrbina, Ian; Davis, Leslye (November 23, 2014). "The Secret Life of Passwords". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 28, 2014.
  65. ^"Consumer Password Worst Practices (pdf)"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 2011-07-28.
  66. ^"NATO site hacked". The Register. 2011-06-24. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
  67. ^"Anonymous Leaks 90,000 Military Email Accounts in Latest Antisec Attack". 2011-07-11. Archived from the original on 2017-07-14.
  68. ^"Military Password Analysis". 2011-07-12. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15.
  69. ^"The Quest to Replace Passwords (pdf)"(PDF). IEEE. 2012-05-15. Archived(PDF) from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
  70. ^ ab"Gates predicts death of the password". CNET. 2004-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  71. ^Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2005/434Archived 2006-06-14 at the Wayback Machine. eprint.iacr.org. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  72. ^T Matsumoto. H Matsumotot; K Yamada & S Hoshino (2002). "Impact of artificial 'Gummy' Fingers on Fingerprint Systems". Proc SPIE. Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques IV. 4677: 275. Bibcode:2002SPIE.4677..275M. doi:10.1117/12.462719. S2CID 16897825.
  73. ^Using AJAX for Image Passwords – AJAX Security Part 1 of 3Archived 2006-06-16 at the Wayback Machine. waelchatila.com (2005-09-18). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  74. ^Butler, Rick A. (2004-12-21) Face in the CrowdArchived 2006-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. mcpmag.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  75. ^graphical password or graphical user authentication (GUA)Archived 2009-02-21 at the Wayback Machine. searchsecurity.techtarget.com. Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  76. ^Ericka Chickowski (2010-11-03). "Images Could Change the Authentication Picture". Dark Reading. Archived from the original on 2010-11-10.
  77. ^"Confident Technologies Delivers Image-Based, Multifactor Authentication to Strengthen Passwords on Public-Facing Websites". 2010-10-28. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07.
  78. ^User Manual for 2-Dimensional Key (2D Key) Input Method and SystemArchived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. xpreeli.com. (2008-09-08) . Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
  79. ^Kok-Wah Lee "Methods and Systems to Create Big Memorizable Secrets and Their Applications" Patent US20110055585Archived 2015-04-13 at the Wayback Machine, WO2010010430. Filing date: December 18, 2008
  80. ^Kotadia, Munir (25 February 2004). "Gates predicts death of the password". ZDNet. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  81. ^"IBM Reveals Five Innovations That Will Change Our Lives within Five Years". IBM. 2011-12-19. Archived from the original on 2015-03-17. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  82. ^Honan, Mat (2012-05-15). "Kill the Password: Why a String of Characters Can't Protect Us Anymore". Wired. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  83. ^"Google security exec: 'Passwords are dead'". CNET. 2004-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  84. ^"Authentciation at Scale". IEEE. 2013-01-25. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-12.
  85. ^Mims, Christopher (2014-07-14). "The Password Is Finally Dying. Here's Mine". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  86. ^"Russian credential theft shows why the password is dead". Computer World. 2014-08-14. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  87. ^"NSTIC head Jeremy Grant wants to kill passwords". Fedscoop. 2014-09-14. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-03-14.
  88. ^"Specifications Overview". FIDO Alliance. 2014-02-25. Archived from the original on 2015-03-15. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
  89. ^"A Research Agenda Acknowledging the Persistence of Passwords". IEEE Security&Privacy. Jan 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  90. ^Bonneau, Joseph; Herley, Cormac; Oorschot, Paul C. van; Stajano, Frank (2012). "The Quest to Replace Passwords: A Framework for Comparative Evaluation of Web Authentication Schemes". Technical Report - University of Cambridge. Computer Laboratory. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. ISSN 1476-2986. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  91. ^Bonneau, Joseph; Herley, Cormac; Oorschot, Paul C. van; Stajano, Frank (2012). The Quest to Replace Passwords: A Framework for Comparative Evaluation of Web Authentication Schemes. 2012 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. San Francisco, CA. pp. 553–567. doi:10.1109/SP.2012.44.

External links[edit]

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

6 Best PDF Password Unlocker Software on Windows and Mac

Home> Tutorials> PDF Password Unlocking Tool

PDF security is an essential component of business communication. Since sensitive data is usually shared on PDF, any unauthorized viewing, access, or even modification can have adverse effects on your business. To better protect the intellectual assets, adding password security to all PDF documents is always a good idea. However, that means users sharing several documents will need to remember multiple passwords, which they can easily forget password of PDF file. The only thing to do is to unlock the document using a third-party service or software. This review covers six of the best PDF password unlocking tools available on the Internet. Let's take a look at what they can do, as well as their pros and cons, so you can make a more informed decision about which one to use.

#1 iSeePassword PDF Password Unlocker (Windows and Mac)

Straight out of the gate, iSeePassword Dr. PDF impresses users with its slick interface and intuitive options. Launching the app on your Mac or Windows desktop will show you two clear objectives: Recover Open Password from PDF, and Remove the Restrict Editing Password. Dr. PDF offers three powerful password attack types to recover PDF open password. Brute Force and Brute Force with Mask are the two commonly used ones, but you can also use the word lists from the built-in Dictionary attack function.


The recovery rate for PDF passwords are well over 95%, which means the majority of user passwords can be quickly recovered, and the PDF file unlocked. Dr. PDF scores well in reliability, ease-of-use, and ability to crack complex passwords. Removing PDF Restrict Editing password is even easier. Just upload the files in bulk and hit the Start button to instantly blank out all owner passwords. It's a vital tool if you're working with password-protected PDF files on a regular basis.


PDF Password Recovery


Pros of iSeePassword Dr.PDF:

  • Easily recover PDF open password even for strong password.
  • Instantly remove editing protection from PDF file.
  • Modern user interface.
  • Embedded with 3 powerful password cracking functions.
  • Support latest Windows 10 and macOS 10.14.

Cons of iSeePassword Dr.PDF:

  • Not free ($29.95).
  • Not support Linux OS.


#2 Wondershare PDF Password Remover (Windows & Mac)

This is more of a complementary tool to the powerful PDFelement PDF editor software from Wondershare. It's a purpose-built utility that's as intuitive as its sister product but solely designed to remove the Restrict Editing password. That means you'll still need to know the Open password in order to remove editing restrictions. That's a major limitation but if your requirement is only to make PDF documents accessible to editing, printing or copying, this could be the perfect tool for you.


If you're using it in combination with PDFelement, that's even better because it resolves any compatibility issues with PDF versions, and so on. Using the Wondershare PDF Password Remover is literally a no-brainer. Just install it, launch it, add your files, and hit Start. All edit restrictions, including modifying, printing and copying, will be removed instantly, and you can start working on your documents in just a few minutes.


Wondershare PDF Password Remover


Pros of Wondershare PDF Password Remover:

  • Remove PDF editing restrictions instanly.
  • Good customer support.

Cons of Wondershare PDF Password Remover:

  • Premium software at $29.95.
  • Can not recover PDF open password.
  • No update for years.

#3 PDF.io Online PDF Password Unlocker

PDF.io is actually a suite of tools containing several modules, each designed for a single purpose. The PDF Unlock module is what we're concerned with here. The service covers unlocking a protected PDF document as well as removing any access restrictions and encryption. Overall, it's a great way to quickly and fully unlock your PDF files online, without installing any software.


However, there's always the worry about your files being hacked into during the upload or download process. The site itself offers https security, but the safety of your data ultimately depends on the type of Internet connection you're using. Public Wi-Fi hotspots are probably the worst because they're often the weakest in terms of security. Nevertheless, in a pinch, you can depend on PDF.io to get you through a session of unlocking PDF files. The best part is that you can drag and drop files, as well as upload them from Drive, Dropbox, or even a URL.


Online PDF Password Unlocker


Pros of PDF.io:

  • Totally free of charge.
  • More PDF tools are available.
  • No software install.
  • Easy to get started.

Cons of PDF.io:

  • Can not crack PDF open password.
  • The uploaded PDF might be seen by others.

#4 PDFCrack Free Password Unlocker (Linux Only)

PDFCrack is a Linux-based Windows utility for removing both user and owner passwords from PDF documents. It is an open-source tool with a command-line interface, so don't expect any fancy GUI. In fact, don't expect a GUI at all! You'll need to first build the program with the help of GNU Make and the latest compiler collection (GCC.)


There are also some adjustments to be made in Makefile. It does a fairly thorough job, although currently, only brute force with specific character sets and dictionary attack with pre-formatted word lists are possible. To be clear, this tool cannot decrypt a file that's been protected with a password. It only retrieves the passwords using the two methods mentioned above. If you know the user password, then the search feature for the owner password can be optimized to save time.




Pros of PDFCrack:

  • Free and open source.
  • Recover both user and owner password.
  • Support wordlist from third-party sources.
  • Being updated frequently.

Cons of PDFCrack:

  • Linux only and needs to need an virtual machine if you want to run on Windows.
  • Has to compile the source code before opening it.
  • Hard for first-time users to set up.

#5 SysTools PDF Unlocker (Windows & Mac)

The PDF Unlocker utility from SysTools Software is another tool like the PDF password unlocking tool from Wondershare. It won't recover your open password, but it will help remove any editing restrictions applied by the owner (owner password.) however, if you know the open passwords for a group of PDF files, you can remove them in bulk with the Mac version of this software.


Just install it on your Mac or Windows PC, launch the program, import the locked documents and hit the Unlock button to remove all passwords for Restrict Editing. As with the Wondershare utility, you need to know the user password, so you can only use this if you have access to the files in question because you will need to enter it when uploading the PDFs to the program.


Systools PDF Unlocker


Cons of Systools PDF Unlocker:

  • Instantly remove PDF restrictions on editing, copying and printing.
  • Remove signature from PDF forms.
  • Available on Windows and Mac.

Cons of Systools PDF Unlocker:

  • Need a license key to activate the program.
  • Not able to remove open password.

#6 Portable PDF Unlocker Free (Windows Only)

This is a simple drag-and-drop application that unlocks your PDF files for editing, printing, copying, and other actions. Just click-hold your file in Explorer, and drag it over to the software window and drop it there. The password removal is fast, and you can proceed with editing the unlocked files in just a couple of minutes. One good addition would have been a command-line version of the tool, and the ability to import files from within the software.


Portable PDF Unlocker


Pros of Online PDF Unlocker:

  • 100% free and no ads.
  • Ultra simple user interface.

Pros of Online PDF Unlocker:

  • Some of the PDF files might be recognized.
  • No warning message for errors.
  • Need to know the user password.


All the tools listed above are popular in their own right, but as you can see most of them require that the user password be known. That's because decrypting a file to unlock it is virtually impossible. The best option, therefore, would be to recover it. That's what iSeePassword Dr. PDF does, and in that respect, it clearly comes out at the top of this list.


If you're only removing restrictions, try the Wondershare Password Password Remover. It is the best at keeping the formatting exactly the same in the unlocked output file, which could be an important consideration for your work. The other utilities are recommended for non-critical documents where it doesn't matter if formatting goes awry or if someone else gets their hands on the document.

Copyright © 2021 RecoveryWindowsPassword Inc. All rights reserved.

Web AnalyticsИсточник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Join: PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen

PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen
PassFab iPhone Unlocker With Crack
Full Downloads: Counter-Strike: Global Offensive – PC
PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen

PDF Password Remover


Freeware programs can be downloaded used free of charge and without any time limitations. Freeware products can be used free of charge for both personal and professional (commercial use).

Open Source

Open Source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen, modify or enhance. Programs released under this license can be used at no cost for both personal and commercial purposes. There are many different open source licenses but they all must comply with the Open Source Definition - in brief: the software can be freely used, modified and shared.

Free to Play

This license is commonly used for video games and it allows users to download and play the game for free. Basically, a product is offered Free to Play (Freemium) and the user can decide if he wants to pay the money (Premium) for additional features, services, virtual or physical goods that expand the functionality of the game. In some cases, ads may be show to the users.


Demo programs have a limited functionality for free, but charge for an advanced set of features or for the removal of advertisements from the program's interfaces. In some cases, all the functionality is disabled until the license is purchased. Demos are usually not time-limited (like Trial software) but the functionality is limited.


Trial software allows the user to evaluate the software for a limited amount of time. After that trial period (usually 15 to 90 days) the user can decide whether to buy the software or not. Even though, most trial software products are only time-limited DLL Files Fixer 2020 mac Archives also have feature limitations.


Usually commercial software or games are produced for sale or to serve a commercial purpose.

Click here to close

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

12 Free PDF Password Recovery – Remove Protected & Unlock Secured PDF

Updated: June 14, 2021 /Home » Freeware and Software Reviews » Adobe PDF

My bank sends me monthly credit card statements via email as password-protected PDF files. These files contain personal information such as credit card numbers, names and addresses. Because I change my password every six months, I’ve lost track of the original password and can’t access the PDF file I received 5 years ago. How to remove the password from a protected PDF file? Before we begin, understand that there are two different types of passwords used in PDF PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen that are, and will always be, a source of confusion.

😭 😍 😂 3 Free Adobe PDF Printer Driver For Microsoft Windows 10 & Apple Mac

  • The OWNER PASSWORD is used to control what you can do with/to the PDF file, but you do not have to know it in order to open and view the file. If the owner password is in play, looking at the document’s security properties will tell you what you can’t do, PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen. With the right software, the owner password can be removed instantly.
  • The USER PASSWORD on the other hand, is only used to prevent anyone who doesn’t know it from opening and viewing the file.

The other thing you need to be aware of is which version do you use? Online or Offline version? The problem with uploading your PDF files to the cloud online is the chances of having your personal information being stolen. Always go for the offline version if possible.

↓ 01 – PDF Candy Desktop

PDF Password Remover 7.5.0 Crack is Here ! LifeTime

PDF Password Remover v7 Keygen incl Full Version

pdf password remover crackPDF Password Remover 7.5.0 Crack tool is the simplest tool that can be used to decrypt password protected PDF files which have their own password set. The main purpose PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen PDF files with the owner password is to prevent viewers from editing, selecting text, printing and otherwise changing the pdf properties such as form fields etc. This PDF Password Remover tool will decrypt and remove owner passwords from any PDF document and allow the client to edit, select and print the document easily. You can use this tool to remove passwords from PDF files that belong to you, PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen. The main purpose of this tool is to provide help in case you forget the owner’s password you once set and can no longer remember. This tool will be life-saving when you misplace your originals. With all other best and amazing features, the main and best feature is that this tool is available free for personal use.  The trial version of this program is also available for Mac.

This software is being part of the category software utilities with subcategory Text and has been published by Verypdf. This software requires less space on your computer. PDF Password Remover with serial code is heavily used in some countries such as India, Indonesia, and the United States. The current version of this program is v6.0 that has been updated on 12/16/2018. The operating system required for running this software is windows 98 and onwards. This software is the need of everyone because if you accidentally forget the owner’s password you stuck in the trouble so for avoiding this you have to install PDF Password Remover. This tool will help you in getting the PDF owners password. This software compresses many files into a single zip file. You just have to follow three easy steps to get your owner’s password back that is launch, touch and decrypt. This software decrypts PDF files in any language. You can also manage files and remove the useless files. By using this software you can get your password recovered. You can use this software for free and trial version. The user interface of this program is very easy and user-friendly. Just clients need to download the program and follow the instructions to get their PDF owners to password recovered.

So, if you lost your PDF owners file password you don’t need to worry just download the free and trial version of PDF Password Remover v6.0 serial key on your computer and get your owner’s password recovered in just seconds. This software allows getting your password in just several minutes. Before running this program makes sure your computer is connected to a strong internet connection and saves from viruses. This tool doesn’t affect your personal data on a computer. No lengthy procedures are required to install this program on your computer.


Some of the best features of PDF Password Remover are as follows:

  • It supports to remove both owner and user password.
  • The decrypted file can be opened in any PDF reader.
  • This software allows clients to remove editing, copying, and printing restrictions.
  • The user interface of PDF Password Remover is easy and extremely easy to operate.
  • It supports decrypting PDF files in any languages.
  • It completes the task within several minutes.
  • It doesn’t affect your personal data on your computer.

How to Install?

  1. Download the software and run the setup file.
  2. Click “Next” to continue.
  3. Click “Install” to start the installation.
  4. Click “Finish” when the installation is done.

PDF Password Remover Cracked v7.5.0 Method:

1: Open the PPR Key Folder.
2: Open the key NotePad File and Copy the serial key and paste it into the registration box.
3: Run the software and enjoy.
4: All done! Enjoy

That’s it! Enjoy full working PDF Password Remover.

Click below to download the tested Cracked PDF Password Remover 7.5.0.




PDF Password Remover v7.5.0 Crack Free Download

Setup + Crack

Download Link 1


Download Link 2

Filed Under: Password Hack Tool, PC Software, PDF Software, Windows Software's

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]
Remove User/Owner Password / EUR40 / Win / macOS / Linux

tenorshare pdf password crack PDF Password Recovery / Remover For Secure Protected PDF

Efficiently Crack Password Encrypted PDF Files. A good way to crack and recover PDF open password, and it also helps remove PDF encryption for editing, copying, and printing a PDF file.

Fast and Secure PDF Decryption

  • Keep original contents and PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen after PDF restriction removal.
  • Finish the whole PDF description process only in 3 steps.
  • 30X faster by adopting multi-core CPU processing and GPU acceleration.

High Compatibility Supported

  • Crack PDF passwords come UltraEdit Crack Archives 40-bit, 128-bit, and 256-bit encryption.
  • Decryption for PDF files in any language such as English, French, Italian, Japanese, PDF Password Remover v2.0.0 US crack serial keygen, Turkish, German, Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, etc.
  • Fully support Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows XP and etc.
Updated On June 14, 2021/ Category: Adobe PDF/ Author: Ngan Tengyuen
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Notice: Undefined variable: z_bot in /sites/arenaqq.us/browsers/pdf-password-remover-v200-us-crack-serial-keygen.php on line 111

Notice: Undefined variable: z_empty in /sites/arenaqq.us/browsers/pdf-password-remover-v200-us-crack-serial-keygen.php on line 111


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *